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Litharge

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Formula:
PbO
System:
Tetragonal
Colour:
Red
Hardness:
2
Name:
From the Greek λιθάργνρος, the name given by Dioscorides to a material obtained in the process of separating lead from silver by fire metallurgy.
Dimorph of:
May be confused with minium.

Classification of Litharge

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
4.AC.20

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
A : Metal: Oxygen = 2:1 and 1:1
C : M:O = 1:1 (and up to 1:1.25); with large cations (+- smaller ones)
4.2.4.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
2 : AX
7.11.21

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
11 : Oxides of Sn and Pb
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-2466.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

First Recorded Occurrence of Litharge

Year of Discovery:
1917

Physical Properties of Litharge

Greasy, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Red
Hardness (Mohs):
2
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {110}.
Density:
9.14 g/cm3 (Measured)    9.35 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Measured on synthetic material

Crystallography of Litharge

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P4/nmm
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.9729Å, c = 5.0217Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.264
Unit Cell Volume:
V 79.26 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Alteration borders on scales or tablets of massicot; crusts. Artificial crystals are tabular {001}.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.115 (100)
2.809 (62)
2.510 (18)
1.988 (8)
1.872 (37)
1.675 (24)
1.542 (11)

Optical Data of Litharge

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 2.665 nε = 2.535
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.130
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of Litharge

Formula:
PbO
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Litharge to other Species

4.AC.05SwedenborgiteNaBe4Sb5+O7
4.AC.10BrownmilleriteCa2(Al,Fe3+)2O5
4.AC.10SrebrodolskiteCa2Fe23+O5
4.AC.15MontroyditeHgO
4.AC.20RomarchiteSnO
4.AC.25MassicotPbO
7.11.1RomarchiteSnO
7.11.2CassiteriteSnO2
7.11.4SchoenfliesiteMg[Sn(OH)6]
7.11.5BurtiteCa[Sn(OH)6]
7.11.6VismirnoviteZn[Sn(OH)6]
7.11.7WickmaniteMn2+[Sn(OH)6]
7.11.8TetrawickmaniteMn2+[Sn4+(OH)6]
7.11.9Jeanbandyite(Fe2+,Mn2+)[Sn4+(OH)6]
7.11.10NataniteFe2+[Sn(OH)6]
7.11.11Mushistonite(Cu,Zn,Fe2+)[Sn(OH)6]
7.11.12Ferronigerite-2N1S(Al,Fe,Zn)2(Al,Sn)6O11(OH)
7.11.13Magnesionigerite
7.11.14ArgutiteGeO2
7.11.15BrunogeieriteFe22+Ge4+O4
7.11.16StottiteFe2+[Ge4+(OH)6]
7.11.17CarboiriteFeAl2(GeO4)O(OH)2
7.11.18OtjisumeitePbGe4O9
7.11.19BartelkeitePb(Fe2+Ge)[Ge2O7](OH)2 · H2O
7.11.20MassicotPbO
7.11.22MiniumPb3O4
7.11.23PlattneritePbO2
7.11.24Scrutinyitealpha-PbO2
7.11.25MurdochitePbCu6O8-x(Cl,Br)2x where x<=0.5
7.11.26MacedonitePbTiO3
7.11.27CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
7.11.28CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
7.11.29QuenselitePbMnO2(OH)
7.11.30PlumboferritePb2Fe3+11-xMnx2+O19-2x, x = 1/3
7.11.31Magnetoplumbite(Pb,Mn)(Fe,Mn)12O19
7.11.32SenaitePb(Ti,Fe,Mn)21O38

Other Names for Litharge

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:
Converts at 488°C into massicot
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Litharge

Reference List:
Michel (1890), Bull. soc. min.: 13: 56.

Hintze (1910): 1(2A): 1934.

Scott (1914), Mineralogical Magazine: 17: 143.

Larsen, E.S. (1917), Massicot and litharge, the two modifications of lead monoxide: American Mineralogist: 2: 18-19.

Shannon (1927), Economic Geology: 22: 826.

Applebey and Powell (1931), Journal Chem. Soc. London: 2821.

Darbyshire (1932), Journal Chem. Soc. London: 211.

Acta Crystallographica: 14: 1304.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 514-515.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen (1960): 94: 1187.

Neumüller, O.-A. (1979) "Römpp's Chemie-Lexikon", 8th ed., Franckh (Stuttgart).

