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About BrackebuschiteHide

Luis Brackebusch
Dark brown to black; reddish brown in transmitted light.
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Sub-Metallic
4 - 5
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named by A. Döring in 1880 in honor of German mineralogist and geologist Ludwig Brackebusch (March 4, 1849 Nace en Northeim, Germany - June 2, 1906 Fallece en Hannover, Germany), Professor of Mineralogy, University of Córdoba (1875-1888), Córdoba, Argentina. He returned to Germany in 1888 and worked as a consulting geologist.
Brackebuschite Group. The Pb analogue of tokyoite, Mn analogue of calderónite, and Pb-Mn analogue of gamagarite. Chemically similar to krettnichite, paseroite, and pyrobelonite.

A rare secondary mineral occurring in the oxidized zones of hydrothermal Pb-Zn deposits.

Crystal structure details (Lafuente & Downs, 2016): (1) ccp set of O and Pb atoms; (2) chains of edge-sharing MnO6 octahedra, surrounded by 2 unique VO4 tetrahedra; (3) 1[MnO4/2O2/1] chain connected sharing vertex with one vanadate group; (4) second vanadate group sharing two vertices with two octahedra, thus forming Mn2V ring; (5) 1[Mn(VO4)2OH] chains, parallel to and twisted along [010]; (6) PbO8 and PbO11 polyhedra joining the previous chains; (7) one Pb and two Mn cations are bridged by OH group, which participates in a hydrogen bond with vanadate group of the adjacent chain.

Classification of BrackebuschiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
G : With medium-sized and large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.5:1

2 : AB2(XO4)2·xH2O

21 : Vanadates (and vanadates with arsenate or phosphate)
4 : Vanadates of U, Mn, Fe or Ni

Physical Properties of BrackebuschiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Sub-Metallic
Translucent, Opaque
Dark brown to black; reddish brown in transmitted light.
4 - 5 on Mohs scale
None Observed
6.05 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.11 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BrackebuschiteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 2.280 nβ = 2.360 - 2.380 nγ = 2.480 - 2.490
Calculated: 82° to 88°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.200 - 0.210
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
r > v strong
Optical Extinction:
X^a = 20°; Y=b
X = Nearly colourless
Y = Dark reddish brown
Z = Reddish brown

Chemical Properties of BrackebuschiteHide


Crystallography of BrackebuschiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.88 Å, b = 6.155 Å, c = 7.681 Å
β = 111.5°
a:b:c = 1.443 : 1 : 1.248
Unit Cell V:
390.60 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals commonly acicular, elongated and striated parallel [010]; may be lathlike or wedge-shaped, flattened on {001}, with {100}, {001}, {011}, {102}, {103}, and others, perhaops without terminal faces; sprays, dendritic, botryoidal.
β = 111.5 - 111.833; parameters from the refinement of Lafuente & Downs (2016): a=7.64920, b=6.12620, c=8.9241, β=112.1950

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000072BrackebuschiteDonaldson D M, Barnes W H (1955) The structures of the minerals of the descloizite and adelite groups: III - brackebuschite American Mineralogist 40 597-61319550293
0005530BrackebuschiteFoley J A, Hughes J M, Lange D (1997) The atomic arrangement of brackebuschite, redefined as Pb2(Mn,Fe)(VO4)2(OH), and comments on Mn octahedra The Canadian Mineralogist 35 1027-103319970293
0020434BrackebuschiteLafuente B, Downs R T (2016) Redetermination of brackebuschite, Pb2Mn3+(VO4)2(OH) Acta Crystallographica E72 293-2962016Sierra de Cordoba, Argentina0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
4.95 Å(80)
3.25 Å(100)
3.08 Å(50)
2.98 Å(60)
2.76 Å(80)
2.13 Å(40)
1.720 Å(60)

Type Occurrence of BrackebuschiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Dark brown elongated crystals
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
The Natural History Museum, London, England: #55819. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: #96255.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Oxidized hydrothermal veins in a Pb-Zn deposit.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for BrackebuschiteHide

