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Irarsite

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Formula:
(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Hardness:
Member of:Cobaltite Group

Classification of Irarsite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/D.18-60
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.EB.25

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
E : Metal Sulfides, M: S <= 1:2
B : M:S = 1:2, with Fe, Co, Ni, PGE, etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:2.12.3.7

2 : SULFIDES
12 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.12.64

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
12 : Sulphides etc. of the platinum metals
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Type Occurrence of Irarsite

Type Locality:Onverwacht Mine, Lydenburg, Eastern Bushveld Complex, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa
Year of Discovery:1966

Physical Properties of Irarsite

Hardness (Mohs):

Chemical Properties of Irarsite

Formula:
(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
Essential elements:As, Ir, S
All elements listed in formula:As, Ir, Pt, Rh, Ru, S
Common Impurities:Os,Fe

Relationship of Irarsite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Hollingworthite (see here)
Member of:Cobaltite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.EB.05aAurostibite
AuSb
 
2
2.EB.05bBambollaite
Cu(Se,Te)
 
2
2.EB.05aCattierite
CoS
 
2
2.EB.05aErlichmanite
OsS
 
2
2.EB.05aFukuchilite
Cu
 
3
FeS
 
8
2.EB.05aGeversite
PtSb
 
2
2.EB.05aHauerite
MnS
 
2
2.EB.05aInsizwaite
Pt(Bi,Sb)
 
2
2.EB.05aKrut'aite
CuSe
 
2
2.EB.05aLaurite
RuS
 
2
2.EB.05aPenroseite
(Ni,Co,Cu)Se
 
2
2.EB.05aPyrite
FeS
 
2
2.EB.05aSperrylite
PtAs
 
2
2.EB.05aTrogtalite
CoSe
 
2
2.EB.05aVaesite
NiS
 
2
2.EB.05aVillamaninite
(Cu,Ni,Co,Fe)S
 
2
2.EB.05aDzharkenite
FeSe
 
2
2.EB.05aGaotaiite
Ir
 
3
Te
 
8
2.EB.10bAlloclasite
Co
 
1-x
Fe
 
x
AsS
2.EB.10dCostibite
CoSbS
2.EB.10aFerroselite
FeSe
 
2
2.EB.10aFrohbergite
FeTe
 
2
2.EB.10cGlaucodot
(Co
 
0.50
Fe
 
0.50
)AsS
2.EB.10aKullerudite
NiSe
 
2
2.EB.10aMarcasite
FeS
 
2
2.EB.10aMattagamite
CoTe
 
2
2.EB.10eParacostibite
CoSbS
2.EB.10ePararammelsbergite
NiAs
 
2
2.EB.10fOenite
CoSbAs
2.EB.15aAnduoite
(Ru,Os)As
 
2
2.EB.15aClinosafflorite
CoAs
 
2
2.EB.15aLöllingite
FeAs
 
2
2.EB.15aNisbite
NiSb
 
2
2.EB.15aOmeiite
(Os,Ru)As
 
2
2.EB.15cPaxite
CuAs
 
2
2.EB.15aRammelsbergite
NiAs
 
2
2.EB.15aSafflorite
CoAs
 
2
2.EB.15bSeinäjokite
(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)
 
2
2.EB.20Arsenopyrite
FeAsS
2.EB.20Gudmundite
FeSbS
2.EB.20Osarsite
(Os,Ru)AsS
2.EB.20Ruarsite
(Ru,Os)AsS
2.EB.25Cobaltite
CoAsS
2.EB.25Gersdorffite
NiAsS
2.EB.25Hollingworthite
(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
2.EB.25Jolliffeite
NiAsSe
2.EB.25Krutovite
NiAs
 
2
2.EB.25Maslovite
PtBiTe
2.EB.25Michenerite
PdBiTe
2.EB.25Padmaite
PdBiSe
2.EB.25Platarsite
PtAsS
2.EB.25Testibiopalladite
PdTe(Sb,Te)
2.EB.25Tolovkite
IrSbS
2.EB.25Ullmannite
NiSbS
2.EB.25Willyamite
(Co,Ni)SbS
2.EB.25Changchengite
IrBiS
2.EB.25Mayingite
IrBiTe
2.EB.25Hollingsworthite
2.EB.25Kalungaite
PdAsSe
2.EB.25Milotaite
PdSbSe
2.EB.30Urvantsevite
Pd(Bi,Pb)
 