Internet Links for Litharge

Localities for Litharge

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Zeehan district
      • Zeehan mineral field
        • Tasmanian Smelting Company site
M. Latham Collection 2011
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Hüttenberg
        • Waitschach
Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
      • St Martin am Silberberg
Blaß, G., Graf, H.-W. & Pichler, A. (1997): Sekundäre Neubildungen in Schlacken von St. Martin am Silberberg in Kärnten (2). Mineralien-Welt, 8(6), 54-55.
    • Gailtaler Alpen & Karnische Alpen
      • Bleiberg District
        • Mittewald
A.Pichler (2003)
      • Kötschach-Mauthen
        • Dellach
          • Jaukenhöhe
            • Plonalmlacke
Pichler (2009)
  • Salzburg
    • Lungau
      • Murwinkel
        • Schellgaden
          • Gold mines
C. Auer: Lapis 20(11):11-20 (1995)
  • Styria
    • Niedere Tauern
      • Öblarn
        • Walchen
[Lapis 1992: 2 p.19-30]
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
Kolitsch, U. (2013): 1799) Anglesit, Brochantit, Calcit, Callaghanit, Connellit, Cuprit, Diopsid, Elyit, Forsterit, Kupfer, Lithargit, Magnesiochromit, Malachit, Monohydrocalcit, Phoenicochroit, Rouait und Willemit in Schlacken der Montanwerke Brixlegg, Tirol. Pp. 111-114 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2013): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXII. Carinthia II, 203./123., 91-146.
Belgium
 
  • Liège Province
    • Verviers
      • Plombières-Vieille Montagne District (Plombières-Altenberg)
        • Plombières (Bleyberg)
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995b): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
  • Namur Province
    • Andenne
No reference listed
Bolivia
 
  • Cochabamba Department
    • Mizque Province
Alfredo Petrov and Jaroslav Hyrsl collections
China
 
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
      • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
http://www.ngu.no/FileArchive/165/2003_055.pdf Geological Survey of Norway / The Alice Wain Memorial West Norway Eclogite Field Symposium / Abstract Volume p. 8.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Příbram
RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
France
 
  • Alsace
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Ste Marie-aux-Mines (Markirch)
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Poullaouen
Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
  • Languedoc-Roussillon
    • Lozère
      • Pont-de-Montvert
        • Vialas
No reference listed
  • Midi-Pyrénées
    • Ariège
      • Saint-Girons
        • Aulus-les-Bains
Gol, D. (2014): L'ancienne mine de Laquorre, Aulus-les-bains, Ariège. Le Règne Minéral, 118, 5-27.
  • Rhône-Alpes
    • Loire
      • La Pacaudière
        • Le Crozet
          • Les Rats Mine
Vernay, R. (1997): Le Crozet (Loire, France). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 55(1), 9-22. ; Chollet, P. & Devouard, B. (2013): La mine de cuivre et de plomb des Rats, Le Crozet (Loire). Le Règne Minéral, 109, 7-46.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Badenweiler
        • Badenweiler Pb mining District
          • Sehringen
Schlomann, C. and Steen, H. (1990) Neue Mineralfunde aus dem Bergbaugebiet von Badenweiler im Südschwarzwald. Lapis, 15 (12), 13-20; 50. (in German)
S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Hausach
        • Einbach valley
[Wittern,A. (1995) Mineralien finden im Schwarzwald]
      • Schapbach
        • Wildschapbach valley
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • St Blasien
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
        • Urberg
Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
        • Bockswies veins
          • Oberschulenberg
No reference listed
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
No reference listed
      • Lautenthal
No reference listed
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Alsdorf
Blaß, G. and Strehler, H. (1993): Mineralbildungen in einer durch Selbstentzündung brennenden Bergehalde des Aachener Steinkohlenreviers. Mineralien-Welt 4 (4), 35-42. (in German)
      • Eschweiler
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Stolberg
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
International Association of Collectors of Slag; Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Eifel
      • Mechernich
        • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Sauerland
      • Arnsberg
        • Hüsten
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
Bender,D. & Krimmelbein,W. (1994). Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna, Sauerland. Min.-Welt, Jg.5, Nr.4, S.10.
      • Sundern
        • Bönkhausen
Lapis, 14 (2), 22-27+33+42.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Lahn valley
      • Bad Ems District
        • Braubach
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. & David, W. (1991): Die Blei- und Silberhütte Braubach und ihre Haldenminerale. Lapis, 16 (1), 38-49; 58 (in German).
Lapis, 16 (1), 38-53+58.
    • Siegerland
      • Niederfischbach
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Westerwald
      • Linz am Rhein
        • Rheinbreitbach
          • Virneberg Mine (St Josephsberg Mine)
Habel, B. (2006): Die Mineralien der Kupferschlacken der Grube „Virneberg“ bei Rheinbreitbach, Rhein. Mineralien-Welt 17 (1), 38-49.; Schnorrer-Köhler,G. (1988): Mineralogische Notizen IV. Der Aufschluss, 39, 153-168.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld Basin
      • Hettstedt
        • Copper-Silver smelter (Gottesbelohnung smelter) slag locality
Mineralien Welt 15 Jg.Heft 2 März-April 2004 and Mineralien Welt 19Jg Heft1 Jan -Febr, 2008 Hoorst Knoll
Besteman, Andre, et al, Hettstedt-smelter slag-dumps, Mansfeld Basin, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany, The Strahlen Foundation.
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Megala Pefka area
Katerinopoulos, A. & Zissimopoulou, E. (1994): New mineral occurences from the Laurium mines. Mineralogical Record, 25, 279-280.
Lapis, 24, 7/8 (1999)
        • Soureza area
Katerinopoulos, A. & Zissimopoulou, E. (1994): New mineral occurences from the Laurium mines. Mineralogical Record, 25, 279-280.
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982): Neue Schlackenminerale aus Laurion. Der Aufschluss, 33 (12), 459-462.
        • Megala Pefka area
van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch).
        • Oxygon area
No reference listed
        • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Sounion area
van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch).; Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (II). Mineralien-Welt 25 (2), 82-95 (in German).
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Greenland
 
