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Botallackite

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Formula:
Cu2(OH)3Cl
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Mountain-green, bluish ...
Member of:
Name:
For the type locality, the Botallack Mine, St. Just, Cornwall.
Polymorphous with Atacamite, Anatacamite and Clinoatacamite.

A secondary copper mineral.

NOTE: May be confused with Kapellasite, which has a similar X-ray powder diffraction pattern. Some botallackites contain minor Zn, but the Zn:Cu ratio never approaches that of kapellasite (1:3).

Classification of Botallackite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
3.DA.10b

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb
10.1.3.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
1 : A2(O,OH)3Xq
8.2.6

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
2 : Halides of Cu
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Type Occurrence of Botallackite

General Appearance of Type Material:
Crusts of minute platy interlaced crystals.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
The Natural History Museum, London, England (No. 36528)
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (No. 100805)
Year of Discovery:
1865
Geological Setting of Type Material:
In a copper deposit, in areas weathered while exposed to sea water.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Occurrences of Botallackite

Geological Setting:
In copper-bearing deposits, in areas with high chloride concentrations or weathered while exposed to sea water; a reaction product of slags immersed in sea water; a weathering product of sulphides in subsea black smoker deposits.

Physical Properties of Botallackite

Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Mountain-green, bluish green to green; pale bluish green in transmitted light
Comment:
Soft
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
In one direction perpendicular to Z axis
Density:
3.6 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.6 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Botallackite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.717Å, b = 6.126Å, c = 5.636Å
β = 93.07°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.933 : 1 : 0.92
Unit Cell Volume:
V 197.10 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Elongate tabular indistinct crystals; also blocky-prismatic crystals.
Comment:
Krause (2006) gives a 5.7155(5), b 6.1255(6), c 5.6336(4) A, beta 93.090(8)°.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.66 (10)
2.84 (4)
2.68 (3)
2.57 (7)
2.40 (8)
1.93 (3)
1.53 (4)
Comments:
Recorded on material from the Botallack Mine, Cornwall, England

Optical Data of Botallackite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.775 nβ = 1.800 nγ = 1.846
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.071
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v, strong
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
in shades of bluish green

Chemical Properties of Botallackite

Formula:
Cu2(OH)3Cl
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Chemical analysis of material from the Botallack Mine, Cornwall, England
CuO       (66.25)
Cl        (14.51)
H2O       (22.60)
-O = Cl2   (3.27)

sum       100.09 wt.-%

Relationship of Botallackite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
AnatacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
ClinoatacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
GillarditeCu3Ni(OH)6Cl2
HaydeeiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2
HerbertsmithiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
IyoiteMnCuCl(OH)3
KapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
LeverettiteCu3Co(OH)6Cl2
MisakiiteCu3Mn(OH)6Cl2
ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Paratacamite-(Mg)Cu3(Mg,Cu)(OH)6Cl2
Paratacamite-(Ni)Cu3(Ni,Cu)(OH)6Cl2
TondiiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.05MelanothalliteCu2Cl2O
3.DA.10aAtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10bClinoatacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10aHibbingiteFe22+(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10aKempiteMn22+(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10cParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10bBelloiteCu(OH)Cl
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10cKapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10cGillarditeCu3Ni(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10cHaydeeiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10dAnatacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.15ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6
3.DA.15BarlowiteCu4BrF(OH)6
3.DA.20SimonkolleiteZn5Cl2(OH)8 · H2O
3.DA.25ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
3.DA.25ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
3.DA.30AbhuriteSn21Cl16(OH)14O6
3.DA.35PonomareviteK4Cu4Cl10O
3.DA.40AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
3.DA.40CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
3.DA.45KhaidarkaniteNa0.34Cu4Al3(OH)14F3 · 2H2O
3.DA.50BobkingiteCu5Cl2(OH)8 · 2H2O
3.DA.55AvdoniniteK2Cu5(OH)4Cl8 · H2O
3.DA.60DroninoiteNi6Fe32+(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
8.2.1NantokiteCuCl
8.2.2TolbachiteCuCl2
8.2.3EriochalciteCuCl2 · 2H2O
8.2.4AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
8.2.5ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
8.2.7MelanothalliteCu2Cl2O
8.2.8CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
8.2.9AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
8.2.10ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6
8.2.11MarshiteCuI
8.2.12MitscherlichiteK2CuCl4 · 2H2O
8.2.13PonomareviteK4Cu4Cl10O

Other Names for Botallackite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:羟氯铜矿
Spanish:Botallackita
Traditional Chinese:羥氯銅礦

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Botallackite

Reference List:
Church (1865) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 18: 212.

Maskelyne (1865) Royal Society of London Proceedings: 14: 399.

Zepharovich (1873) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 68: 130.

Frondel, C. (1950) Mineralogical Magazine: 29: 34.

American Mineralogist (1951), 36, 384.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 76-77.

Frondel, C. (1965): On paratacamite and some related copper chlorides. Mineralogical Magazine 29, 34-35.

Hawthorne, F. C. (1985): Refinement of the crystal structure of botallackite. Mineralogical Magazine 49, 87-89.