2
2.EB.35Rheniite
ReS
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.12.1Seinäjokite
(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)
 
2
3.12.2Laurite
RuS
 
2
3.12.3Ruthenarsenite
(Ru,Ni)As
3.12.4Anduoite
(Ru,Os)As
 
2
3.12.5Ruarsite
(Ru,Os)AsS
3.12.6Xingzhongite
(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.7Rhodplumsite
Rh
 
3
Pb
 
2
S
 
2
3.12.8Cuprorhodsite
(Cu,Fe)Rh
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.9Konderite
Cu
 
3
Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)
 
8
S
 
16
3.12.10Bowieite
(Rh,Ir,Pt)
 
2
S
 
3
3.12.11Cherepanovite
RhAs
3.12.12Hollingworthite
(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
3.12.13Vysotskite
(Pd,Ni)S
3.12.14Vasilite
(Pd,Cu)
 
16
(S,Te)
 
7
3.12.15Palladseite
Pd
 
17
Se
 
15
3.12.16Oosterboschite
(Pd,Cu)
 
7
Se
 
5
3.12.17Telluropalladinite
Pd
 
9
Te
 
4
3.12.18Temagamite
Pd
 
3
HgTe
 
3
3.12.19Sopcheite
Ag
 
4
Pd
 
3
Te
 
4
3.12.20Michenerite
PdBiTe
3.12.21Kotulskite
Pd(Te,Bi)
3.12.22Telargpalite
(Pd,Ag)
 
3
(Te,Bi)
3.12.23Merenskyite
(Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)
 
2
3.12.24Palladoarsenide
Pd
 
2
As
3.12.25Stillwaterite
Pd
 
8
As
 
3
3.12.26Atheneite
Pd
 
2
As
 
0.75
Hg
 
0.25
3.12.27Majakite
PdNiAs
3.12.28Palarstanide
Pd
 
8
(As,Sn)
 
3
3.12.29Arsenopalladinite
Pd
 
8
(As,Sb)
 
3
3.12.30Vincentite
Pd
 
3
As
3.12.31Palladobismutharsenide
Pd
 
2
(As,Bi)
3.12.32Stibiopalladinite
Pd
 
5
Sb
 
2
3.12.33Hexatestibiopanickelite
(Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)
3.12.34Sudburyite
(Pd,Ni)Sb
3.12.35Testibiopalladite
PdTe(Sb,Te)
3.12.36Borovskite
Pd
 
3
SbTe
 
4
3.12.37Isomertieite
Pd
 
11
Sb
 
2
As
 
2
3.12.38Mertieite-I
Pd
 
11
(Sb,As)
 
4
3.12.39Mertieite-II
Pd
 
8
(Sb,As)
 
3
3.12.40Sobolevskite
Pd(Bi,Te)
3.12.41Froodite
α-PdBi
 
2
3.12.42Polarite
Pd(Bi,Pb)
3.12.43Urvantsevite
Pd(Bi,Pb)
 
2
3.12.44Cooperite
PtS
3.12.45Braggite
(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
3.12.46Kharaelakhite
(Cu,Pt,Pb,Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
8
3.12.47Malanite
Cu(Pt
3+
 
,Ir
3+
 
)
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.48Moncheite
(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)
 
2
3.12.49Maslovite
PtBiTe
3.12.50Sperrylite
PtAs
 
2
3.12.51Platarsite
PtAsS
3.12.52Geversite
PtSb
 
2
3.12.53Daomanite
CuPtAsS
 
2
3.12.54Genkinite
(Pt,Pd,Rh)
 
4
Sb
 
3
3.12.55Stumpflite
Pt(Sb,Bi)
3.12.56Insizwaite
Pt(Bi,Sb)
 
2
3.12.57Erlichmanite
OsS
 
2
3.12.58Omeiite
(Os,Ru)As
 
2
3.12.59Osarsite
(Os,Ru)AsS
3.12.60Kashinite
(Ir,Rh)
 
