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Litharge

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Formula:
PbO
System:TetragonalColour:Red
Hardness:2
Name:From the Greek λιθάργνρος, the name given by Dioscorides to a material obtained in the process of separating lead from silver by fire metallurgy.
Dimorph of:Massicot


May be confused with minium.

Classification of Litharge

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/A.06-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.AC.20

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
A : Metal: Oxygen = 2:1 and 1:1
C : M:O = 1:1 (and up to 1:1.25); with large cations (+- smaller ones)
Dana 8th edition ID:4.2.4.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
2 : AX
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.11.21

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
11 : Oxides of Sn and Pb
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Type Occurrence of Litharge

Type Locality:Unnamed Pb occurrence, Cucamonga Peak area, Cucamonga Wilderness, San Bernardino Co., California, USA
Year of Discovery:1917

Physical Properties of Litharge

Lustre:Greasy, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Red
Hardness (Mohs):2
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
On {110}.
Density (measured):9.14 g/cm3
Density (calculated):9.35 g/cm3
Comment:Measured on synthetic material

Crystallography of Litharge

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Class (H-M):4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:P4/nmm
Cell Parameters:a = 3.9729Å, c = 5.0217Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.264
Unit Cell Volume:V 79.26 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Alteration borders on scales or tablets of massicot; crusts. Artificial crystals are tabular {001}.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.115 (100)
2.809 (62)
2.510 (18)
1.988 (8)
1.872 (37)
1.675 (24)
1.542 (11)

Optical Data of Litharge

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 2.665 nε = 2.535
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.130

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High

Chemical Properties of Litharge

Formula:
PbO
Essential elements:O, Pb
All elements listed in formula:O, Pb

Relationship of Litharge to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.AC.05Swedenborgite
NaBe
 
4
Sb
5+
 
O
 
7
4.AC.10Brownmillerite
Ca
 
2
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
O
 
5
4.AC.10Srebrodolskite
Ca
 
2
Fe
3+
2
O
 
5
4.AC.15Montroydite
HgO
4.AC.20Romarchite
SnO
4.AC.25Massicot
PbO
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.11.1Romarchite
SnO
7.11.2Cassiterite
SnO
 
2
7.11.4Schoenfliesite
Mg[Sn(OH)
 
6
]
7.11.5Burtite
Ca[Sn(OH)
 
6
]
7.11.6Vismirnovite
Zn[Sn(OH)
 
6
]
7.11.7Wickmanite
Mn
2+
 
[Sn(OH)
 
6
]
7.11.8Tetrawickmanite
Mn
2+
 
[Sn
4+
 
(OH)
 
6
]
7.11.9Jeanbandyite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)[Sn
4+
 
(OH)
 
6
]
7.11.10Natanite
Fe
2+
 
[Sn(OH)
 
6
]
7.11.11Mushistonite
(Cu,Zn,Fe
2+
 
)[Sn(OH)
 
6
]
7.11.12Ferronigerite-2N1S
(Al,Fe,Zn)
 
2
(Al,Sn)
 
6
O
 
11
(OH)
7.11.13Magnesionigerite
7.11.14Argutite
GeO
 
2
7.11.15Brunogeierite
Fe
2+
2
Ge
4+
 
O
 
4
7.11.16Stottite
Fe
2+
 
[Ge
4+
 
(OH)
 
6
]
7.11.17Carboirite
FeAl
 
2
(GeO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
7.11.18Otjisumeite
PbGe
 
4
O
 
9
7.11.19Bartelkeite
PbFe
2+
 
Ge
 
3
O
 
8
7.11.20Massicot
PbO
7.11.22Minium
Pb
 
3
O
 
4
7.11.23Plattnerite
PbO
 
2
7.11.24Scrutinyite
alpha-PbO
 
2
7.11.25Murdochite
PbCu
 
6
O
 
8-x
(Cl,Br)
 
2x
where x<=0.5
7.11.26Macedonite
PbTiO
 
3
7.11.27Cesàrolite
Pb(Mn
4+
 
)
 
3
O
 
6
(OH)
 
