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Wet Swine Gill, Coombe Height, Caldbeck, Allerdale, Cumbria, England, UK

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 54° 40' 45'' North , 3° 3' 50'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 54.67917,-3.06405
GeoHash:G#: gctz460c6
UK National Grid Reference:NY314321
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Other/historical names associated with this locality:North and Western Region; Cumberland


In 1981, a previously unrecorded antimony sulphosalts-bearing quartz vein in hornfels was discovered about halfway up the gill [NY31443215] by J.D. Ingham and the mineralogy was published by Fortey et al. in 1984. The vein is thought to be an expression of the nearby Early Devonian Carrock W-As deposit.

A few years later, the small exposure had been all but collected out.

Note on the mineral list:

Of the antimony sulphosalts, which occur here with arsenopyrite and other sulphides in a quartz gangue, fülöppite is the most sought after. However, it occurs only sparingly and many specimens have been sold so labelled, deliberately or not, when the specimen contains mainly stibnite.

NOTE: Collecting here is strictly off-limits as it is in the red zone of areas prohibited for mineral collecting as per rules of the Lake District National Park Authority.

Regions containing this locality

Caldbeck Fells Mining Region, Cumbria, England, UK

Mining District - 307 mineral species & varietal names listed

Lake District National Park, Cumbria, England, UK

National Park - 403 mineral species & varietal names listed

Lake District National Park Authority - Caldbeck and Uldale Red Zone, Cumbria, England, UK

Mineral Collecting Permit Zone - 21 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


17 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Antimony
Formula: Sb
Description: In the 'antimony vein' as grains up to 20 µm in quartz (Fortey et al., 1984). The same authors (op. cit.: 61) also observed '... minute inclusions of a possible Sb-As alloy ... in a berthierite prism.'
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Description: Uncommon in the 'antimony vein' as euhedral tabular crystals to 60µm thick; the cores are enriched in antimony (< 7wt% Sb) (Fortey et al., 1984).
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
Berthierite
Formula: FeSb2S4
Description: In the 'antimony vein' as crystals to 2 mm with other sulphosalts embedded in quartz (Fortey et al., 1984).
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Habit: earthy crusts
Colour: yellowish
Description: Common in the 'antimony vein' as yellowish earthy crusts derived from stibnite or other antimony minerals (Fortey et al., 1984).
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
Claudetite
Formula: As2O3
Reference: [J.Russell Soc. 1998:36]
Claudetite var: Antimonian Claudetite
Formula: (As,Sb)2O3
Reference: [J.Russell Soc. 1998:36]
Fülöppite
Formula: Pb3Sb8S15
Habit: patches of fibrous crystals
Colour: dark grey metallic
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).; Leppington, C.M. and Green, D.I. (1998) Antimonian claudetite from Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 7(1), 36-37.; Green, D.I., Neall, T., and Tindle, A.G. (2005) The composition of fülöppite from Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 8(2), 101–102.
Jamesonite
Formula: Pb4FeSb6S14
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Forms straight or curved capillary crystals between 60 and 250µm in length with diamond-shaped cross-sections 2 to 20µm in width. These hair-like crystals occur in groups grown in coarse quartz... (Fortey et al., 1984: 60)."
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
Kermesite ?
Formula: Sb2S2O
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Possibly as 'tenuous red films' on quartz with primary antimony minerals (Fortey et al., 1984). Requires confirmation."
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
Mercury
Formula: Hg
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Mercury has been detected in ppm in the Wet Swine Gill 'antimony vein' (Fortey et al., 1984)."
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
Parasymplesite
Formula: Fe2+3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: [J. Russell Soc. 2001 - 92]
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Description: In stream sediments.
Reference: Appleton, J.D. and Wadge, A.J. (1976) Investigation of tungsten and other mineralisation associated with the Skiddaw granite near Carrock Mine, Cumbria. Mineral Reconnaissance Prgramme. Report of the Institute of Geological Sciences No. 7.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Appleton & Wadge, 1976).
Semseyite
Formula: Pb9Sb8S21
Description: In the 'antimony vein' as tenuous coatings with fülöppite, and as rare, minute (< 20µm) grains in zinckenite (Fortey et al., 1984).
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
Senarmontite
Formula: Sb2O3
Habit: masses and octahedra
Colour: colourless to grey
Description: In the 'antimony vein' as grey masses and minute colourless octahedra derived from the alteration of stibnite (Fortey et al., 1984).
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Description: In the 'antimony vein' in minute grains.
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
'Stibiconite'
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+2O6(OH)
Description: A common alteration product of antimony sulphides and sulphosalts in the 'antimony vein' (Fortey et al., 1984).
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Habit: acicular
Description: Commonly coated with or pseudomorphed by senarmontite or stibiconite or both (Fortey et al., 1984).
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65. Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Description: Small quantities as an alteration product in the 'antimony vein' (Fortey et al., 1984).
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al., 1984).
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Description: "Float quartz containing wolfram from 'near Dry Swine Gill'" [between Wet Swine Gill and Grainsgill] (Shaw, 1970: 52). In stream sediments (Appleton & Wadge, 1976).
Reference: Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Appleton, J.D. and Wadge, A.J. (1976) Investigation of tungsten and other mineralisation associated with the Skiddaw granite near Carrock Mine, Cumbria. Mineral Reconnaissance Prgramme. Report of the Institute of Geological Sciences No. 7.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Shaw, 1970, and Appleton & Wadge, 1976).
Zinkenite
Formula: Pb9Sb22S42
Habit: fibrous patches to 15mm across
Description: In the 'antimony vein' in quartz with stibnite, berthierite etc.
Reference: Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Fortey et al. (1984).