2
S
 
3
3.12.61Inaglyite
Cu
 
3
Pb(Ir,Pt)
 
8
S
 
16
3.12.62Cuproiridsite
(Cu,Fe)Ir
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.63Iridarsenite
(Ir,Ru)As
 
2
3.12.65Tolovkite
IrSbS

Other Names for Irarsite

Synonyms:
IMA1966-028
Other Languages:
German:Irarsit
Russian:Ирарсит
Simplified Chinese:硫砷铱矿
Spanish:Irarsita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Irarsite

Reference List:

- +
American Mineralogist: 52: 1580.

American Mineralogist (1976): 61: 186.

Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 95(6): 700-712.

Internet Links for Irarsite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Irarsite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Irarsite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Algeria
     
    • Tamanghasset Province
    Schulze, H. (1998) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4, Supplement): A139. (July 1998)
    Argentina
     
    • San Luis
    Mineralogical Magazine 1997 61 : 861-877; FERRACUTTI, G.; BJERG, E. and MOGESSIE, A.. Precious and base metals in Las Águilas, Sierra de San Luis: Mineralogy, genesis and evolution. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2007, vol.62, n.3, pp. 434-446.; Mineralogy and Petrology (2000) 68: 85-114
    Australia
     
    • Western Australia
      • Coolgardie Shire
        • Kambalda
          • Kambalda Nickel mines
    Econ Geol (1986) 81:1218-1225
      • Wiluna Shire
        • Mount Keith
    Grguric, B.A. (2003) Minerals of the MKD5 nickel deposit, Mount Keith, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 9, No. 2 , pg. 55-71.
    Austria
     
    • Styria
      • Leoben
    Min.& Pet. 73:247-277
    Brazil
     
    • Amapá
      • Mazagão
        • Vila Nova
    CanMin 39:377-396
    • Bahia
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Diversity of Platinum group minerals (PGM) in chromitites from Brazil, preliminary results
    • Goiás
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Diversity of Platinum group minerals (PGM) in chromitites from Brazil, preliminary results
      • Hidrolândia
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Diversity of Platinum group minerals (PGM) in chromitites from Brazil, preliminary results
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Diversity of Platinum group minerals (PGM) in chromitites from Brazil, preliminary results
    • Minas Gerais
    The Canadian Mineralogist; August 2007; v. 45; no. 4; p. 751-773;
    Brenner et al (1990) Econ Geol 85:904-920
    • Pará
      • Carajás mineral province
        • Curionópolis
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Diversity of Platinum group minerals (PGM) in chromitites from Brazil, preliminary results
    • São Paulo
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Diversity of Platinum group minerals (PGM) in chromitites from Brazil, preliminary results
    Bulgaria
     
    • Blagoevgrad Oblast
    Цинцов, З. (1998). Състав, разпространение и транспорт на минералите на елементите от групата на платината в алувиалните седименти на Благоевградския грабен. Сп. БГД, 59(2), 59-65.
      • Rhodope Mts
        • Gotse Delchev Obshtina
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    Burma (Myanmar)
     