  • Kujalleq
    • Narsaq
Soerensen, H. (2001): The Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland: status of mineralogical research with new results, Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin 190, GEUS; Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
Iran
 
  • Esfahan Province (Isfahan Province; Aspadana Province)
    • Natanz County
      • Natanz
http://www.dainst.org/de/project/arisman?ft=all
  • Zanjan Province
    • Sheykhlar
Boni, M. et al. (2007): Hypogene Zn carbonate ores in the Angouran deposit, NW Iran. Mineralium Deposita 42, 799-820.
Italy
 
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
      • Anzio
Palombi, S., Bellatreccia, F. & Pucci, R. (2009): Le scorie metallurgiche di Tor Caldara, Anzio - RM. Il Cercapietre, no. 1-2, 44-56. [http://www.gminromano.it/Cercapietre/rivista09/art03.pdf]
  • Piedmont
    • Vercelli Province
      • Sesia Valley
Luigi Chiappino data
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Domusnovas
        • Oridda
Stara P., Rizzo R. and Tanca G. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e minerali. E.M.Sa. Ed., pagg. 105-106.
      • Fluminimaggiore
        • Oridda Valley
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
      • Iglesias
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente - Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 1, 238 pp.
    • Oristano Province
      • Mt. Arci
        • Pau
Urraci E.- Lini M. – Mattias P. (2006) - Il piombo naturale di Pau e gli altri minerali dell'area del rilievo vulcanico di M. Arci (Oristano, Sardegna Centrale) – Con la Collaborazione di Fabio Bellatreccia – Pubblicazione a cura del Comune di Pau (OR)
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Trento Province
      • Valsugana
        • Vignola-Falesina
Paolo Gasparetto, Erica Bittarello, Andrea Canal, Lara Casagrande, Marco E. Ciriotti, Bruno Fassina, Paolo Ferretti, Sergio Pegoraro, Fabio Tosato, Paolo Zammatteo (2014): I lavori minerari del Rio Ricet, Vignola, Falesina, Trento. Micro, 12, 50-123.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Massa Marittima
Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
    • Livorno Province
      • Campiglia Marittima
http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
Int. Assoc. of Collectors of Slag Minerals, 10 (2), 4-6.
        • Sassetta
Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
      • Piombino
Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20 (4), 13-18; 50 (in German).
Mexico
 
