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About KleiniteHide

Carl Klein
(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4) · nH2O
Light to canary-yellow, orange; darkens to reddish yellow or orange in daylight and reverts to original color in darkness. Yellow to colourless in transmitted light.
Adamantine, Greasy
Crystal System:
Named in 1905 by Arthur Sachs in honor of Johann Friedrich Carl Klein [15 September 1842 Hannau, Germany - 23 June 1907 Berlin, Germany], German Professor of Mineralogy and curator of the Museum für Naturkunde, University of Berlin. Klein was a petrographer who made major contributions to understanding mineral optics and the indentification of minerals in thin sections. He was a pioneer in studying meteorites in thin section.
Dimorph of:
This page provides mineralogical data about Kleinite.

Classification of KleiniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
D : With Hg

4 : A2(O,OH)Xq

26 : Sulphates with Halide

Physical Properties of KleiniteHide

Adamantine, Greasy
Transparent, Translucent
Light to canary-yellow, orange; darkens to reddish yellow or orange in daylight and reverts to original color in darkness. Yellow to colourless in transmitted light.
3½ on Mohs scale
On {0001} easy but uneven; on {10_10}, imperfect.

Optical Data of KleiniteHide

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 2.190 nε = 2.210
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.020
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Biaxial below 130°C (biaxial negative) and uniaxial above 130°C (uniaxial positive). Isotropic above aproximately 190°C.

Chemical Properties of KleiniteHide

(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4) · nH2O

Crystallography of KleiniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.762(2) Å, c = 11.068(3) Å
a:c = 1 : 1.637
Unit Cell V:
438.3 ų
Crystals short prismatic [0001] with variable development of {10-11}; equidimensional at times. Crystals are anomalously birefringent - true symmetry may be monoclinic or triclinic, due to ordering of zeolitic chloride, sulfate and water, and. apparently hexagonal crystals may be highly twinned and/or pseudomorphs of truly hexagonal high-temperature polymorph (birefringence vanishes above 130°C).
data from Giester et al. (1996)

Type Occurrence of KleiniteHide

Other Language Names for KleiniteHide


Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Calcite5 photos of Kleinite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Terlinguacreekite4 photos of Kleinite associated with Terlinguacreekite on mindat.org.
Mosesite3 photos of Kleinite associated with Mosesite on mindat.org.
Opal-AN3 photos of Kleinite associated with Opal-AN on mindat.org.
Montroydite3 photos of Kleinite associated with Montroydite on mindat.org.
Opal3 photos of Kleinite associated with Opal on mindat.org.
Terlinguaite2 photos of Kleinite associated with Terlinguaite on mindat.org.
Cinnabar2 photos of Kleinite associated with Cinnabar on mindat.org.
Radtkeite2 photos of Kleinite associated with Radtkeite on mindat.org.
Corderoite2 photos of Kleinite associated with Corderoite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.DD.05Eglestonite(Hg2+2)3OCl3(OH)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
3.DD.10Poyarkovite(Hg2+2)3Cl2O2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
3.DD.15Hanawaltite(Hg2+2)3Hg2+(Cl,OH)2O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.DD.20Terlinguaite(Hg2+2)Hg2+2Cl2O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.DD.30Gianellaite[(NHg2)2](SO4)(H2O)xIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
3.DD.30Mosesite(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4,MoO4) · H2OIso.
3.DD.45Vasilyevite(Hg+2)10I3Br2Cl(CO3)O6Tric. 1 : P1
3.DD.50Aurivilliusite(Hg+2)0.5Hg2+(I,Br,Cl)OMon. 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

26.2SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FClIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
26.3SchaireriteNa21(SO4)7ClF6Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
26.5ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
26.6ChlorothioniteK2Cu(SO4)Cl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
26.7KamchatkiteKCu3(SO4)2OClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
26.8SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
26.9AubertiteCuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2OTric. 1
26.10Magnesioaubertite(Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
26.11Svyazhinite(Mg,Mn2+,Ca)(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)2F · 14H2OTric.
26.14KainiteKMg(SO4)Cl · 3H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
26.15Mosesite(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4,MoO4) · H2OIso.
26.17WilcoxiteMgAl(SO4)2F · 17H2OTric. 1 : P1
26.18CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
26.19LannoniteMg2Ca4Al4(SO4)8F8 · 24H2O Tet. 4/m : I4/m
26.20Chukhrovite-(Y)Ca3(Y,Ce)(AlF6)2(SO4)F · 10H2OIso.
26.21Chukhrovite-(Ce)Ca3(Ce,Y)(AlF6)2(SO4)F · 10H2OIso.
26.22GrandreefitePb2(SO4)F2Mon. 2/m
26.23PseudograndreefitePb6(SO4)F10Orth. 2 2 2 : F2 2 2
26.26MammothitePb6Cu4AlSb5+O2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2Mon. 2 : B2
26.27AtlasoviteK(BiO)Cu6Fe3+(SO4)5O3ClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/ncc
26.28XitieshaniteFe3+(SO4)Cl · 6H2OMon.

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Optical properties vary with temperature.
Soluble in warm HCl and HNO3 without deposition of calomel. Soluble in ammonium bromide with evolution of ammonia.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for KleiniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Moses (1903) American Journal of Science: 16: 253 (as "yellow mercury mineral No. 5).
Hillebrand (1905) Science: 22: 844 (as mercurammonite).
Sachs (1905) Ak. Wiss. Berlin, Sitzber.: 1091.
Hillebrand (1906) American Journal of Science: 21: 85.
Hillebrand (1906) Journal of the American Chem. Society 28: 122.
Sachs (1905) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin, der Sitzungsberichte: 1091.
Sachs (1906) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 200.
Hilleband and Schaller (1909) USGS Bulletin 405: 18.
Scaller (1912) USGS Bulletin 509: 108.
Doelter, C. (1930) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4 [3]: 405.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 87-89.
Giester, G., Mikenda, W. and Pertlik, F. (1996) Kleinite from Terlingua, Brewster County, Texas: investigations by single crystal X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 1996, 49-56.

Internet Links for KleiniteHide

Localities for KleiniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Donnersbergkreis
      • Alsenz-Obermoschel
        • Obermoschel
Lapis 2001(6), 13-40
  • Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Opalite District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; McCormack, J.K. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35(8), 796-798.
  • Texas
    • Brewster Co.
Sitzungsber.Akad.Wissensch.,Berlin (1905) 21, 1091-1094; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 55, 88.
Rocks & Minerals: 66(1): 202.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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