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Tenorite

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Formula:
CuO
System:MonoclinicColour:Grey, black
Lustre:MetallicHardness:
Name:
Named after Michele Tenore (1780-1861), Professor of Botany, University of Naples and G. Tenore, President of the Naples Academy (Italy).
This page provides mineralogical data about Tenorite.

Classification of Tenorite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/A.05-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.AB.10

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
A : Metal: Oxygen = 2:1 and 1:1
B : M:O = 1:1 (and up to 1:1.25); with small to medium-sized cations only
Dana 7th edition ID:4.2.3.1
Dana 8th edition ID:4.2.3.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
2 : AX
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.3.2

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
3 : Oxides of Cu
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Type Occurrence of Tenorite

Type Locality:Mt Vesuvius, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Naples Province, Campania, Italy
Year of Discovery:1841

Occurrences of Tenorite

Geological Setting:In the oxidized zone of copper deposits, also as volcanic sublimate.

Physical Properties of Tenorite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Grey, black
Streak:Black
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=190 - 300 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
In zones [011] and [011]
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Comment:Flexible and elastic in thin scales.
Density (measured):6.45 g/cm3
Density (calculated):6.515(2) g/cm3

Crystallography of Tenorite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/b
Cell Parameters:a = 4.6837(5) Å, b = 3.4226(5) Å, c = 5.1288(6) Å
β = 99.47°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.368 : 1 : 1.499
Unit Cell Volume:V 80.63 ų
Z:4
Morphology:Paper-thin twinned aggregates and laths parallel {100} and elongated [011] (Vesuvius); striated [010] on {100}. Curved plates. Thin shining flexible scales. Stellate groups. Earthy, pulverulent.
Twinning:1. Common on {011}, producing dovetail reentrants and feather-like forms as senn on {100}; also stellate groups and complex dendritic patterns. 2. On {100} ?
Crystal Atlas:
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Tenorite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Tenorite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Optical Data of Tenorite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Strong, blue to grey
Bireflectance:Strong
Colour in reflected light:light gray with golden tint
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:Distinct, light to dark brown.

Chemical Properties of Tenorite

Formula:
CuO
Essential elements:Cu, O
All elements listed in formula:Cu, O
CAS Registry number:1317-38-0

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society

Relationship of Tenorite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.AB.05Crednerite
CuMnO
 
2
4.AB.15Delafossite
CuFeO
 
2
4.AB.15Mcconnellite
CuCrO
 
2
4.AB.20Bromellite
BeO
4.AB.20Zincite
(Zn,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)O
4.AB.25Bunsenite
NiO
4.AB.25Lime
CaO
4.AB.25Manganosite
MnO
4.AB.25Monteponite
CdO
4.AB.25Periclase
MgO
4.AB.25Wüstite
FeO
4.AB.30Palladinite
PdO
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.3.1Cuprite
Cu
 
2
O
7.3.3Paramelaconite
Cu
 
2
Cu
 
2
O
 
3
7.3.4Spertiniite
Cu(OH)
 
2
7.3.5Crednerite
CuMnO
 
2
7.3.6Delafossite
CuFeO
 
2
7.3.7Cuprospinel
Cu
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4

Other Names for Tenorite

Synonyms:
Black CopperBlack Oxide of CopperMelaconisaMelaconiseMelaconite
Schwarzkupfererz
Other Languages:
Catalan:Tenorita
Dutch:Tenoriet
French:Tenorite
Cuivre oxydé noir
German:Tenorit
Kupferoxyd
Kupferschwärze
Melaconit
Melakonit
Schwarzkupfer
Italian:Tenorite
Rame nero
Japanese:黒銅鉱
Russian:Тенорит
Simplified Chinese:黑铜矿
Slovak:Tenorit
Spanish:Cobre negro
Melaconita
Tenorita
Varieties:
Geltenorite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
External LinksSearch for toxicity information at the United States National Library of Medicine

References for Tenorite

Reference List:

- +
Werner (1789), Bergm. Journal (as Kupferschwärze).

Huot (1841): 326 (as Melaconite).

Semmola (1841), Opere Minori, 45, Napoli.

Semmola (1841-42)Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie: 13: 206.

Scacchi (1842), Distrib. Sist. Min.: 40, Napoli (as Melacosina)

Dana, System of Mineralogy, 5th ed. (1850): 518.

Church (1865), Cem. News: 11: 122.

Story-Maskelyne (1865), British Assoc., Rep.: 35: 33.

Story-Maskelyne (1866), Rss. Min. Ges. Vh.: 1: 147.

Scacchi (1875), Acc. Napoli, Att.: 6(9): 12.

Tunell, Posnjak, and Ksanda (1935), Zs. Kr.: 90: 120.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 507-510.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1970): B26: 8.

Internet Links for Tenorite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • Localities for Tenorite

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