2
7.11.28Coronadite
Pb(Mn
4+
6
Mn
3+
2
)O
 
16
7.11.29Quenselite
PbMnO
 
2
(OH)
7.11.30Plumboferrite
Pb
 
2
Fe
3+
11-x
Mn
2+
x
O
 
19-2x
, x = 1/3
7.11.31Magnetoplumbite
(Pb,Mn)(Fe,Mn)
 
12
O
 
19
7.11.32Senaite
Pb(Ti,Fe,Mn)
 
21
O
 
38

Other Names for Litharge

Synonyms:
LitargiaLithargite
Other Languages:
German:Goldglätte
Lithargit
Italian:Litargirio
Russian:Глет
Spanish:Lithargita

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:Converts at 488°C into massicot
Health Warning:Contains lead - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest.

References for Litharge

Reference List:

- +
Michel (1890), Bull. soc. min.: 13: 56.

Hintze (1910): 1(2A): 1934.

Scott (1914), Mineralogical Magazine: 17: 143.

Larsen, E.S. (1917), Massicot and litharge, the two modifications of lead monoxide: American Mineralogist: 2: 18-19.

Shannon (1927), Economic Geology: 22: 826.

Applebey and Powell (1931), Journal Chem. Soc. London: 2821.

Darbyshire (1932), Journal Chem. Soc. London: 211.

Acta Crystallographica: 14: 1304.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 514-515.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen (1960): 94: 1187.

Neumüller, O.-A. (1979) "Römpp's Chemie-Lexikon", 8th ed., Franckh (Stuttgart).

Internet Links for Litharge

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Litharge details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Search for Litharge on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Localities for Litharge

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Tasmania
      • Zeehan district
        • Zeehan mineral field
          • Tasmanian Smelting Company site
    M. Latham Collection 2011
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
        • Hüttenberg
          • Waitschach
    Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
        • St Martin am Silberberg
    Blaß, G., Graf, H.-W. & Pichler, A. (1997): Sekundäre Neubildungen in Schlacken von St. Martin am Silberberg in Kärnten (2). Mineralien-Welt, 8(6), 54-55.
      • Gailtaler Alpen & Karnische Alpen
        • Bleiberg District
          • Mittewald
    A.Pichler (2003)
        • Kötschach-Mauthen
          • Dellach
            • Jaukenhöhe
              • Plonalmlacke
    Pichler (2009)
    • Salzburg
      • Lungau
        • Murwinkel
          • Schellgaden
            • Gold mines
    C. Auer: Lapis 20(11):11-20 (1995)
    • Styria
      • Niedere Tauern
        • Öblarn
          • Walchen
    [Lapis 1992: 2 p.19-30]
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
    Kolitsch, U. (2013): 1799) Anglesit, Brochantit, Calcit, Callaghanit, Connellit, Cuprit, Diopsid, Elyit, Forsterit, Kupfer, Lithargit, Magnesiochromit, Malachit, Monohydrocalcit, Phoenicochroit, Rouait und Willemit in Schlacken der Montanwerke Brixlegg, Tirol. Pp. 111-114 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2013): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXII. Carinthia II, 203./123., 91-146.
    Belgium
     
    • Liège Province
      • Verviers
        • Plombières-Vieille Montagne District (Plombières-Altenberg)
          • Plombières (Bleyberg)
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995b): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Namur Province
      • Andenne
    No reference listed
    Bolivia
     
    • Cochabamba Department
      • Mizque Province
    Alfredo Petrov and Jaroslav Hyrsl collections
    China
     
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
        • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
    http://www.ngu.no/FileArchive/165/2003_055.pdf Geological Survey of Norway / The Alice Wain Memorial West Norway Eclogite Field Symposium / Abstract Volume p. 8.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
        • Příbram
    RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
    France
     