    • Sagaing Division
      • Monywa District
    5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Similkameen Mining Division
        • Princeton
          • Similkameen River
    Alfredo Petrov collection
        • Tulameen River
    Nixon, G. T., Cabri, L. J., & Laflamme, J. G. (1990). Platinum-group-element mineralization in lode and placer deposits associated with the Tulameen Alaskan-type complex, British Columbia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 28(3), 503-535.
    Alfredo Petrov collection; Nixon, G. T., Cabri, L. J., & Laflamme, J. G. (1990). Platinum-group-element mineralization in lode and placer deposits associated with the Tulameen Alaskan-type complex, British Columbia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 28(3), 503-535.
    • Manitoba
      • Thompson Nickel Belt
        • Moab-Setting Lakes area
    Y. Chen, M. E. Fleet and Y. Pan (1993) Platinum-group minerals and gold in Arsenic-rich ore at the Thompson mine, Thompson Nickel Belt, Manitoba, Canada. Mineralogy and Petrology 49:127-146
    • Ontario
      • Kenora District
        • Werner Lake Area
    Ref.: R.J. Traill 1983
      • Sudbury District
        • Blezard Township
    ; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • Creighton-Davies Township
    Sarah A. S. Dare, Sarah-Jane Barnes and Hazel M. Prichard (2010): The distribution of platinum group elements (PGE) and other chalcophile elements among sulfides from the Creighton Ni–Cu–PGE sulfide deposit, Sudbury, Canada, and the origin of palladium in pentlandite. Mineralium Deposita 45, 765-793.; Dare, S. A., Barnes, S. J., Prichard, H. M., & Fisher, P. C. (2010). The timing and formation of platinum-group minerals from the Creighton Ni-Cu-platinum-group element sulfide deposit, Sudbury, Canada: early crystallization of PGE-rich sulfarsenides. Economic Geology, 105(6), 1071-1096.
        • Drury Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • Garson Township
    LeFort, D.T. (2012) A mineralogical and fluid inclusion study of modified, contact style Ni-Cu-PGE ores in the #1 and #4 shear zones, Garson Mine, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Unpublished M.Sc thesis, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 189p.
        • McKim Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    China
     
    • Gansu Province
      • Jinchang Prefecture
        • Jinchuan District
    Wenfeng Zhu and Youbin Liang (2000): Geology and Prospecting 36(1), 26-28
    • Hebei Province
      • Chengde Prefecture
        • Luan River valley (Luanhe valley)
    Yu Zuxiang (1995): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 15(1), 1-4.; Yu Zuxiang (1995): Acta Geologica Sinica 69(3), 215-220.; Bilun Luo (1979): Geology and Prospecting 15(3), 11-15
    Yu Zuxiang (1995): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 15(1), 5-8.
    Yu Zuxiang (1997): Acta Geologica Sinica 71(4), 486-490.
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Ulanhad League (Chifeng Prefecture)
        • Hexigten Banner (Keshiketeng Co.)
    Jingbin Wang, Yuwang Wang, and Lijuan Wang (1998): Geological Exploration for Non-Ferrous Metals 7(3), 142-145
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
        • Amdo Co. (Anduo Co.)
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    • Yunnan Province
      • Dali Autonomous Prefecture
        • Midu Co.
    Min Liu (2002): Multipurpose Utilization of Mineral Resources 10(5), 28-32; Huanbin Song, Mingqin He, Shangzhong Zhang, and Fenghuang Yi (2008): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 27, 104-108; Shengwei Wang, Xiaoming Sun, Zhenwen Liao, Bangguo Zhou, Maojin Luo, Yang Guo, Xiaofang Jiang, Huaping Zhu, Dong Ma, and Zhanwu Shen (2012): Mineral Deposits 31(6), 1259-1276
    Costa Rica
     
    • Guanacaste Province
    Federica Zaccarini, Ronald J. Bakker, Giorgio Garuti, Thomas Aiglsperger, Oskar A. R. Thalhammer, Lolita Campos, Joaquin A. Proenza, John F. Lewis (2010) Platinum group minerals in chromitite bodies of the Santa Elena Nappe, Costa Rica: mineralogical characterization by electron microprobe and Raman–spectroscopy. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana 62:161-171
    Cuba
     
    • Holguín Province
      • Mayarí-Baracoa Belt
    Gervilla, F., Proenza, J. A., Frei, R., González-Jiménez, J. M., Garrido, C. J., Melgarejo, J. C., ... & Lavaut, W. (2005). Distribution of platinum-group elements and Os isotopes in chromite ores from Mayarí-Baracoa Ophiolitic Belt (eastern Cuba). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 150(6), 589-607.
    González-Jiménez, J. M., Proenza, J. A., Gervilla, F., Melgarejo, J. C., Blanco-Moreno, J. A., Ruiz-Sánchez, R., & Griffin, W. L. (2011). High-Cr and high-Al chromitites from the Sagua de Tánamo district, Mayarí-Cristal Ophiolitic Massif (eastern Cuba): constraints on their origin from mineralogy and geochemistry of chromian spinel and platinum-group elements. Lithos, 125(1), 101-121.
    Dominican Republic
     
