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Botallackite

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Formula:
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
System:MonoclinicColour:Mountain-green, bluish ...
Member of:Atacamite Group
Name:For the type locality, the Botallack Mine, St. Just, Cornwall.
Polymorph of:Anatacamite, Atacamite, Clinoatacamite


Polymorphous with Atacamite, Anatacamite and Clinoatacamite.

A secondary copper mineral.

NOTE: May be confused with Kapellasite, which has a similar X-ray powder diffraction pattern. Some botallackites contain minor Zn, but the Zn:Cu ratio never approaches that of kapellasite (1:3).

Classification of Botallackite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/D.01-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.DA.10b

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb
Dana 8th edition ID:10.1.3.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
1 : A2(O,OH)3Xq
Hey's CIM Ref.:8.2.6

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
2 : Halides of Cu
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Type Occurrence of Botallackite

Type Locality:Wheal Cock, Botallack Mine, Botallack, St Just, St Just District, Cornwall, England, UK
General Appearance of Type Material:Crusts of minute platy interlaced crystals.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:The Natural History Museum, London, England (No. 36528)
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (No. 100805)
Year of Discovery:1865
Geological Setting of type material:In a copper deposit, in areas weathered while exposed to sea water.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
ParatacamiteAtacamite

Occurrences of Botallackite

Geological Setting:In copper-bearing deposits, in areas with high chloride concentrations or weathered while exposed to sea water; a reaction product of slags immersed in sea water; a weathering product of sulphides in subsea black smoker deposits.

Physical Properties of Botallackite

Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Mountain-green, bluish green to green; pale bluish green in transmitted light
Comment:Soft
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
In one direction perpendicular to Z axis
Density (measured):3.6 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.6 g/cm3

Crystallography of Botallackite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/m {P1 1 21/m} {P21/m} {P1 21/m 1}
Cell Parameters:a = 5.717Å, b = 6.126Å, c = 5.636Å
β = 93.07°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.933 : 1 : 0.92
Unit Cell Volume:V 197.10 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Elongate tabular indistinct crystals; also blocky-prismatic crystals.
Comment:Krause (2006) gives a 5.7155(5), b 6.1255(6), c 5.6336(4) A, beta 93.090(8)°.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
5.66 (10)
2.40 (8)
2.57 (7)
2.84 (4)
1.53 (4)
2.68 (3)
1.93 (3)
Comments:Recorded on material from the Botallack Mine, Cornwall, England

Optical Data of Botallackite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.775 nβ = 1.800 nγ = 1.846
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.071

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:r > v, strong
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:in shades of bluish green

Chemical Properties of Botallackite

Formula:
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu2(OH)3Cl
Essential elements:Cl, Cu, H, O
All elements listed in formula:Cl, Cu, H, O
Analytical Data:Chemical analysis of material from the Botallack Mine, Cornwall, England
CuO       (66.25)
Cl        (14.51)
H2O       (22.60)
-O = Cl2   (3.27)

sum       100.09 wt.-%

Relationship of Botallackite to other Species

Member of:Atacamite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Anatacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
Atacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
Clinoatacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
Gillardite
Cu
 
3
Ni(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
Haydeeite
Cu
 
3
Mg(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
Herbertsmithite
Cu
 
3
Zn(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
Kapellasite
Cu
 
3
Zn(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
Leverettite
Cu
 
3
CoCl
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Paratacamite
Cu
 
3
(Cu,Zn)(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
Paratacamite-(Mg)
Cu
 
3
(Mg,Cu)Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Paratacamite-(Ni)
Cu
 
3
(Ni,Cu)Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.DA.05Melanothallite
Cu
 
2
Cl
 
2
O
3.DA.10aAtacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10bClinoatacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10aHibbingite
Fe
2+
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10aKempite
Mn
2+
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10cParatacamite
Cu
 
3
(Cu,Zn)(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10bBelloite
Cu(OH)Cl
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithite
Cu
 
3
Zn(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10cKapellasite
Cu
 
3
Zn(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10cGillardite
Cu
 
3
Ni(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10cHaydeeite
Cu
 
3
Mg(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10dAnatacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.15Claringbullite
Cu
 