Pollard, A.M., Thomas, R.G., and Williams, P.A. (1989): Synthesis and stabilities of the basic copper(II) chlorides atacamite, paratacamite and botallackite. Minerlogical Magazine 53, 557-563.

Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73.

Krause, W. (2006): X-ray powder diffraction data for botallackite. Powder Diffraction 21, 59-62.

Internet Links for Botallackite

Specimens:
The following Botallackite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Botallackite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Atlantic Ocean
 
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Balfour-Temma district
      • Temma
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
          • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
Schnorrer, G. & Poeverlein, R. (2008): Schwaz-Brixlegger Fundstellen. 6. Die Minerale des Gratlspitz bei Brixlegg in Tirol. Aufschluss 59, 7-28.
Canada
 
  • Nova Scotia
    • Colchester Co.
      • Five Islands
Ronnie Van Dommelen Collection
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Tocopilla Province
      • Gatico District
maurizio Dini & Arturo Molina collctions- analysed by EDX & PDF (by dr. Jochen Scluter)
France
 
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Poullaouen
P Le Roch collection
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Le Pradet
http://www.mine-capgaronne.fr/site/Mineraux/ListeMineraux.html
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Fichtelgebirge
        • Weißenstadt
          • Rudolfstein
Meier, S. & Dünkel, B. (2010): Das Zinn- und Uranbergwerk am Rudolfstein bei Weißenstadt, Fichtelgebirge. Lapis 35 (2), 29-37; 54.
  • Hesse
    • Richelsdorf District
      • Süss
        • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld Basin
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
No reference listed
        • Sounion area
          • Sounion Mines
J. Gröbner und U. Kolitsch (2002): Neufunde von Laurion aus den Jahren 2001 und 2002. Aufschluss 53 (5-6), 363-371.
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982a): Connellit, Botallackit, Paratacamit und Leadhillit in den antiken Bleischlacken Laurions. Der Aufschluss 33, 3-6.
Ireland
 
  • Co. Cork
    • Beara Peninsula
      • Castletown-Bearhaven Copper Mines
        • Allihies
[R.Tayler Minerals catalogue 70 p.2]. Moreton, S. & Aspen, P. (1993) J. Russell Soc., 5(1), 31-2. Braithwaite, R.S.W. & Wilson, J.I. (2001) J. Russell Soc., 7(2), 96.
    • Mizen Peninsula
      • Schull
        • Coosheen
Dr Richard Unitt collection
  • Co. Waterford
    • Bonmahon (Bunmahon)
      • Knockmahon
Braithwaite, R.S.W. & Wilson, J.I. (2001) J. Russell Soc., 7(2), p.96.
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Genova
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Piombino
Muenchener Micromounter-Lithothek
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Fukui Prefecture
        • Obama City
Okamoto, Yasushi; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Inaba, Sachio; Minakawa, Testsuo (1993): Botallackite from Uchitomi Mine, Fukui Prefecture. Chigaku Kenkyu 42, 130-134.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    • Dzhezkazgan (Zhezqazghan)
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
Minerals of South Africa
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Mount's Bay District
        • Paul
G. Curtis
      • St Agnes District
        • Perranzabuloe
Michael Merry, collected 2007
UKJMM Vol.29 p.5
        • St Agnes
Richard De Nul specimens; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • St Just District
        • St Just
          • Botallack
            • Botallack Mine
Reid, C., Flett, J.S., Wilkinson, B.S.N., Dixon, E.E.L., Pollard, W., and MacAlister, D.A. (1907): The Geology of the Land's End District. HMSO Publications (London), p. 102.
J.Chem.Soc. London (1865) ser. 2, vol. 3, 212-214
Steve Rust collection
            • Cliff outcrops
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
            • Wheal Owles
Journal of the Russell Society, 6(1), 17-26 (1995)
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
          • Pendeen
Peter Haas; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
          • Trewellard
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • Wadebridge District
        • Padstow
          • Gunver Head
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
    • Dumfries & Galloway
      • Dalbeattie
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73
      • Needle's Eye
BMS Database
    • Strathclyde
      • Lochgilphead
[J.Russell Soc. 1998:38]
  • Wales
    • Ceredigion
      • Ceulanymaesmawr
        • Talybont
          • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
NHM London, and Steve Rust Collection
    • Gwynedd
      • Lleyn Peninsula
        • Llanengan
          • Abersoch
Dossett, I. & Green, D.I., 1998. Atacamite, botallackite and cumengeite from Abersoch, Gwynedd, Wales. Journal of the Russell Society 7(1), 37-38.
    • Neath-Port Talbot
David Evans specimen
Dave Evans collection
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
          • Bisbee
Graeme, R. (1993), Bisbee revisited, Min.Rec.: 24: 421-436.
      • Tombstone Hills
        • Tombstone District
Rob Bowell, lab tested
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Big Horn Mts
        • Osborn District
          • Tonopah
            • Belmont Mountain
Analyzed by the University of Arizona.
  • New York
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Balmat-Edwards Zinc District
No reference listed
  • Oklahoma
    • Jackson Co.
      • Creta
Rocks & Min. vol. 72 (1997)
  • Washington
    • Pierce Co.
      • Tacoma
        • Ruston
Washington Geology, vol.25, no. 3, September 1997.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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