    • Monseñor Nouel Province
      • Bonao
    Zaccharini et al. (2009): Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 185, 335-349; Proenza, J. A., Zaccarini, F., Lewis, J. F., Longo, F., & Garuti, G. (2007). Chromian spinel composition and the platinum-group minerals of the PGE-rich Loma Peguera chromitites, Loma Caribe peridotite, Dominican Republic. The Canadian Mineralogist, 45(3), 631-648.
    Ethiopia
     
    • Benshangul-Gumaz Province
      • Asosa region (Assosa region)
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Oromia Province (Oromiya Province)
      • Gimbi
    T.L. Evstigneyeva, A.S. Kudryavtsev, N.S. Rudashevskiy (1992) Minerals of the platinum-group elements from Yubdo (Ethiopia): New data. Mineral. Zhurnal, l4(l), 29-41 (in Russian)
    Finland
     
    • Eastern Finland Region
    Hytönen,K. (1999): Suomen Mineraalit. Geologian tutkimuskeskus. Erillisjulkaisu, Jyväskylä, 399 pp.
    Econ Geol (1995) 90:445-452
    Törroos Ragnar, Johanson Bo, Kojonen Kar, 1998. Alluvial nuggets of platinum group minerals and alloys from Finnish Lapland. Geological survey of Finland, Special Paper; Törnroos, Ragnar, Johanson, Bo, Kojonen, Kari 1998. Alluvial nuggets of Platinum-group minerals and alloys from Finnish Lapland. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 26
      • Inari
        • Lemmenjoki
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Pt-Pd selenides from river placers, northern Finland; Kari K. Kojonen, Andrew M. McDonald, Chris J. Stanley, and Bo Johanson (2011) Törnroosite, Pd11As2Te2, A New Mineral Species Related to Isomertieite from Miessijoki, Finnish Lapland, Finland. Can Mineral 49:1643-1651
      • Kemi
    Stanislav S. Gornostayev, Kauko V.O. Laajoki & Ossi Leinonen (2000) The platinum-group minerals in the Kemi chromite deposit, Finland: a case study of the Elijärvi ore body. In Abstract volume and Field trip Guidebook, 2nd annual GEODE-Fennoscandian shield field workshop on Palaeoproterozoic and Archean greenstone belts and VMS districts in the Fennoscandian Shield (Vol. 28).
      • Penikat complex
        • Sompujärvi Reef
    Barkov, A., Halkoaho, T., Roberts, A., Criddle, A., Martin, R., Papunen, H. (1999) New Pd-Pb and Pb-V oxides frm a bonanza-type PGE-rich, nearly BMS-free deposit in the Penikat layered complex, Finland. Canadian Mineralogist, 37, 1507-1524.
      • Sodankylä
    Gervilla, F., Kojonen, K. and Merkle, R.K.W., 2005. Platinum-group minerals in the Proterozoic Keivitsa mafic-ultramafic intrusion, Sodankylä, northern Finland. Extended Abstract, 10th International Platinum Symposium, Abstract volume
    mutanen Tapani 1997. Geology and ore petrology of Akanvaara nd Koitelainen mafic layered intrusions and the Keivitsa -satovaara layered complex, Northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, bulletin 395. 233s.
    • Northern Finland Region
      • Nivala
    K.K. Kojonen et al.: Can. Mineral. 42:539-544 (2004); Econ Geol (1986) 81:1236-1241
    Greece
     