    • Alsace
      • Haut-Rhin
        • Ste Marie-aux-Mines (Markirch)
    Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
    • Brittany
      • Finistère
        • Poullaouen
    Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Lozère
        • Pont-de-Montvert
          • Vialas
    No reference listed
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Ariège
        • Saint-Girons
          • Aulus-les-Bains
    Gol, D. (2014): L'ancienne mine de Laquorre, Aulus-les-bains, Ariège. Le Règne Minéral, 118, 5-27.
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Loire
        • La Pacaudière
          • Le Crozet
    Vernay, R. (1997): Le Crozet (Loire, France). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 55(1), 9-22. ; Chollet, P. & Devouard, B. (2013): La mine de cuivre et de plomb des Rats, Le Crozet (Loire). Le Règne Minéral, 109, 7-46.
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Badenweiler
          • Badenweiler Pb mining District
            • Sehringen
    Schlomann, C. and Steen, H. (1990) Neue Mineralfunde aus dem Bergbaugebiet von Badenweiler im Südschwarzwald. Lapis, 15 (12), 13-20; 50. (in German)
    S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Hausach
          • Einbach valley
    [Wittern,A. (1995) Mineralien finden im Schwarzwald]
        • Schapbach
          • Wildschapbach valley
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • St Blasien
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
          • Urberg
    Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
          • Bockswies veins
            • Oberschulenberg
    No reference listed
        • Goslar
          • Astfeld
    No reference listed
        • Lautenthal
    No reference listed
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Aachen
        • Alsdorf
    Blaß, G. and Strehler, H. (1993): Mineralbildungen in einer durch Selbstentzündung brennenden Bergehalde des Aachener Steinkohlenreviers. Mineralien-Welt 4 (4), 35-42. (in German)
        • Eschweiler
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
        • Stolberg
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    International Association of Collectors of Slag; Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Eifel
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Sauerland
        • Arnsberg
          • Hüsten
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
    Bender,D. & Krimmelbein,W. (1994). Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna, Sauerland. Min.-Welt, Jg.5, Nr.4, S.10.
        • Sundern
          • Bönkhausen
    Lapis, 14 (2), 22-27+33+42.
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Lahn valley
        • Bad Ems District
          • Braubach
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G. & David, W. (1991): Die Blei- und Silberhütte Braubach und ihre Haldenminerale. Lapis, 16 (1), 38-49; 58 (in German).
    Lapis, 16 (1), 38-53+58.
      • Siegerland
        • Niederfischbach
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
      • Westerwald
        • Linz am Rhein
          • Rheinbreitbach
            • Virneberg Mine (St Josephsberg Mine)
    Habel, B. (2006): Die Mineralien der Kupferschlacken der Grube „Virneberg“ bei Rheinbreitbach, Rhein. Mineralien-Welt 17 (1), 38-49.; Schnorrer-Köhler,G. (1988): Mineralogische Notizen IV. Der Aufschluss, 39, 153-168.
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Mansfeld Basin
        • Hettstedt
          • Copper-Silver smelter (Gottesbelohnung smelter; slag locality)
    Mineralien Welt 15 Jg.Heft 2 März-April 2004 and Mineralien Welt 19Jg Heft1 Jan -Febr, 2008 Hoorst Knoll
    Besteman, Andre, et al, Hettstedt-smelter slag-dumps, Mansfeld Basin, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany, The Strahlen Foundation.
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Megala Pefka area
    Katerinopoulos, A. & Zissimopoulou, E. (1994): New mineral occurences from the Laurium mines. Mineralogical Record, 25, 279-280.
    Lapis, 24, 7/8 (1999)
          • Soureza area
    Katerinopoulos, A. & Zissimopoulou, E. (1994): New mineral occurences from the Laurium mines. Mineralogical Record, 25, 279-280.
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982): Neue Schlackenminerale aus Laurion. Der Aufschluss, 33 (12), 459-462.
          • Megala Pefka area
    van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch).
          • Oxygon area
    No reference listed
          • Passa Limani area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Sounion area
    van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch).; Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (II). Mineralien-Welt 25 (2), 82-95 (in German).
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Greenland
     
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
    Soerensen, H. (2001): The Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland: status of mineralogical research with new results, Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin 190, GEUS; Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
    Iran
     
    • Esfahan Province (Isfahan Province; Aspadana Province)
      • Natanz County
        • Natanz
    http://www.dainst.org/de/project/arisman?ft=all
    • Zanjan Province
      • Sheykhlar
    Boni, M. et al. (2007): Hypogene Zn carbonate ores in the Angouran deposit, NW Iran. Mineralium Deposita 42, 799-820.
    Italy
     