Simplified Chinese:锰铁钒铅矿

Relationship of Brackebuschite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
ArsenbrackebuschitePb2Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/m
ArsentsumebitePb2Cu(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
BearthiteCa2Al(PO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
BushmakinitePb2Al(PO4)(VO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
CalderónitePb2Fe3+(VO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
CanosioiteBa2Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
FeinglositePb2Zn(AsO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m
FerribushmakinitePb2Fe3+(PO4)(VO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
GamagariteBa2Fe3+(VO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
GoedkeniteSr2Al(PO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
GrandaiteSr2Al(AsO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
LombardoiteBa2Mn3+(AsO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
TokyoiteBa2Mn3+(VO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
TsumebitePb2Cu(PO4)(SO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
Unnamed (possible ordered As-analogue of Tokyoite)Ba2Mn[(As,V)O4]2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
12 photos of Brackebuschite associated with DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
1 photo of Brackebuschite associated with KrettnichitePbMn3+2(VO4)2(OH)2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.BG.CanosioiteBa2Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.BG.05ArsentsumebitePb2Cu(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.BG.05BearthiteCa2Al(PO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.BG.05GamagariteBa2Fe3+(VO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.BG.05GoedkeniteSr2Al(PO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.BG.05TsumebitePb2Cu(PO4)(SO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.BG.05ArsenbrackebuschitePb2Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/m
8.BG.05FeinglositePb2Zn(AsO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m
8.BG.05BushmakinitePb2Al(PO4)(VO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.BG.05TokyoiteBa2Mn3+(VO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.BG.05CalderónitePb2Fe3+(VO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.BG.10MélonjosephiteCaFe2+Fe3+(PO4)2(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbam
8.BG.15TancoiteLiNa2Al(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 2/m : P2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

21.4.1UvaniteU6+2V5+6O21 · 15H2O (?)Orth.
21.4.2Vanuranylite(H3O)2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 4H2O
21.4.3StrelkiniteNa2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 6H2OOrth.
21.4.4CarnotiteK2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
21.4.5Margaritasite(Cs,K,H3O)2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
21.4.6SengieriteCu2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
21.4.7MetatyuyamuniteCa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
21.4.8TyuyamuniteCa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5-8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
21.4.9RauviteCa(UO2)2(V10O28) · 16H2O
21.4.10FrancevilliteBa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5H2OOrth.
21.4.11MetavanuraliteAl(UO2)2(VO4)2(OH) · 8H2OTric.
21.4.12VanuraliteAl(UO2)2(V2O8)(OH) · 11H2OMon.
21.4.13CurienitePb(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5H2OOrth.
21.4.14FritzscheiteMn(UO2)2(PO4,VO4)2 · 10H2O (?)Tet.
21.4.15Palenzonaite(NaCa2)Mn2+2(VO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
21.4.16Santafeite(Na,Ca,Sr)12(Mn2+,Fe3+,Al,Mg)8Mn4+8(VO4)16(OH,O)20 · 8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
21.4.17PyrobelonitePbMn2+(VO4)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
21.4.19ČechitePbFe2+(VO4)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
21.4.21MounanaitePbFe3+2(VO4)2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
21.4.22SchubneliteFe3+VO4 · H2OTric.
21.4.23FervaniteFe3+4V5+4O16 · 5H2OMon.
21.4.24KazakhstaniteFe3+5V4+3V5+12O39(OH)9 · 9H2OMon.
21.4.25Bokite(Al,Fe3+)1.3(V5+,V4+,Fe3+)8O20 · 7.4H2OMon.
21.4.26Rusakovite(Fe3+,Al)5(VO4,PO4)2(OH)9 · 3H2O
21.4.27KolovratiteNixZny(VO4)0.67(x+y) · nH2O