    • Epirus Department (Ipeiros)
      • Pindos Mtn
        • Pindos ophiolite complex
    Argirios Kapsiotis, Tassos A. Grammatikopoulos, Basilios Tsikouras, Konstantin Hatzipanagiotou, Federica Zaccarini und Giorgio Garuti (2011): Mineralogy, composition and PGM of chromitites from Pefki, Pindos ophiolite complex (NW Greece): evidence for progressively elevated fAs conditions in the upper mantle sequence. Mineralogy and Petrology 101, 129-150.
    • Macedonia Department
      • Kozáni Prefecture
        • Kozáni and Grevena prefectures border area
          • Vourinos Mt ophiolite complex
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Auge, T. (1985). Platinum-group-mineral inclusions in ophiolitic chromitite from the Vourinos Complex, Greece. The Canadian Mineralogist, 23(2), 163-171.
    Garuti, G. and Zaccarini, F. (1997) In situ alteration of platinum-group minerals at low temperaturte: evidence from serpentinized and weathered chromitite of the Vourinos complex, Greece. Canadian Mineralogist: 35: 611-626.
            • Pontini and Chromion area
    Kapsiotis, A., Grammatikopoulos, T. A., Zaccarini, F., Tsikouras, B., Garuti, G., & Hatzipanagiotou, K. (2006). Platinum-group mineral characterisation in concentrates from low-grade PGE chromitites from the Vourinos ophiolite complex, northern Greece. Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B, 115(2), 49-57.
    Kapsiotis, A., Grammatikopoulos, T. A., Zaccarini, F., Tsikouras, B., Garuti, G., & Hatzipanagiotou, K. (2006). Platinum-group mineral characterisation in concentrates from low-grade PGE chromitites from the Vourinos ophiolite complex, northern Greece. Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B, 115(2), 49-57.
    India
     
    • Orissa
      • Keonjhar District
    Mineralogical Magazine 1997 61 : 902-906
    Italy
     
    • Piedmont
      • Vercelli Province
        • Sesia Valley
          • Quarona
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.; Econ Geol (1986) 81:113-1217
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Kamikawa Province
        • Uryu-gun
          • Uryugawa
    Urashima et al (1982) Reports of the Faculty of Science, Kagoshima University, 31, 129-140.
    Urashima et al (1982) Reports of the Faculty of Science, Kagoshima University, 31, 129-140.
    Kenya
     
    • Rift Valley Province
    Schulze, H. (1998) Noble Metal Phases in Rumuruti-chondrites: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4, supplement): p. A139. (July 1998)
    Madagascar
     
    • Mahajanga Province (Majunga)
      • Betsiboka Region
        • Tsaratanàna District
          • Andriamena Commune
    McDonald, I., Ohnenstetter, D., Ohnenstetter, M., and Vaughan, D.J. (1999): Palladium oxides in ultramafic complexes near Lavatrafo, western Andriamena, Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine. 63: 345-352
    Mongolia
     
    • Dzavhan Aimag (Zavkhan Aimag)
      • Khan-Taishirin-Ula range
    http://www.dmitrenkogg.narod.ru/Mongoliy.htm
    New Caledonia
     
    • Southern Province
      • Ouen Island
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in chromitite schlieren from the ouen island, new caledonia ophiolite
      • Pirogues River
    Jan Pasava (ed) Mineral Deposits: From Their Origin to Their Environmental Impacts pp89-92
    Norway
     
    • Nordland
      • Rødøy
        • Selsøyvik
    Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (11998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49
    • Sogn og Fjordane
      • Vik
        • Stølsheimen
    Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (1998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49
    • Sør-Trøndelag
      • Røros
        • Feragen
    Nilson, L. P. (1990): Platinum-group mineral inclusions in chromitite from the Osthammeren ultramafic tectonite body, South Central Norway. Mineralogy and Petrology 42: 249-263
    Papua New Guinea
     
