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Tenorite

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Bust of Michele Tenore
Formula:
CuO
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Grey, black
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
Name:
Named after Michele Tenore (1780-1861), Professor of Botany, University of Naples and G. Tenore, President of the Naples Academy (Italy).
This page provides mineralogical data about Tenorite.

Classification of Tenorite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.AB.10

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
A : Metal: Oxygen = 2:1 and 1:1
B : M:O = 1:1 (and up to 1:1.25); with small to medium-sized cations only
Dana 7th ed.:
4.2.3.1
4.2.3.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
2 : AX
7.3.2

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
3 : Oxides of Cu
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Type Occurrence of Tenorite

Occurrences of Tenorite

Geological Setting:
In the oxidized zone of copper deposits, also as volcanic sublimate.

Physical Properties of Tenorite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Grey, black
Streak:
Black
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=190 - 300 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
In zones [011] and [011]
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Comment:
Flexible and elastic in thin scales.
Density:
6.45 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.515(2) g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Tenorite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.6837(5) Å, b = 3.4226(5) Å, c = 5.1288(6) Å
β = 99.47°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.368 : 1 : 1.499
Unit Cell Volume:
V 80.63 ų
Z:
4
Morphology:
Paper-thin twinned aggregates and laths parallel {100} and elongated [011] (Vesuvius); striated [010] on {100}. Curved plates. Thin shining flexible scales. Stellate groups. Earthy, pulverulent.
Twinning:
1. Common on {011}, producing dovetail reentrants and feather-like forms as seen on {100}; also stellate groups and complex dendritic patterns. 2. On {100} ?

Crystallographic forms of Tenorite

Crystal Atlas:
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Tenorite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Tenorite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Optical Data of Tenorite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong, blue to grey
Bireflectance:
Strong
Colour in reflected light:
light gray with golden tint
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Distinct, light to dark brown.

Chemical Properties of Tenorite

Formula:
CuO
All elements listed in formula:
CAS Registry number:
1317-38-0

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society

Relationship of Tenorite to other Species

4.AB.Carbon Monoxide IceCO
4.AB.05CredneriteCuMnO2
4.AB.15DelafossiteCuFeO2
4.AB.15McconnelliteCuCrO2
4.AB.20BromelliteBeO
4.AB.20ZinciteZnO
4.AB.25BunseniteNiO
4.AB.25LimeCaO
4.AB.25ManganositeMnO
4.AB.25MonteponiteCdO
4.AB.25PericlaseMgO
4.AB.25WüstiteFeO
4.AB.30PalladinitePdO
7.3.1CupriteCu2O
7.3.3ParamelaconiteCu2Cu2O3
7.3.4SpertiniiteCu(OH)2
7.3.5CredneriteCuMnO2
7.3.6DelafossiteCuFeO2
7.3.7CuprospinelCu2+Fe23+O4

Other Names for Tenorite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Tenorite

Reference List:
Werner (1789), Bergm. Journal (as Kupferschwärze).

Huot (1841): 326 (as Melaconite).

Semmola (1841), Opere Minori, 45, Napoli.

Semmola, M.S. (1842) Du cuivre oxidé natif (ténorite). Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France: 13: 206-211.

Scacchi (1842), Distrib. Sist. Min.: 40, Napoli (as Melacosina)

Dana, System of Mineralogy, 5th ed. (1850): 518.

Church (1865), Cem. News: 11: 122.

Story-Maskelyne (1865), British Assoc., Rep.: 35: 33.

Story-Maskelyne (1866), Rss. Min. Ges. Vh.: 1: 147.

Scacchi (1875), Acc. Napoli, Att.: 6(9): 12.

Tunell, G., Posnjak, E., Ksanda, C.J. (1935) Geometrical and optical properties, and crystal structure of tenorite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 90: 120-142.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 507-510.

Åsbrink, S., Norrby, L.-J. (1970) A refinement of the crystal structure of copper(II) oxide with a discussion of some exceptional E.s.d.'s. Acta Crystallographica: B26: 8-15.

Brese, N.E., O'Keeffe, M., Ramakrishna, B.L., Von Dreele, R.B. (1990) Low-temperature structures of CuO and AgO and their relationships to those of MgO and PdO. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 89: 184-190.

Åsbrink, S., Waśkowska, A. (1991) CuO: X-ray single-crystal structure determination at 196 K and room temperature. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter: 3: 8173-8180.

Debbichi, L., Marco de Lucas, M.C., Pierson, J.F., Krüger, P. (2012) Vibrational properties of CuO and Cu4O3 from first-principles calculations, and Raman and infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Physical Chemistry C: 116: 10232-10237.

Internet Links for Tenorite

Localities for Tenorite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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