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About KleiniteHide

Carl Klein
(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4) · nH2O
Light to canary-yellow, orange; darkens to reddish yellow or orange in daylight and reverts to original color in darkness. Yellow to colourless in transmitted light.
Adamantine, Greasy
Crystal System:
Named in 1905 by Arthur Sachs in honor of Johann Friedrich Carl Klein [15 September 1842 Hannau, Germany - 23 June 1907 Berlin, Germany], German Professor of Mineralogy and curator of the Museum für Naturkunde, University of Berlin. Klein was a petrographer who made major contributions to understanding mineral optics and the indentification of minerals in thin sections. He was a pioneer in studying meteorites in thin section.
Dimorph of:
This page provides mineralogical data about Kleinite.

Classification of KleiniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
D : With Hg

4 : A2(O,OH)Xq

26 : Sulphates with Halide

Physical Properties of KleiniteHide

Adamantine, Greasy
Transparent, Translucent
Light to canary-yellow, orange; darkens to reddish yellow or orange in daylight and reverts to original color in darkness. Yellow to colourless in transmitted light.
3½ on Mohs scale
On {0001} easy but uneven; on {10_10}, imperfect.

Optical Data of KleiniteHide

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 2.190 nε = 2.210
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.020
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Biaxial below 130°C (biaxial negative) and uniaxial above 130°C (uniaxial positive). Isotropic above aproximately 190°C.

Chemical Properties of KleiniteHide

(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4) · nH2O

Crystallography of KleiniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.762(2) Å, c = 11.068(3) Å
a:c = 1 : 1.637
Unit Cell V:
438.3 ų
Crystals short prismatic [0001] with variable development of {10-11}; equidimensional at times. Crystals are anomalously birefringent - true symmetry may be monoclinic or triclinic, due to ordering of zeolitic chloride, sulfate and water, and. apparently hexagonal crystals may be highly twinned and/or pseudomorphs of truly hexagonal high-temperature polymorph (birefringence vanishes above 130°C).
data from Giester et al. (1996)

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0014883KleiniteGiester G, Mikenda W, Pertlik F (1996) Kleinite from Terlingua, Brewster County, Texas: Investigations by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and vibrational spectroscopy Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1996 49-561996Terlingua, Brewster County, Texas, USA0403
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of KleiniteHide

Synonyms of KleiniteHide

Mercurammonite (in part)

Other Language Names for KleiniteHide


Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
5 photos of Kleinite associated with CalciteCaCO3
4 photos of Kleinite associated with TerlinguacreekiteHg2+3Cl2O2
3 photos of Kleinite associated with Mosesite(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4,MoO4) · H2O
3 photos of Kleinite associated with Opal-ANSiO2 · nH2O
3 photos of Kleinite associated with MontroyditeHgO
3 photos of Kleinite associated with OpalSiO2 · nH2O
2 photos of Kleinite associated with Terlinguaite[Hg3]4+Hg2+Cl2O2
2 photos of Kleinite associated with CinnabarHgS
2 photos of Kleinite associated with RadtkeiteHg2+3S2ICl
2 photos of Kleinite associated with CorderoiteHg2+3S2Cl2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.DD.05Eglestonite[Hg2]2+3OCl3(OH)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
3.DD.10Poyarkovite[Hg2]2+3Cl2O2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
3.DD.15Hanawaltite[Hg2]2+3Hg2+(Cl,OH)2O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.DD.20Terlinguaite[Hg3]4+Hg2+Cl2O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.DD.30Gianellaite[(Hg2N)2](SO4)(H2O)xIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
3.DD.30Mosesite(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4,MoO4) · H2OIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
3.DD.45Vasilyevite[Hg2]2+10I3Br2Cl[CO3]O6Tric. 1 : P1
3.DD.50Aurivilliusite[Hg2]2+Hg2+2(I,Br,Cl)2O2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
3.DD.60Kelyanite[Hg2]2+6Sb3+BrCl2O6Trig. 3

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

26.2SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FClIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
26.3SchaireriteNa21(SO4)7ClF6Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
26.5ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
26.6ChlorothioniteK2Cu(SO4)Cl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
26.7KamchatkiteKCu3(SO4)2OClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
26.8SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
26.9AubertiteCuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2OTric. 1
26.10Magnesioaubertite(Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
26.11Svyazhinite(Mg,Mn2+,Ca)(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)2F · 14H2OTric.
26.14KainiteKMg(SO4)Cl · 3H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
26.15Mosesite(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4,MoO4) · H2OIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
26.17WilcoxiteMgAl(SO4)2F · 17H2OTric. 1 : P1
26.18CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
26.19LannoniteMg2Ca4Al4(SO4)8F8 · 24H2O Tet. 4/m : I4/m
26.20Chukhrovite-(Y)Ca3(Y,Ce)(AlF6)2(SO4)F · 10H2OIso.
26.21Chukhrovite-(Ce)Ca3(Ce,Y)(AlF6)2(SO4)F · 10H2OIso.
26.22GrandreefitePb2(SO4)F2Mon. 2/m
26.23PseudograndreefitePb6(SO4)F10Orth. 2 2 2 : F2 2 2
26.26MammothitePb6Cu4AlSb5+O2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2Mon. 2 : B2
26.27AtlasoviteK(BiO)Cu6Fe3+(SO4)5O3ClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/ncc
26.28XitieshaniteFe3+(SO4)Cl · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Optical properties vary with temperature.
Soluble in warm HCl and HNO3 without deposition of calomel. Soluble in ammonium bromide with evolution of ammonia.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for KleiniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Moses (1903) American Journal of Science: 16: 253 (as "yellow mercury mineral No. 5).
Hillebrand (1905) Science: 22: 844 (as mercurammonite).
Sachs (1905) Ak. Wiss. Berlin, Sitzber.: 1091.
Hillebrand (1906) American Journal of Science: 21: 85.
Hillebrand (1906) Journal of the American Chem. Society 28: 122.
Sachs (1905) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin, der Sitzungsberichte: 1091.
Sachs (1906) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 200.
Hilleband and Schaller (1909) USGS Bulletin 405: 18.
Scaller (1912) USGS Bulletin 509: 108.
Doelter, C. (1930) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4 [3]: 405.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 87-89.
Giester, G., Mikenda, W. and Pertlik, F. (1996) Kleinite from Terlingua, Brewster County, Texas: investigations by single crystal X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 1996, 49-56.

Internet Links for KleiniteHide

Localities for KleiniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Donnersberg District
      • Nordpfälzer Land
        • Obermoschel
Lapis 2001(6), 13-40
  • Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Opalite Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; McCormack, J.K. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35(8), 796-798.
  • Texas
    • Brewster Co.
Rocks & Minerals: 66(1): 202.
Sitzungsber.Akad.Wissensch.,Berlin (1905) 21, 1091-1094; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 55, 88.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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