    • Northern Province (Oro Province)
      • Ioma area
    Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 510.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
    www.cosis.net/abstracts/EAE03/14099/EAE03-A-14099.pdf.
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
    [World of Stones 12:49]
      • Tuva Republic
        • Sayan Mts
          • Eastern Sayan
    Alexander V. Dedeev et al (2002) The PGE-Bearing Sulphide Ores of the Kingash Mafic-Ultramafic Differentiated Intrusion and Ore Processing Characteristics, East Sajan, Russia. 9th annual platinum symposium
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Chukotskii Autonomous Okrug
        • Kolyma area
          • Bol'shoi Anyui River Basin
            • Baimka River
              • Aluchinskii Massif (Aluchin horst)
    Gornostayev, S.S., Crocket, J.H., Mochalov, A.G., and Lajoki, K.V.O. (1999) The platinum-group minerals of the Baimka placer deposits, Aluchin horst, Russian Far East. Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 1117-1129.
        • Pekul'nei Range
          • Northern Pekul'nei River
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
    Tony Nikischer specimen and analysis; Sidorov, E. G., Tolstykh, N. D., Podlipsky, M. Y., & Pakhomov, I. O. (2004). Placer PGE minerals from the Filippa clinopyroxenite-dunite massif (Kamchatka). Geologiya i Geofizika (Russian Geology and Geophysics), 45(9), 1128-1144.
    [CanMin 38 p1251-1264 "The association of platinum-group minerals in placers of the Pustaya River, Kamchatka, Russia"]
    • Northern Region
      • Karelia Republic
        • Northern Karelia
          • Oulanka plutonic complex
            • Olanga River (Oulanka River)
    A. Yu. Barkov et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 311-316.; Barkov, A. Y., Martin, R. F., Tarkian, M., Poirier, G., & Thibault, Y. (2001). Pd–Ag Tellurides from a Cl-rich environment in the Lukkulaisvaara layered intrusion, northern Russian Karelia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 39(2), 639-653.
    Grishaenko, M. V. P., & Federation, R. (2007). Independent Report on the Shalozerskoe (Burakovsky), Lukkulaisvaara and Tsipringa Platinum, Palladium, Copper, Nickel Deposits in the Autonomous Republic of Karelia Russian Federation
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
    Gabov, D. A. (2010). PGE and Au minerals from the low-sulfide ore of the Pana Tundra Pluton, Kola Peninsula. Geology of Ore Deposits, 52(7), 624-629.
          • Monche-Tundra
    Yury L. Voytekhovsky, Yury N. Neradovsky (2008) The Cu-Ni-PGE and Cr deposits of the Monchegorsk area, the Kola Peninsula, Russia. 33 IGC excursion No 48, August 15 – 21, 2008
    • Urals Region
      • Middle Urals
    9th International platinum symposium Chromite-PGE mineralization in the Uktus Alaskan-Type Complex (Central Urals,)
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    [AmMin 84:195]
    • Western-Siberian Region
      • Polar Urals
        • Tyumenskaya Oblast'
          • Rai-Iz (Raiz)
    Jan Pašava, Ilja Knésl, Anna Vymazalová, Ivan Vavřín, Ludmila Ivanovna Gurskaya, Leonid Ruslanovich Kolbantsev (2011) Geochemistry and mineralogy of platinum-group elements (PGE) in chromites from Centralnoye I, Polar Urals, Russia. Geoscience Frontiers 2:81-85
    Jan Pašava, Ilja Knésl, Anna Vymazalová, Ivan Vavřín, Ludmila Ivanovna Gurskaya, Leonid Ruslanovich Kolbantsev (2011) Geochemistry and mineralogy of platinum-group elements (PGE) in chromites from Centralnoye I, Polar Urals, Russia. Geoscience Frontiers 2:81-85
    South Africa
     
    • Eastern Cape Province
      • Alfred Nzo District
        • Insizwa
    Minerals of South Africa; Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 19, pp. 607-618 (1981)
    • Free State Province
    Minerals of South Africa
    • Limpopo Province
    www.bgr.de/b423/oberthuer_ptconf_pgm_bushveld.pdf.
    The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 1711-1734 (2005)
    Minerals of South Africa
        • Waterberg District
          • Mokopane (Potgietersrus)
    Holwell, D. A., McDonald, I., & Armitage, P. E. B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70(1), 83-101.
    Minerals of South Africa
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Eastern Bushveld Complex
        • Lydenburg
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Cabrii, L. J., & Feather, C. E. (1975). Platinum-Iron Alloys: A Nomenclature Based on a Study of Natural and Synthetic Alloys. Canadian Mineralogist, 13, 117-126.
    Minerals of South Africa
    • North West Province
      • Western Bushveld Complex
        • Brits (Brits District)
    Minerals of South Africa
    Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, pg 216
        • Rustenburg (Rustenburg District)
    Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, pg 216;
    Minerals of South Africa
    Minerals of South Africa
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Málaga
        • Ojén
    Mineralogy and Petrology: 56: 25-50.
    • Galicia
      • A Coruña (La Coruña)
        • Cariño (Ortigueira)
          • Cabo Ortegal complex
    Madon, M., Gil, J.I., Via, J. and Girardeau, J. (1991). Characterization and thermodynamic properties of andradite, Ca3Fe2Si3O12. American Mineralogist, 76:1249-1260.; Moreno, T., Lunar, R., Prichard, H.M., Monterrubio, S. and Ortega, L. (1999) Platinum-group element mineralization in chromitites from the ultramafic massifs of the Cabo Ortegal complex. Geogaceta, 25:135-138.; Moreno, T., Gibbons, W., Lunar, R., Prichard, H.M., Monterrubio, S. and García-izquierdo, B. (2002) Concentraciones de cromita y elementos del grupo del platino en las rocas ultramáficas del complejo de Cabo Ortegal (NO de España): implicaciones tectónicas. Bol. Soc. Esp. Min., 25:129-144.; García, B., Lunar, R. and Capote, R. (2002). Difusión de Al-Cr en espinelas durante la deformación en rocas ultramáficas de los complejos de Cabo Ortegal (NO de España) y de BraganÇa (NE de Portugal). Bol. Soc. Esp. Min., 25A:37-44.
    Sweden
     
