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Lithiophilite

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Formula:
LiMn2+PO4
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Reddish-Brown, yellowish ...
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy
Hardness:
4
Name:
Named by George Brush and Edward Dana in 1878 for LITHIum and the Greek φιλός for "friend" in allusion to its composition containing lithium.
Isostructural with:

Classification of Lithiophilite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.AB.10

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
B : With medium-sized cations
Dana 7th ed.:
38.1.1.2
38.1.1.2

38 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
1 : ABXO4
19.1.10

19 : Phosphates
1 : Phosphates of the alkali metals
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Type Occurrence of Lithiophilite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Yale University, Connecticut 3.5641 3.5645
Year of Discovery:
1878
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Granite Pegmatite.

Occurrences of Lithiophilite

Geological Setting:
Granite pegmatites, especially the "complex" type containing lithium and phosphate species.

Physical Properties of Lithiophilite

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Reddish-Brown, yellowish brown, golden-yellow, salmon-orange; colourless to light yellow, pink in transmitted light.
Comment:
Low Fe mineral is pale pinkish brown to orange
Streak:
Colorless to Grayish White
Hardness (Mohs):
4
Cleavage:
Very Good
On {001} nearly perfect; on {010} imperfect; on {011} interrupted.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.29 - 3.50 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.433 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Value for the Mn end-member.

Crystallography of Lithiophilite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pmna
Space Group Setting:
Pmna
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.094(5) Å, b = 10.427(5) Å, c = 4.743(1) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.584 : 1 : 0.455
Unit Cell Volume:
V 301.38 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals rare; commonly coarse with uneven surfaces; stout prismatic [001]. Usually massive, rarely granular.
Twinning:
Rare contact twins on {130}
Comment:
Pmnb AC (1960) 13: 325; Isotypic with olivine
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.23 (60)
4.31 (60)
3.96 (30)
3.52 (70)
3.05 (90)
2.55 (100)
2.49 (30)
1.762 (30)
Comments:
ICDD 33-803; also 33-804, 13-336, 33-802 (oxidized and Li leached).

Optical Data of Lithiophilite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.663 - 1.685 nβ = 1.663 - 1.685 nγ = 1.673 - 1.691
2V:
Measured: 30° to 70°, Calculated: 68°
Birefringence:
0.008
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.010
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
strong r < v
Optical Extinction:
Parallel, XYZ = abc
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X= deep pink
Y= pale greenish yellow
Z= pale pink
Comments:
May be black due to oxidation and staining; Mg reduces RI (Am Min 28:90 (1943))

Chemical Properties of Lithiophilite

Formula:
LiMn2+PO4
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Mg,Ca,Fe

Relationship of Lithiophilite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Triphylite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
FerrisickleriteLi1-x(Fex3+Fe2+1-x)PO4
KarenwebberiteNa(Fe2+,Mn2+)PO4
NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4
Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
8.AB.05FarringtoniteMg3(PO4)2
8.AB.10FerrisickleriteLi1-x(Fex3+Fe2+1-x)PO4
8.AB.10Heterosite(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
8.AB.10NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4
8.AB.10Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
8.AB.10SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
8.AB.10SimferiteLi(Mg,Fe3+,Mn3+)2(PO4)2
8.AB.10TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
8.AB.10KarenwebberiteNa(Fe2+,Mn2+)PO4
8.AB.15Sarcopside(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)3(PO4)2
8.AB.15Chopinite(Mg,Fe2+)3(PO4)2
8.AB.20Beusite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2
8.AB.20Graftonite(Fe2+,Mn2+,Ca)3(PO4)2
8.AB.25XanthiositeNi3(AsO4)2
8.AB.30LammeriteCu3(AsO4)2
8.AB.30Lammerite-βCu3(AsO4)2
8.AB.35McbirneyiteCu3(VO4)2
8.AB.35StranskiiteZn2Cu(AsO4)2
8.AB.35PseudolyonsiteCu3(VO4)2
8.AB.40LyonsiteCu3Fe4(VO4)6
19.1.1LithiophosphateLi3PO4
19.1.2OlympiteNa5Li(PO4)2
19.1.3NahpoiteNa2HPO4
19.1.4DorfmaniteNa2HPO4 · 2H2O
19.1.5NalipoiteNaLi2PO4
19.1.6StercoriteNa(NH4)HPO4 · 4H2O
19.1.7Archerite(K,NH4)(H2PO4)
19.1.8Biphosphammite(NH4,K)(H2PO4)
19.1.9Phosphammite(NH4)2(HPO4)
19.1.11SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
19.1.12FerrisickleriteLi1-x(Fex3+Fe2+1-x)PO4
19.1.13TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
19.1.14TavoriteLiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
19.1.15MarićiteNaFe2+(PO4)
38.1.1.1TriphyliteLiFe2+PO4
38.1.1.3NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4

Other Names for Lithiophilite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Lithiophilite

Reference List:
Brush and Dana (1878) American Journal of Science: 16: 118.

Brush and Dana (1879) American Journal of Science: 18: 45.

Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text. Heidelberg: vol. 9: 6.

Vassar in: Landes (1925) American Mineralogist: 10: 383.

Berggren analysis in: Quensel (1937) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 59: 77.

Mason (1941) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 63: 117.

Mason (1942) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 64: 335.

Lindberg (1950) American Mineralogist: 35: 59.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 665-669.

Acta Crystallographica: 13: 325-331.

American Mineralogist (1968): 53: 1804.

Internet Links for Lithiophilite

Specimens:
The following Lithiophilite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Lithiophilite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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