    • Latium
      • Rome Province
        • Anzio
    Palombi, S., Bellatreccia, F. & Pucci, R. (2009): Le scorie metallurgiche di Tor Caldara, Anzio - RM. Il Cercapietre, no. 1-2, 44-56. [http://www.gminromano.it/Cercapietre/rivista09/art03.pdf]
    • Piedmont
      • Vercelli Province
        • Sesia Valley
    Luigi Chiappino data
    • Sardinia
      • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
        • Domusnovas
          • Oridda
    Stara P., Rizzo R. and Tanca G. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e minerali. E.M.Sa. Ed., pagg. 105-106.
        • Fluminimaggiore
          • Oridda Valley
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
        • Iglesias
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente - Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 1, 238 pp.
      • Oristano Province
        • Mt. Arci
          • Pau
    Urraci E.- Lini M. – Mattias P. (2006) - Il piombo naturale di Pau e gli altri minerali dell'area del rilievo vulcanico di M. Arci (Oristano, Sardegna Centrale) – Con la Collaborazione di Fabio Bellatreccia – Pubblicazione a cura del Comune di Pau (OR)
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Trento Province
        • Valsugana
          • Vignola-Falesina
    Paolo Gasparetto, Erica Bittarello, Andrea Canal, Lara Casagrande, Marco E. Ciriotti, Bruno Fassina, Paolo Ferretti, Sergio Pegoraro, Fabio Tosato, Paolo Zammatteo (2014): I lavori minerari del Rio Ricet, Vignola, Falesina, Trento. Micro, 12, 50-123.
    • Tuscany
      • Grosseto Province
        • Massa Marittima
    Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
      • Livorno Province
        • Campiglia Marittima
    http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
    Int. Assoc. of Collectors of Slag Minerals, 10 (2), 4-6.
          • Sassetta
    Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
        • Piombino
    Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20 (4), 13-18; 50 (in German).
    Mexico
     
    • Aguascalientes
      • Mun. de Asientos
        • Asientos
    Panczner(1987): 77-265.
    • Baja California (Baja California Norte; BC Norte)
      • Mun. de Ensenada
        • El Alamo
    Panczner(1987):252.
    • Chihuahua
      • Mun. de Batopilas
        • Andres del Rio District
    Wilson, W. and Panczner, C., 1986, Batopilas, Mineralogical Record, v 17: 61-80.
      • Mun. de Cusihuiriáchic
        • Cusihuiriáchic
    Panczner (1987): 118-310.
    • Durango
      • Mun. de Guanaceví
        • Guanaceví
    Panczner(1987):252.
    Panczner(1987):252.
    Panczner (1987): 252.
      • Mun. de Mapimí
        • Mapimí
    Rocks & Min.: 56:247.
    Thomas P. Moore (2008) Lapis, 33, #7-8, 33-40.
    • Guanajuato
      • Mun. de San Luis de la Paz
        • Mineral de Pozos
    Panczner (1987): 79-343.
    Panczner (1987): 252.
    • Guerrero
      • Mun. de Arcelia
        • Campo Morado
    Panczner(1987):252.
    Panczner (1987): 252.
    • Hidalgo
      • Mun. de Zimapán
        • Zimapán
    Panczner(1987):142-317.
    • Jalisco
      • Mun. de Bolaños
        • Bolaños
    Panczner (1987):80-393; Dana 7:I:518.
    • Oaxaca
      • Mun. de Ocotlán de Morelos
        • Ocotlán de Morelos
    Panczner (1987): 253.
    • San Luis Potosí
      • Mun. de Catorce
        • Catorce (Real de Catorce)
    Panczner (1987): 253.
        • Mineral de La Purísima Concepción
    Panczner (1987): 133, 240 & 253.
      • Mun. de Villa de La Paz
        • La Paz
    Panczner(1987): 253.
    Panczner (1987): 253.
    • Sonora
      • Mun. de Cumpas
        • Cumpas
    Panczner (1987): 253.
      • Mun. de Sahuaripa
        • Mulatos
    Panczner(1987):253.
    Panczner (1987): 253.
    • Zacatecas
      • Mun. de Concepción del Oro
        • Albarradón
    Panczner(1987):253.
        • Aranzazú
    Pancnzer(1987):253.
    Panczner (1987): 253.
    Panczner (1987): 253.
    Panczner (1987): 253.
      • Mun. de Zacatecas
        • Zacatecas
    Panczner(1987):253.
    Morocco
     
    • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
      • Ouarzazate Province
        • Djebel Saghro (Jbel Saghro)
          • Bou Skour District
    Dietrich, J.E. & Favreau, G. (2005) Bou Skour (Maroc) : au pays des wulfenites bleues, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 89, pp 106-114
        • Tazenakht
          • Bou Azer District (Bou Azzer District)
            • Oumlil
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
    Namibia
     
    • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
      • Tsumeb
    Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
    Norway
     
    • Vestfold
      • Larvik
        • Tvedalen
          • Tuften (Tuften 1 Quarry; Tuften 2 Quarry)
    Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p; Andresen, P. (2013): Gedigent bly og andre spennende mineraler fra en unik pegmatitt i Tvedalen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 50, 83-87
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Primorskiy Kray
        • Kavalerovo Mining District
    [MinRec 32:8]
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Khibiny Massif
    Pekov, I.V. & Podlesnyi, A.S. (2004): Kukisvumchorr Deposit: Mineralogy of Alkaline Pegmatites and Hydrotermalites. Mineralogical Almanac, vol. 7, 140 pages + xxiv photo's pages; Krivovichev, S.V., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Ivanyuk, G.Yu., Mikhailova, J.A., Men’shikov, Yu.P., Armbruster, Th., Selivanova, E.A., Meisser, N. (2007): Yakovenchukite-(Y), K3NaCaY2(Si12O30)(H2O)4, a new mineral from the Khibiny massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia: A novel type of octahedral-tetrahedral open-framework structure. American Mineralogist, 92, 1525-1530.
              • Kirovskii apatite mine (Kirovsky Mine; Kirovskii Mine; Kirov Mine)
    American Mineralogist, Volume 92, pages 1525-1530, 2007
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
    Slovenia
     
    • Aleksander Rečnik (2010) Minerals of the lead and zinc ore deposit Mežica. Bode Vlg. & Jožef Stefan Institute. Ljubljana: 112 pp.; Grafenauer, S. (1960): Rare natural lead oxides from Mezica (Mies), Yugoslavia. Neues Jahrbuch fuer Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 94, 1187-1190.
    Handbook of Mineralogy
    Sweden
     
    • Dalarna
      • Hedemora
        • Garpenberg
    Grensman, F., Kalinowski, M.P. and Sandström, F. (2001): Garpenberg Norra. Litofilen. 18 (2), 26-46.
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
    Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
    Adolfsson, S. G. (1979): Notes on Recent Underground Collecting at Långban. Mineralogical Record. 10: 215-217
        • Nordmark (Nordmarksberg)
    Kjell Gatedal
        • Persberg district
          • Pajsberg
    Nysten, P. (2004): Harstigen ett mineralogisk eldorado i Bergslagen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 28: 5-13
    U.S. Virgin Islands
    Alminas, Henry V.; Foord, Eugene E.; Tucker, Robert E. (1994) Geochemistry, mineralogy, and geochronology of the U.S. Virgin Islands USGS Bulletin 2057 36p
    UK
     