    • Västerbotten
      • Norsjö
    No reference listed
    Turkey
     
    • Aegean Region
      • Muğla Province
        • Muğla ophiolite
    N. Jb. Mineral. 185 (2009) 323-333; Uysal, İ., Tarkian, M., Sadiklar, M. B., Zaccarini, F., Meisel, T., Garuti, G., & Heidrich, S. (2009). Petrology of Al-and Cr-rich ophiolitic chromitites from the Muğla, SW Turkey: implications from composition of chromite, solid inclusions of platinum-group mineral, silicate, and base-metal mineral, and Os-isotope geochemistry. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 158(5), 659-674.
    UK
     
    • Scotland
      • Dumfries & Galloway (Wigtownshire)
        • Newton Stewart
    MinMag 68(2):395-411
      • North West Highlands (Inverness-shire)
        • Isle of Rum
    Power, M.R., Pirrie, D., Andersen, J.C.O., and Butcher, A.R. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 762-775.
      • Shetland Islands
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; A G Gunn, R C Leake and M T Styles (1985) Platinum-group element mineralisation in the Unst ophiolite, Shetland British Geological Survey Mineral Reconnaissance report 73
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    Ukraine
     
    • Cherkasy Oblast'
      • Zvenyhorodka
    Gornostayev, S.S., Laajoki, K.V.O., and Popovchenko, S.E. (2002): The chromitites of the Kapitanov deposit, Ukrainian Shield. Presented at the 47th Annual GAC-MAC meeting, Saskatoon, Canada.
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Bethel Borough
        • Goodnews Bay
          • Salmon River - Red Mountain District
    USGS Open-File Report 01-269
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
    • California
      • Humboldt Co.
        • Orick District
          • Orick
            • Gold Bluffs
    Snetsinger, K.G. (1972) Osarsite, a new osmium-ruthenium sulfarsenide from California. American Mineralogist: 57: 1029; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 63.
      • Sacramento Co.
        • Folsom District
          • Folsom
    Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 64.
      • Stanislaus Co.
    Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 64.
    • Oregon
      • Jackson Co.
        • Applegate District
    Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
    • Pennsylvania
      • Chester Co.
        • State Line Chromite District
    Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology v. 41, no. 3/4.
      • Lancaster Co.
        • State Line Chromite District
    Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology Fall/Winter 2011
    Zimbabwe
     
    • Masvingo
      • Chiredzi Mining District (Hartley Mining District)
        • Chiredzi
    Allan H. Wilson and Martin D. Prendergast (2001) Platinum-Group Element Mineralisation in the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe, and its Relationship to Magma Evolution and Magma Chamber Structure. South African Journal of Geology, 104:319-342
    • Midlands
      • Zvishavane District
        • Zvishavane (Shabani; Shabanie; Shavani)
    Nashwa, Velaphi Moses. "The flotation of high talc-containing ore from the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe." (2008). MS Thesis
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