  • Aguascalientes
    • Mun. de Asientos
      • Asientos
Panczner(1987): 77-265.
  • Baja California (Baja California Norte; BC Norte)
    • Mun. de Ensenada
      • El Alamo
Panczner(1987):252.
  • Chihuahua
    • Mun. de Batopilas
      • Andres del Rio District
Wilson, W. and Panczner, C., 1986, Batopilas, Mineralogical Record, v 17: 61-80.
    • Mun. de Cusihuiriáchic
      • Cusihuiriáchic
Panczner (1987): 118-310.
  • Durango
    • Mun. de Guanaceví
      • Guanaceví
Panczner(1987):252.
Panczner(1987):252.
Panczner (1987): 252.
    • Mun. de Mapimí
      • Mapimí
Rocks & Min.: 56:247.
Thomas P. Moore (2008) Lapis, 33, #7-8, 33-40.
  • Guanajuato
    • Mun. de San Luis de la Paz
      • Mineral de Pozos
Panczner (1987): 79-343.
Panczner (1987): 252.
  • Guerrero
    • Mun. de Arcelia
      • Campo Morado
Panczner(1987):252.
Panczner (1987): 252.
  • Hidalgo
    • Mun. de Zimapán
      • Zimapán
Panczner(1987):142-317.
  • Jalisco
    • Mun. de Bolaños
      • Bolaños
Panczner (1987):80-393; Dana 7:I:518.
  • Oaxaca
    • Mun. de Ocotlán de Morelos
      • Ocotlán de Morelos
Panczner (1987): 253.
  • San Luis Potosí
    • Mun. de Catorce
      • Catorce (Real de Catorce)
Panczner (1987): 253.
      • Mineral de La Purísima Concepción
Panczner (1987): 133, 240 & 253.
    • Mun. de Villa de La Paz
      • La Paz
Panczner(1987): 253.
Panczner (1987): 253.
  • Sonora
    • Mun. de Cumpas
      • Cumpas
Panczner (1987): 253.
    • Mun. de Sahuaripa
      • Mulatos
Panczner(1987):253.
Panczner (1987): 253.
  • Zacatecas
    • Mun. de Concepción del Oro
      • Albarradón
Panczner(1987):253.
      • Aranzazú
Pancnzer(1987):253.
Panczner (1987): 253.
Panczner (1987): 253.
Panczner (1987): 253.
    • Mun. de Zacatecas
      • Zacatecas
Panczner(1987):253.
Morocco
 
  • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Djebel Saghro (Jbel Saghro)
        • Bou Skour District
Dietrich, J.E. & Favreau, G. (2005) Bou Skour (Maroc) : au pays des wulfenites bleues, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 89, pp 106-114
      • Tazenakht
        • Bou Azer District (Bou Azzer District)
          • Oumlil
Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Namibia
 
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
    • Tsumeb
Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
Norway
 
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Tvedalen
        • Tuften (Tuften 1 Quarry; Tuften 2 Quarry)
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p; Andresen, P. (2013): Gedigent bly og andre spennende mineraler fra en unik pegmatitt i Tvedalen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 50, 83-87
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
[MinRec 32:8]
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Khibiny Massif
Pekov, I.V. & Podlesnyi, A.S. (2004): Kukisvumchorr Deposit: Mineralogy of Alkaline Pegmatites and Hydrotermalites. Mineralogical Almanac, vol. 7, 140 pages + xxiv photo's pages; Krivovichev, S.V., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Ivanyuk, G.Yu., Mikhailova, J.A., Men’shikov, Yu.P., Armbruster, Th., Selivanova, E.A., Meisser, N. (2007): Yakovenchukite-(Y), K3NaCaY2(Si12O30)(H2O)4, a new mineral from the Khibiny massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia: A novel type of octahedral-tetrahedral open-framework structure. American Mineralogist, 92, 1525-1530.
            • Kirovskii apatite mine (Kirovsky Mine; Kirovskii Mine; Kirov Mine)
American Mineralogist, Volume 92, pages 1525-1530, 2007
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
Slovenia
 
• Aleksander Rečnik (2010) Minerals of the lead and zinc ore deposit Mežica. Bode Vlg. & Jožef Stefan Institute. Ljubljana: 112 pp.; Grafenauer, S. (1960): Rare natural lead oxides from Mezica (Mies), Yugoslavia. Neues Jahrbuch fuer Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 94, 1187-1190.
Handbook of Mineralogy
Sweden
 
  • Dalarna
    • Hedemora
      • Garpenberg
Grensman, F., Kalinowski, M.P. and Sandström, F. (2001): Garpenberg Norra. Litofilen. 18 (2), 26-46.
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
Adolfsson, S. G. (1979): Notes on Recent Underground Collecting at Långban. Mineralogical Record. 10: 215-217
      • Nordmark (Nordmarksberg)
Kjell Gatedal
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
Nysten, P. (2004): Harstigen ett mineralogisk eldorado i Bergslagen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 28: 5-13
U.S. Virgin Islands
Alminas, Henry V.; Foord, Eugene E.; Tucker, Robert E. (1994) Geochemistry, mineralogy, and geochronology of the U.S. Virgin Islands USGS Bulletin 2057 36p
UK
 
