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Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Colourless, white, light ...
1½ - 2
For James Apjohn (1796-1886), Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
Halotrichite Group

At least a partial (and probably a complete ?) series toward Apjohnite exists from Pickeringite and Halotrichite.

Classification of Apjohnite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations

7 : AB2(XO4)4·H2O

25 : Sulphates
9 : Sulphates of Mn

Physical Properties of Apjohnite

Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colourless, white, light pink, light yellow, light green.
Hardness (Mohs):
1½ - 2
1.78 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of Apjohnite

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.478 nβ = 1.482 nγ = 1.482
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.004
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of Apjohnite

Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Soluble in water.

Crystallography of Apjohnite

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.19 Å, b = 24.34 Å, c = 21.26 Å
β = 100.28°
a:b:c = 0.254 : 1 : 0.873
Unit Cell Volume:
V 3,151.71 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals acicular aggregated into masses and crusts; also asbestiform.

Type Occurrence of Apjohnite

Relationship of Apjohnite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
BíliniteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.05Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2O
7.CB.05GunningiteZnSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05KieseriteMgSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2O
7.CB.05SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05CobaltkieseriteCoSO4 · H2O
7.CB.07SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2O
7.CB.10BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2O
7.CB.15Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15Boyleite(Zn,Mg)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15DrobeciteCdSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15CranswickiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.20ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.25Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Moorhouseite(Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.30RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.35BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35MelanteriteFeSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35Alpersite(Mg,Cu)[SO4] · 7H2O
7.CB.40EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.40GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.40MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.45AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
7.CB.45Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
7.CB.50AluminocoquimbiteFeAl(SO4)3 · 9H2O
7.CB.55CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
7.CB.55ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2O
7.CB.55Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
7.CB.60KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2O
7.CB.65QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2O
7.CB.75LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
7.CB.75RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
7.CB.80RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2O
7.CB.85BíliniteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.90MeridianiiteMgSO4 · 11H2O
25.9.1SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2O
25.9.2JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
25.9.3MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2O
25.9.5Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2O
25.9.6DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
25.9.8ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2O
25.9.9Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2O
25.9.10MooreiteMg92Mn2Zn4(SO4)2(OH)26 · 8H2O
25.9.11Torreyite(Mg,Mn2+)72Mn22+Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2O
25.9.12Lawsonbauerite(Mn2+,Mg)9Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2O
25.9.13Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O

Other Names for Apjohnite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Apjohnite

Reference List:
Apjohn (1838) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 12: 103. [as Manganese Alum]

Kane, R. (1838) Ueber der Wirkung von Arsenikwasserstoff auf schwefelsaures Kupferoxyd und über den vom Dr. Apjohn zerlegten Mangan-alaun. Annalen der Physik: 44: 471-472.

Glocker, E.F. (1847) Ordo XVIII. Hydrolyti. I. Hydrolyti ametalli. 24. Halotrichites. Appendix. Apjohnites. Generum et specierum mineralium secundum ordines naturales digestorum synopsis, Apud Eduardum Anton, Halle, 288-304.

Ludwig, H. (1870) Ueber den haarförmigen Manganalaun und das manganhaltige Bittersalz vom Boschjemansflusse. Archiv der Pharmacie: 193(2): 97-100.

Brown, W.G. (1884) A new hydrous manganous aluminic sulphate from Sevier Co., Tenn. American Chemical Journal: 6: 97-119.

Kokta (1939) Sborník Klubu Příroda.: 19: 75 (Min. Abs.: 7: 316 [1939]).

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 527-528.

Menchetti, S., Sabelli, C. (1976) The halotrichite group: the crystal structure of apjohnite. Mineralogical Magazine: 40: 599-608.

Ballirano, P. (2006) Crystal chemistry of the halotrichite group XAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O: the X = Fe- Mg-Mn-Zn compositional tetrahedron. European Journal of Mineralogy: 18: 463-469.

Internet Links for Apjohnite URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Apjohnite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • Plovdiv Oblast
    • Plovdiv
Atanassova, R. & Kerestedjian, T. (2009): Efflorescent minerals from the metallurgical waste heaps of the KCM non-ferrous metal smelter, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology, 47, 51-63.
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Pampa del Tamarugal
Peter G. Seroka collection
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
    • Pardubice Region
No reference listed
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Bolzano Province (South Tyrol)
      • Adige Valley (Etsch Valley)
Frost, Raymond L. and Locke, Ashley J. and Martens, Wayde N. (2007) Thermal analysis of halotrichites. Thermochimica Acta 459(1-2):pp. 64-72.
Exel, R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Athesia, Bolzano, 204 pp.
Mozambique (TL)
  • Maputo Province
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 528; Mineralogical Magazine (1976): 40: 599.
  • Aveiro District
    • Albergaria-a-Velha
      • Branca
Marques de Sá, J. & Leal Gomes, C. (2010): Les mines de cuivre et nickel de Palhal et Telhadela, Albergaria-a-Velha, Aveiro, Portugal. Le Règne Minéral, 92, 36-47.
  • Alba Co.
    • Roşia Montanã Commune
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Cerna valley
B. Onac et al (2009, July) Mineralogical and Stable Isotope Investigations of Minerals from Caves on Cerna Valley (Romania). Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. pp318-323
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Cerna valley
Onac, B. P. (2009): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 38/1, 27-39
    • Deva
Andrei I. Apopei, Nicolae Buzgar, Gheorghe Damian, and Andrei Buzatu (2014) the Raman Study of Weathering Minerals from the Coranda-Hondol Open Pit (Certej Gold-silver Deposit) and Their Photochemical Degradation Products Under Laser Irradiation. Can Mineral 52:1027-1038.
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Verkhoyansk Fold Belt
        • Verkhoyansk Silver Province
          • Deputatsky ore cluster
Zhdanov Yu.Ya., Solov'ev L.I. (1998): Geology and mineralogical composition of the oxidized zone in the Deputatsk tin ore deposit. Otechestvennaya Geol. (6), 77-79 (in Russian).
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
Bortnikova, S. B., Bortnikova, S. P., Manstein Yu, A., Kiryuhin, A. V., Vernikovskaya, I. V., & Palchik, N. A. (2009, February). Thermal springs hydrogeochemistry and structure at North-Mutnovskoe fumarole field (South Kamchatka, Russia). In Proceedings, thirty–fourth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, CA, pp SGP-TR-187.
  • Ziguinchor Region
Montoroi, J. P. (1995) Mise eli évidence d'une séquence de précipitation des sels dails les sols sulfatés acides d'une vallée aménagée de Basse-Casamance (Sénégal). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 320, série II a, p. 395-402
  • Košice Region
    • Gelnica Co.
Kokta (1939) Sborník Klubu Příroda.: 19: 75 (Min. Abs.: 7: 316 [1939]); Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 528; Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
      • Červenica
        • Dubník
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
  • Murcia
    • La Unión
      • Sierra de Cartagena
Tony Nickischer
    • Mazarrón
      • San Cristóbal Hill
  • Colorado
    • Mineral Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Cactus Range
        • Cactus Springs District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
          • Urania Peak
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Washoe Co.
      • Wedekind District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Santa Fe Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
        • Golden
          • Ortiz mine
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Columbia Co.
Scientific study done by Matt Livingood, Jason Winicaties, and Jared Stein, located at:
  • Tennessee
    • Monroe Co.
      • Tellico Plains
Travis A. Paris (2011) Tennessee mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 86, #4, 300-328.
    • Sevier Co.
      • Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 528l; American Mineralogist (2000): 85: 1561.; Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:235
  • Utah
    • Salt Lake Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
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