4
(OH)
 
7
Cl · nH
 
2
O
3.DA.15Barlowite
Cu
 
4
BrF(OH)
 
6
3.DA.20Simonkolleite
Zn
 
5
Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· H
 
2
O
3.DA.25Buttgenbachite
Cu
 
19
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.25Connellite
Cu
 
19
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
3.DA.30Abhurite
Sn
 
21
Cl
 
16
(OH)
 
14
O
 
6
3.DA.35Ponomarevite
K
 
4
Cu
 
4
Cl
 
10
O
3.DA.40Anthonyite
Cu(OH,Cl)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
3.DA.40Calumetite
Cu(OH,Cl)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.45Khaidarkanite
Na
 
0.34
Cu
 
4
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
14
F
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.50Bobkingite
Cu
 
5
Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.55Avdoninite
K
 
2
Cu
 
5
(OH)
 
4
Cl
 
8
· H
 
2
O
3.DA.60Droninoite
Ni
 
6
Fe
2+
3
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
8.2.1Nantokite
CuCl
8.2.2Tolbachite
CuCl
 
2
8.2.3Eriochalcite
CuCl
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
8.2.4Atacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
8.2.5Paratacamite
Cu
 
3
(Cu,Zn)(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
8.2.7Melanothallite
Cu
 
2
Cl
 
2
O
8.2.8Calumetite
Cu(OH,Cl)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
8.2.9Anthonyite
Cu(OH,Cl)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
8.2.10Claringbullite
Cu
 
4
(OH)
 
7
Cl · nH
 
2
O
8.2.11Marshite
CuI
8.2.12Mitscherlichite
K
 
2
CuCl
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
8.2.13Ponomarevite
K
 
4
Cu
 
4
Cl
 
10
O

Other Names for Botallackite

Other Languages:
German:Botallackit
Russian:Боталлактит
Simplified Chinese:羟氯铜矿
Spanish:Botallackita
Traditional Chinese:羥氯銅礦
Varieties:
Brombotallackite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Botallackite

Reference List:

- +
Church (1865) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 18: 212.

Maskelyne (1865) Royal Society of London Proceedings: 14: 399.

Zepharovich (1873) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 68: 130.

Frondel, C. (1950) Mineralogical Magazine: 29: 34.

American Mineralogist (1951), 36, 384.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 76-77.

Frondel, C. (1965): On paratacamite and some related copper chlorides. Mineralogical Magazine 29, 34-35.

Hawthorne, F. C. (1985): Refinement of the crystal structure of botallackite. Mineralogical Magazine 49, 87-89.

Pollard, A.M., Thomas, R.G., and Williams, P.A. (1989): Synthesis and stabilities of the basic copper(II) chlorides atacamite, paratacamite and botallackite. Minerlogical Magazine 53, 557-563.

Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73.

Krause, W. (2006): X-ray powder diffraction data for botallackite. Powder Diffraction 21, 59-62.

Internet Links for Botallackite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Botallackite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Botallackite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Atlantic Ocean
     
    • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73
    Australia
     
    • Tasmania
      • Balfour-Temma district
        • Temma
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    Austria
     
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
            • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
    Schnorrer, G. & Poeverlein, R. (2008): Schwaz-Brixlegger Fundstellen. 6. Die Minerale des Gratlspitz bei Brixlegg in Tirol. Aufschluss 59, 7-28.
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Tocopilla Province
        • Gatico District
    maurizio Dini & Arturo Molina collctions- analysed by EDX & PDF (by dr. Jochen Scluter)
    France
     
    • Brittany
      • Finistère
        • Poullaouen
    P Le Roch collection
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Var
        • Le Pradet
    http://www.mine-capgaronne.fr/site/Mineraux/ListeMineraux.html
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Fichtelgebirge
          • Weißenstadt
            • Rudolfstein
    Meier, S. & Dünkel, B. (2010): Das Zinn- und Uranbergwerk am Rudolfstein bei Weißenstadt, Fichtelgebirge. Lapis 35 (2), 29-37; 54.
    • Hesse
      • Richelsdorf District
        • Süss
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Goslar
          • Astfeld
    van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Mansfeld Basin
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
    No reference listed
          • Sounion area
            • Sounion Mines
    J. Gröbner und U. Kolitsch (2002): Neufunde von Laurion aus den Jahren 2001 und 2002. Aufschluss 53 (5-6), 363-371.
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982a): Connellit, Botallackit, Paratacamit und Leadhillit in den antiken Bleischlacken Laurions. Der Aufschluss 33, 3-6.
    Ireland
     
