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Apjohnite

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Formula:
Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Colour:
Colourless, white, light pink, light yellow, light green.
Lustre:
Silky
Hardness:
1½ - 2
Specific Gravity:
1.78
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
For James Apjohn (1796-1886), Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
Halotrichite Group

At least a partial (and probably a complete ?) series toward Apjohnite exists from Pickeringite and Halotrichite.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of ApjohniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.CB.85

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
29.7.3.3

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
7 : AB2(XO4)4·H2O
25.9.7

25 : Sulphates
9 : Sulphates of Mn

Physical Properties of ApjohniteHide

Silky
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, white, light pink, light yellow, light green.
Hardness:
1½ - 2 on Mohs scale
Density:
1.78 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of ApjohniteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.478 nβ = 1.482 nγ = 1.482
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.004
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of ApjohniteHide

Formula:
Mn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O

Crystallography of ApjohniteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.19 Å, b = 24.34 Å, c = 21.26 Å
β = 100.28°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.254 : 1 : 0.873
Unit Cell V:
3,151.71 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals acicular aggregated into masses and crusts; also asbestiform.

Type Occurrence of ApjohniteHide

Other Language Names for ApjohniteHide

Relationship of Apjohnite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
BíliniteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2 : P2
PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
Redingtonite(Fe2+,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.
Wupatkiite(Co,Mg,Ni)Al2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Magnesiocopiapite1 photo of Apjohnite associated with Magnesiocopiapite on mindat.org.
Ilesite1 photo of Apjohnite associated with Ilesite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.CB.05Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05GunningiteZnSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05KieseriteMgSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.05Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2OTric.
7.CB.05SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2OMon.
7.CB.05SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05CobaltkieseriteCoSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.07SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.10BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2OMon.
7.CB.15Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.15Boyleite(Zn,Mg)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.15RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15DrobeciteCdSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.15CranswickiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. m : Bb
7.CB.20ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.20JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.20PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.20SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.25Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.25FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.25HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.25Moorhouseite(Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2OMon.
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO4 · 6H2OMon.
7.CB.30RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2OTet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
7.CB.35BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.35BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2OMon.
7.CB.35MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.35MelanteriteFeSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2OMon.
7.CB.35Alpersite(Mg,Cu)[SO4] · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.40EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.40GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.40MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.45AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2OTric. 1
7.CB.45Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
7.CB.50AluminocoquimbiteFeAl(SO4)3 · 9H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
7.CB.55CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
7.CB.55ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.CB.55Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.CB.60KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.65QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.70LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.75LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.75RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.80RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85BíliniteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2 : P2
7.CB.85PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85Redingtonite(Fe2+,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.
7.CB.85Wupatkiite(Co,Mg,Ni)Al2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.
7.CB.90MeridianiiteMgSO4 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

29.7.3.1PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
29.7.3.2HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2 : P2
29.7.3.4Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
29.7.3.5BíliniteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
29.7.3.6Redingtonite(Fe2+,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.
29.7.3.7Wupatkiite(Co,Mg,Ni)Al2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.9.1SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2OMon.
25.9.2JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2OTric.
25.9.3MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
25.9.4ManganolangbeiniteK2Mn2(SO4)3Iso. 2 3 : P21 3
25.9.5Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.9.6DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
25.9.8ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2OTrig.
25.9.9Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
25.9.10MooreiteMg92Mn2Zn4(SO4)2(OH)26 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
25.9.11Torreyite(Mg,Mn2+)72Mn2+2Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.9.12Lawsonbauerite(Mn2+,Mg)9Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.9.13Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ApjohniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Apjohn (1838) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 12: 103. [as Manganese Alum]
Kane, R. (1838) Ueber der Wirkung von Arsenikwasserstoff auf schwefelsaures Kupferoxyd und über den vom Dr. Apjohn zerlegten Mangan-alaun. Annalen der Physik: 44: 471-472.
Glocker, E.F. (1847) Ordo XVIII. Hydrolyti. I. Hydrolyti ametalli. 24. Halotrichites. Appendix. Apjohnites. Generum et specierum mineralium secundum ordines naturales digestorum synopsis, Apud Eduardum Anton, Halle, 288-304.
Ludwig, H. (1870) Ueber den haarförmigen Manganalaun und das manganhaltige Bittersalz vom Boschjemansflusse. Archiv der Pharmacie: 193(2): 97-100.
Brown, W.G. (1884) A new hydrous manganous aluminic sulphate from Sevier Co., Tenn. American Chemical Journal: 6: 97-119.
Kokta (1939) Sborník Klubu Příroda.: 19: 75 (Min. Abs.: 7: 316 [1939]).
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 527-528.
Menchetti, S., Sabelli, C. (1976) The halotrichite group: the crystal structure of apjohnite. Mineralogical Magazine: 40: 599-608.
Ballirano, P. (2006) Crystal chemistry of the halotrichite group XAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O: the X = Fe- Mg-Mn-Zn compositional tetrahedron. European Journal of Mineralogy: 18: 463-469.