    • England
      • Co. Durham
        • North Pennines
          • Weardale
    Norman Wilson; Personal collection; Norman Wilson personal collection
      • Derbyshire
        • Ashover
          • Milltown
    Rust, S. A. (1994): Seltene Mineralien aus dem Milltown-Steinbruch bei Ashover, Derbyshire, Großbritannien. Lapis, 19(12), 13-17; 58 (in German).; Min.Mag.(1984) 48, 267-269; Ford, T., A. Sarjeant & M. Smith (1993): The minerals of the Peak district of Derbyshire. UK Jour. Mines & Minerals 13, 16-55.
        • South Darley
    Ford, T., A. Sarjeant & M. Smith (1993): The minerals of the Peak district of Derbyshire. UK Jour. Mines & Minerals 13, 16-55.
      • North Yorkshire
        • North Pennines
          • Swaledale
            • Reeth
    A Thompson collection
    • Scotland
      • Dumfries & Galloway (Dumfriesshire)
        • Wanlockhead
    BMS Database; Green, D. I. (1987): The minerals of Meadowfoot smelter. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals 2, 3-9.
    • Wales
      • Ceredigion (Dyfed; Cardiganshire)
        • Upper Llanfihangell-y-Creuddyn
          • Pontrhydygroes
    BMS Database, UKJMM 17
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Graham Co.
        • Aravaipa District
          • Santa Teresa Mts
            • Klondyke
              • Grand Reef Mountain
                • Laurel Canyon
    [MinRec 27:305]
      • La Paz Co.
        • Trigo Mts
          • Silver District
    [MinRec 21:160]
      • Maricopa Co.
        • Big Horn Mts
          • Osborn District
            • Tonopah
              • Belmont Mountain
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 279.
      • Pima Co.
        • Tohono O'odom (Papago) Indian Reservation
          • Comobabi Mts
            • Cababi District (Comobabi District)
              • Ko Vaya
                • Mildren Mine group
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 121, 279; Williams, S.A, (1963), Oxidation of sulfide ores in the Mildren and Steppe mining districts, Pima Co., AZ, Econ.Geol.: 58: 1119-1125.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 279; Williams, S.A, (1963), Oxidation of sulfide ores in the Mildren and Steppe mining districts, Pima Co., AZ, Econ.Geol.: 58: 1119-1125.
          • Quijotoa Mts
            • Quijotoa District
              • Ben Nevis Mountain
    Arthur L. Flagg Collection No. 4536
      • Yuma Co.
        • Castle Dome Mts
          • Castle Dome District
            • Kofa Game Range
              • Castle Dome Mine group
                • Haack Mine group
    Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 158: 108.
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
        • Darwin Hills
    Wheeler, G.M. (1876), Annual report upon the geographical surveys west of the 100th meridian in California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, Arizona, and Montana: 44th. Cong., 2nd. sess., H. Ex. Doc. 1, pt. 2, vol. 2, pt. 3 app. J.J.: 57; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 245.
        • Inyo Mts (Inyo Range)
          • Andrews Mountain
    Bradley, W.W. (1940), Thirty-sixth report of the State Mineralogist: California Division Mines Report 36: 106; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 245.
    Larsen, Esper Signius (1917), Massicot and litharge, the two modifications of lead monoxide: American Mineralogist: 2: 18-19; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 245.
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Cucamonga Wilderness
          • Cucamonga Peak area
    Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 4, 410 pp.: 256; Larsen, Esper Signius (1917), Massicot and litharge, the two modifications of lead monoxide: American Mineralogist: 2: 18-19; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 245, 257.
    • Colorado
      • Lake Co.
        • Leadville District
    MinRec 16:171-201
    • Connecticut
      • Middlesex Co.
    Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State, p.234
    • Idaho
      • Blaine Co.
    R&M 70:4 pp 242-263
    • Massachusetts
      • Hampshire Co.
        • Easthampton
    Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
    • Montana
      • Deer Lodge Co.
        • Olson Gulch District
    Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
    • Nevada
      • Clark Co.
        • Spring Mts
          • Goodsprings District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Nye Co.
        • Lodi District
          • Quartz Mountain camp
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Rocks & Minerals (2010) 85:512-524
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
    Steve Pullman
    • Texas
      • Presidio Co.
    R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
    • Wyoming
      • Albany Co.
    Rocks & Minerals 76:382
    Zimbabwe
     
    • Mashonaland West
      • Kadoma District
    Vetter, U., Weck, H.-D., Weale, T., Klosa, D., Wittich, C. and Hoffmann, K. (1999): A provisional inventory of the Sanyati oxide-zone minerals, Zimbabwe. Z. Angew. Geol. 45, 15-21.
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