    • Co. Cork
      • Beara Peninsula
        • Castletown-Bearhaven Copper Mines
          • Allihies
    [R.Tayler Minerals catalogue 70 p.2]. Moreton, S. & Aspen, P. (1993) J. Russell Soc., 5(1), 31-2. Braithwaite, R.S.W. & Wilson, J.I. (2001) J. Russell Soc., 7(2), 96.
      • Mizen Peninsula
        • Schull
          • Coosheen
    Dr Richard Unitt collection
    • Co. Waterford
      • Bonmahon (Bunmahon)
        • Knockmahon
    Braithwaite, R.S.W. & Wilson, J.I. (2001) J. Russell Soc., 7(2), p.96.
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Genova
          • Varenna Valley
    Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Piombino
    Muenchener Micromounter-Lithothek
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chubu Region
        • Fukui Prefecture
          • Obama City
    Okamoto, Yasushi; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Inaba, Sachio; Minakawa, Testsuo (1993): Botallackite from Uchitomi Mine, Fukui Prefecture. Chigaku Kenkyu 42, 130-134.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
      • Dzhezkazgan (Zhezqazghan)
    Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
    South Africa
     
    • Mpumalanga Province
    Minerals of South Africa
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • Mount's Bay District
          • Paul
    G. Curtis
        • St Agnes District
          • Perranzabuloe
    Michael Merry, collected 2007
    UKJMM Vol.29 p.5
          • St Agnes
    Richard De Nul specimens
        • St Just District
          • St Just
            • Botallack
              • Botallack Mine
    Reid, C., Flett, J.S., Wilkinson, B.S.N., Dixon, E.E.L., Pollard, W., and MacAlister, D.A. (1907): The Geology of the Land's End District. HMSO Publications (London), p. 102.
    J.Chem.Soc. London (1865) ser. 2, vol. 3, 212-214
    Steve Rust collection
              • Cliff outcrops
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
              • Wheal Owles
    Journal of the Russell Society, 6(1), 17-26 (1995)
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
            • Pendeen
    Peter Haas
            • Trewellard
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73
        • Wadebridge District
          • Padstow
            • Gunver Head
    No reference listed; No reference listed
    Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
      • Dumfries & Galloway (Kirkcudbrightshire)
        • Dalbeattie
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 73
        • Needle's Eye
    BMS Database
      • Strathclyde (Argyllshire)
        • Lochgilphead
    [J.Russell Soc. 1998:38]
    • Wales
      • Ceredigion (Dyfed; Cardiganshire)
        • Ceulanymaesmawr
          • Talybont
            • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
    NHM London, and Steve Rust Collection
      • Gwynedd (Caernarvonshire)
        • Lleyn Peninsula
          • Llanengan
            • Abersoch
    Dossett, I. & Green, D.I., 1998. Atacamite, botallackite and cumengeite from Abersoch, Gwynedd, Wales. Journal of the Russell Society 7(1), 37-38.
      • Neath-Port Talbot (West Glamorgan; Glamorgan)
    David Evans specimen
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
            • Bisbee
    Graeme, R. (1993), Bisbee revisited, Min.Rec.: 24: 421-436.
        • Tombstone Hills
          • Tombstone District
    Rob Bowell, lab tested
      • Maricopa Co.
        • Big Horn Mts
          • Osborn District
            • Tonopah
              • Belmont Mountain
    Analyzed by the University of Arizona.
    • New York
      • St. Lawrence Co.
        • Balmat-Edwards Zinc District
    No reference listed
    • Oklahoma
      • Jackson Co.
        • Creta
    Rocks & Min. vol. 72 (1997)
    • Washington
      • Pierce Co.
        • Tacoma
          • Ruston
    Washington Geology, vol.25, no. 3, September 1997.
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