Internet Links for ApjohniteHide

Localities for ApjohniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Bulgaria
 
  • Plovdiv Oblast
    • Plovdiv
Atanassova, R. & Kerestedjian, T. (2009): Efflorescent minerals from the metallurgical waste heaps of the KCM non-ferrous metal smelter, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology, 47, 51-63.
Chile
 
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Pampa del Tamarugal
Peter G. Seroka collection
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
    • Pardubice Region
No reference listed
Italy
 
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Bolzano Province (South Tyrol)
      • Adige Valley (Etsch Valley)
Frost, Raymond L. and Locke, Ashley J. and Martens, Wayde N. (2007) Thermal analysis of halotrichites. Thermochimica Acta 459(1-2):pp. 64-72.
Exel, R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Athesia, Bolzano, 204 pp.
Mozambique (TL)
 
  • Maputo Province
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 528; Mineralogical Magazine (1976): 40: 599.
Portugal
 
  • Aveiro District
    • Albergaria-a-Velha
      • Branca
Marques de Sá, J. & Leal Gomes, C. (2010): Les mines de cuivre et nickel de Palhal et Telhadela, Albergaria-a-Velha, Aveiro, Portugal. Le Règne Minéral, 92, 36-47.
Romania
 
  • Alba Co.
    • Roşia Montanã Commune
Onac, B. P. et al. (2003): STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, GEOLOGIA, XLVIII, 1, 29-44. [http://bioge.ubbcluj.ro/studia/pdf/2003/Onac.pdf]
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Cerna valley
B. Onac et al (2009, July) Mineralogical and Stable Isotope Investigations of Minerals from Caves on Cerna Valley (Romania). Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. pp318-323
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Cerna valley
Onac, B. P. (2009): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 38/1, 27-39
    • Deva
Andrei I. Apopei, Nicolae Buzgar, Gheorghe Damian, and Andrei Buzatu (2014) the Raman Study of Weathering Minerals from the Coranda-Hondol Open Pit (Certej Gold-silver Deposit) and Their Photochemical Degradation Products Under Laser Irradiation. Can Mineral 52:1027-1038.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Verkhoyansk Fold Belt
        • Verkhoyansk Silver Province
          • Deputatsky ore cluster
Zhdanov Yu.Ya., Solov'ev L.I. (1998): Geology and mineralogical composition of the oxidized zone in the Deputatsk tin ore deposit. Otechestvennaya Geol. (6), 77-79 (in Russian).
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
Bortnikova, S. B., Bortnikova, S. P., Manstein Yu, A., Kiryuhin, A. V., Vernikovskaya, I. V., & Palchik, N. A. (2009, February). Thermal springs hydrogeochemistry and structure at North-Mutnovskoe fumarole field (South Kamchatka, Russia). In Proceedings, thirty–fourth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, CA, pp SGP-TR-187.
Senegal
 
  • Ziguinchor Region
Montoroi, J. P. (1995) Mise eli évidence d'une séquence de précipitation des sels dails les sols sulfatés acides d'une vallée aménagée de Basse-Casamance (Sénégal). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 320, série II a, p. 395-402
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Gelnica Co.
Kokta (1939) Sborník Klubu Příroda.: 19: 75 (Min. Abs.: 7: 316 [1939]); Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 528; Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
      • Červenica
        • Dubník
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
Spain
 
  • Murcia
    • La Unión
      • Sierra de Cartagena
Tony Nickischer
    • Mazarrón
      • San Cristóbal Hill
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • Mineral Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Cactus Range
        • Cactus Springs District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
          • Urania Peak
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Washoe Co.
      • Wedekind District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Santa Fe Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
        • Golden
          • Ortiz mine
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Columbia Co.
Scientific study done by Matt Livingood, Jason Winicaties, and Jared Stein, located at:http://www.offroaders.com/album/centralia/study/ESL201Paper.htm
  • Tennessee
    • Monroe Co.
      • Tellico Plains
Travis A. Paris (2011) Tennessee mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 86, #4, 300-328.
    • Sevier Co.
      • Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 528l; American Mineralogist (2000): 85: 1561.; Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:235
  • Utah
    • Salt Lake Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Mineral and/or Locality  
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