  • England
    • Co. Durham
      • North Pennines
        • Weardale
Norman Wilson; Personal collection; Norman Wilson personal collection
    • Derbyshire
      • Ashover
        • Milltown
Rust, S. A. (1994): Seltene Mineralien aus dem Milltown-Steinbruch bei Ashover, Derbyshire, Großbritannien. Lapis, 19(12), 13-17; 58 (in German).; Min.Mag.(1984) 48, 267-269; Ford, T., A. Sarjeant & M. Smith (1993): The minerals of the Peak district of Derbyshire. UK Jour. Mines & Minerals 13, 16-55.
      • South Darley
Ford, T., A. Sarjeant & M. Smith (1993): The minerals of the Peak district of Derbyshire. UK Jour. Mines & Minerals 13, 16-55.
    • North Yorkshire
      • North Pennines
        • Swaledale
          • Reeth
A Thompson collection
  • Scotland
    • Dumfries & Galloway (Dumfriesshire)
      • Wanlockhead
BMS Database; Green, D. I. (1987): The minerals of Meadowfoot smelter. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals 2, 3-9.
  • Wales
    • Ceredigion (Dyfed; Cardiganshire)
      • Upper Llanfihangell-y-Creuddyn
        • Pontrhydygroes
BMS Database, UKJMM 17
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Graham Co.
      • Aravaipa District
        • Santa Teresa Mts
          • Klondyke
            • Grand Reef Mountain
              • Laurel Canyon
[MinRec 27:305]
    • La Paz Co.
      • Trigo Mts
        • Silver District
[MinRec 21:160]
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Big Horn Mts
        • Osborn District
          • Tonopah
            • Belmont Mountain
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 279.
    • Pima Co.
      • Tohono O'odom (Papago) Indian Reservation
        • Comobabi Mts
          • Cababi District (Comobabi District)
            • Ko Vaya
              • Mildren Mine group
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 121, 279; Williams, S.A, (1963), Oxidation of sulfide ores in the Mildren and Steppe mining districts, Pima Co., AZ, Econ.Geol.: 58: 1119-1125.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 279; Williams, S.A, (1963), Oxidation of sulfide ores in the Mildren and Steppe mining districts, Pima Co., AZ, Econ.Geol.: 58: 1119-1125.
        • Quijotoa Mts
          • Quijotoa District
            • Ben Nevis Mountain
Arthur L. Flagg Collection No. 4536
    • Yuma Co.
      • Castle Dome Mts
        • Castle Dome District
          • Kofa Game Range
            • Castle Dome Mine group
              • Haack Mine group
Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 158: 108.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Darwin Hills
Wheeler, G.M. (1876), Annual report upon the geographical surveys west of the 100th meridian in California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, Arizona, and Montana: 44th. Cong., 2nd. sess., H. Ex. Doc. 1, pt. 2, vol. 2, pt. 3 app. J.J.: 57; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 245.
      • Inyo Mts (Inyo Range)
        • Andrews Mountain
Bradley, W.W. (1940), Thirty-sixth report of the State Mineralogist: California Division Mines Report 36: 106; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 245.
Larsen, Esper Signius (1917), Massicot and litharge, the two modifications of lead monoxide: American Mineralogist: 2: 18-19; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 245.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Cucamonga Wilderness
        • Cucamonga Peak area
Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 4, 410 pp.: 256; Larsen, Esper Signius (1917), Massicot and litharge, the two modifications of lead monoxide: American Mineralogist: 2: 18-19; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 245, 257.
  • Colorado
    • Lake Co.
      • Leadville District
MinRec 16:171-201
  • Connecticut
    • Middlesex Co.
Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State, p.234
  • Idaho
    • Blaine Co.
R&M 70:4 pp 242-263
  • Massachusetts
    • Hampshire Co.
      • Easthampton
Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
  • Montana
    • Deer Lodge Co.
      • Olson Gulch District
Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Spring Mts
        • Goodsprings District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Lodi Hills
        • Lodi District
          • Quartz Mountain camp
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Rocks & Minerals (2010) 85:512-524
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
Steve Pullman
  • Texas
    • Presidio Co.
R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
  • Wyoming
    • Albany Co.
Rocks & Minerals 76:382
Zimbabwe
 
  • Mashonaland West
    • Kadoma District
Vetter, U., Weck, H.-D., Weale, T., Klosa, D., Wittich, C. and Hoffmann, K. (1999): A provisional inventory of the Sanyati oxide-zone minerals, Zimbabwe. Z. Angew. Geol. 45, 15-21.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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