Fluorescence of BrackebuschiteHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BrackebuschiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Rammelsberg (1880) Zeitschrift der Deutsche geologische Gesellschaft, Berlin: 32: 711 (cites Doering).
Doering (1883) Bol. ac. cienc. Córdoba: 5: 501.
Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 146.
Berry, L.G. and A.R. Graham (1948) X-ray measurements on brackebuschite and hematolite. American Mineralogist: 33: 489–495.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 1052-1053.
Donaldson, D.M. and W.H. Barnes (1955) The structures of the minerals of the descloizite and adelite groups: III –
brackebuschite. American Mineralogist: 40: 597-613.
Fanfani, L. and P.F. Zanazzi (1967) Structural similarities of some secondary lead minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 36, 522–529.
Symes, R.F. and S.A. Williams (1973) Heyite and brackebuschite compared. Mineralogical Magazine, 39, 69–73.
Foley, J. A., Hughes, J. M. and Lange, D. (1997): The atomic arrangement of brackebuschite, redefined as Pb2(Mn3+,Fe3+)(VO4)2(OH), and comments on Mn3+ octahedra: Canadian Mineralogist: 35, 1027-1033.
Lafuente, B. & Downs, R.T. (2016): Redetermination of brackebuschite, Pb2Mn3+(VO4)2(OH). Acta Crystallographica: E72: 293-296; (2016)

Internet Links for BrackebuschiteHide

Localities for BrackebuschiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Córdoba Province
    • Minas Department
Sureda, R.J. (1978) Las vetas de plomo, plata y zinc del districto minero ‘‘El Guaico’’ en la provincia de Co´rdoba Repu´blica de Argentina. Revista de la Asociación Geologica Argentina, 33, 299-324.
    • Punilla Department
      • Sierra de Córdoba
        • El Guaico mining district
          • Venus Pb-Zn deposit
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1053; Mineralogical Magazine (1973): 39: 69; Canadian Mineralogist (1997): 35: 1027; Lapis (2004): 29(1): 46.
  • Salzburg
    • Zell am See District
      • Rauris
        • Alteck - Hoher Sonnblick area
          • Kolm-Saigurn
- Auer, C. (2020): 2168) Arseniosiderit (?), Brackebuschit, Cobaltit, Devillin, Gersdorffit, Hessit, Schultenit, ein Mineral aus der Symplesitgruppe und Tetradymit vom Rauriser Goldberg, Sonnblickgruppe, Salzburg. In: Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXIX, Carinthia II, vol. 210./130., p.153-218, Klagenfurt.
  • Hunan
    • Hengyang
      • Nanyue District
Guangming Yang (1980): Geology and Prospecting 16(7), 35-40
DR Congo
  • Kinshasa City
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Haut-Ogooué Province
    • Franceville
P. Bariand et al. , Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. Cristal. , 1963, LXXXVI, pp. 117-120.
  • Saarland
    • Merzig-Wadern
      • Wadern
        • Krettnich
[European Journal of Mineralogy 13:145-158]
  • Thuringia
    • Nordhausen District
      • Harztor
        • Ilfeld
J. Gröbner, U. Kolitsch and J. Wesiger (2011): New finds of vanadate and rare-earth minerals from the manganese mine Ilfeld, Harz. Mineralien-Welt 22 (1), 41-49. (in German)
South Africa
  • Northern Cape
    • John Taolo Gaetsewe
      • Gamagara
        • Kathu
          • Sishen
Costin, G., Fairey, B., & Tsikos, H. (2014) Tokyoite and As-rich tokyoite: new occurrence in the manganese ore of the Postmasburg Manganese Field, South Africa. 21st annual IMA conference
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Níjar
        • Rodalquilar
Calvo Rebollar, Miguel. (2015). Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. VII. Fosfatos, Arseniatos y Vanadatos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid. Fundación Gómez Pardo. 479 págs.
    • Córdoba
      • Fuente Obejuna (Fuenteovejuna)
Carmona Ruiz, A.; Ramos Márquez, I.; Menor Salván, C. (2016). Grupo Minero de Navalespino y mina “La Solución”, Fuente Obejuna (Córdoba): historia, explotación y mineralogía. Acopios, 7. Pp. 21-227
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
Ron Layton self collected
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 77.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 144.
    • Gila Co.
      • Dripping Spring Mountains
        • Banner Mining District
          • Christmas
Rruff project. Raman and XRD analyzed.; Bob Meyer (2011) The Micro Mineral Collector. Friends of Mineralogy - Pacific Northwest Chapter Newsletter
    • Santa Cruz Co.
      • Patagonia Mountains
        • Palmetto Mining District
          • Fresno Canyon
            • Tres de Mayo Mine group
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 144.
  • Colorado
    • Montrose Co.
      • Uravan Mining District
        • Paradox Valley
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