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Centralia, Columbia Co., Pennsylvania, USAi
Regional Level Types
Centralia- not defined -
Columbia Co.County
PennsylvaniaState
USACountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 40° 48' 15'' North , 76° 20' 26'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 40.80417,-76.34083
GeoHash:G#: dr38nu4m3
Köppen climate type:Dfa : Hot-summer humid continental climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Aristes311 (2017)1.6km
Ashland2,734 (2017)2.5km
Fountain Springs278 (2017)3.9km
Locustdale177 (2017)4.2km
Wilburton Number One196 (2017)4.3km


Location of a burning anthracite coal mine along Pennsylvania route 61 in Columbia County. The largest underground coal fire in the US.

The fire originated in a trash dump in a strip mine near Odd Fellows Cemetery in 1962. Mistakenly believed to have been extinguished that same year, the fire was allowed to continue burning. The fires expanded into the chain of underground mine shafts and by 1981 was causing subsidence within the town's borders. In 1983 a Government buy-out of properties relocated residents, reducing the population of Centralia from its highest number of 1,100 to a mere 46 residents by 1984.

In 1994 PA route 54/61 had to be closed and rerouted via Byrnsville Road, due to buckling of the pavement surface caused by the heat produced by the burning coal mine underneath. Mineralogy typical of that produced by burning coal. The various vents for the gases, both artificial and natural, are encrusted with sulphurous minerals.

The town was "used" in the idea of the series of horror movies known as "Silent Hill".

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


12 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Apjohnite
Formula: Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Cryptohalite
Formula: (NH4)2[SiF6]
Hydrobasaluminite
Formula: Al4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mascagnite
Formula: (NH4)2SO4
Pyrophyllite
Formula: Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Salammoniac
Formula: NH4Cl
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Tschermigite
Formula: (NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Voltaite
Formula: K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Cryptohalite3.CH.15(NH4)2[SiF6]
Salammoniac3.AA.25NH4Cl
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Apjohnite7.CB.85Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Hydrobasaluminite7.DE.60Al4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
Mascagnite7.AD.05(NH4)2SO4
Tschermigite7.CC.20(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Voltaite7.CC.25K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Pyrophyllite9.EC.10Al2Si4O10(OH)2

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Salammoniac9.1.3.1NH4Cl
Group 11 - HALIDE COMPLEXES
AmBX6
Cryptohalite11.5.1.2(NH4)2[SiF6]
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2XO4
Mascagnite28.2.1.1(NH4)2SO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AB(XO4)2·xH2O
Tschermigite29.5.5.3(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Apjohnite29.7.3.3Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Miscellaneous
Voltaite29.9.1.1K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Hydrobasaluminite31.4.6.1Al4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Pyrophyllite71.2.1.1Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
H ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H SalammoniacNH4Cl
H Cryptohalite(NH4)2[SiF6]
H Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
H HydrobasaluminiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
H VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
NNitrogen
N Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
N SalammoniacNH4Cl
N Cryptohalite(NH4)2[SiF6]
N Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
OOxygen
O Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
O ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
O HydrobasaluminiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
O VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
FFluorine
F Cryptohalite(NH4)2[SiF6]
AlAluminium
Al Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Al ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al HydrobasaluminiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
Al VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si Cryptohalite(NH4)2[SiF6]
Si PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SSulfur
S Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
S ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S SulphurS8
S Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
S HydrobasaluminiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
S VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ClChlorine
Cl SalammoniacNH4Cl
KPotassium
K VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
MnManganese
Mn ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
FeIron
Fe VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Paleozoic
251.902 - 541 Ma



ID: 3187973
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Phanerozoic (251.902 - 541 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Pennsylvanian
298.9 - 323.2 Ma



ID: 2984571
Llewellyn Formation

Age: Pennsylvanian (298.9 - 323.2 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Llewellyn Formation

Description: Gray, fine- to coarse-grained sandstone, siltstone, shale, conglomerate, and numerous anthracite coals in repetitive sequences.

Comments: Original map source: Pennsylvania Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Miles, C.E., and Whitfield, T.G., compilers, 2001, Bedrock Geology of Pennsylvania, edition: 1.0, digital map, scale 1:250,000.

Lithology: Major:{sandstone}, Minor:{siltstone,shale,anthracite}, Incidental:{conglomerate}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Livingood, M., Winicaties, J., Stein, J. (1999) Centralia Mine Fire Analysis: Presence of Sulfur-bearing Mineral Deposits at Thermal Vents, Centralia Coal Fire Analysis: Presence of Sulfur-bearing Mineral Deposits, ESL 201 – paper for Fundamental Techniques in Geology, Dr. C. Gil Wiswall, West Chester University, December 15, 1999, 9 pages.
Stracher, G.B. (2007) Gas Vent Mineralogy of Coal Fires Burning Around the World, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, 39:2, 81.
Elick, J.M. (2013) The effect of abundant precipitation on coal fire subsidence and its implications in Centralia, Pennsylvania. International Journal of Coal Geology, 105, 110–119.
Martinez-Parrish, Amy, D. Ressler, J. Kitsko, Pennsylvania Highways - Centralia, Susquehanna University Department of Geological Sciences, Department of Earth & Environmental Science.
Elick, J. (2015) The Science conducted on the coal fire in Centralia, PA. In: Guidebook for the 80th Annual Field Conference of Pennsylvania Geologists: Conglomerate, Coal, and Calamities, 89-111.

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