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Antimony1.CA.05Sb
Mercury1.AD.05Hg
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Berthierite2.HA.20FeSb2S4
Fülöppite2.HC.10aPb3Sb8S15
Jamesonite2.HB.15Pb4FeSb6S14
Kermesite ?2.FD.05Sb2S2O
Semseyite2.HC.10dPb9Sb8S21
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stibnite2.DB.05Sb2S3
Zinkenite2.JB.35aPb9Sb22S42
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Bindheimite4.DH.20Pb2Sb2O6O
Claudetite4.CB.45As2O3
var: Antimonian Claudetite4.CB.45(As,Sb)2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Senarmontite4.CB.50Sb2O3
Stibiconite4.DH.20Sb3+Sb5+2O6(OH)
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Parasymplesite8.CE.40Fe2+3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Wolframite-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Mercury1.1.7.1Hg
Semi-metals and non-metals
Antimony1.3.1.2Sb
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Stibnite2.11.2.1Sb2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Oxysulfides
Kermesite ?2.13.1.1Sb2S2O
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
2 < ø < 2.49
Fülöppite3.6.20.1Pb3Sb8S15
Jamesonite3.6.7.1Pb4FeSb6S14
Semseyite3.6.20.4Pb9Sb8S21
ø = 2
Berthierite3.7.9.3FeSb2S4
1 < ø < 2
Zinkenite3.8.1.1Pb9Sb22S42
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Claudetite4.3.10.1As2O3
Senarmontite4.3.9.2Sb2O3
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Parasymplesite40.3.6.6Fe2+3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 44 - ANTIMONATES
A2X2O6(O,OH,F)
'Bindheimite'44.1.1.2Pb2Sb2O6O
'Stibiconite'44.1.1.1Sb3+Sb5+2O6(OH)
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Claudetite
var: Antimonian Claudetite
-(As,Sb)2O3
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ParasymplesiteFe32+(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H StibiconiteSb3+Sb25+O6(OH)
OOxygen
O Claudetite (var: Antimonian Claudetite)(As,Sb)2O3
O BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
O ClaudetiteAs2O3
O KermesiteSb2S2O
O ParasymplesiteFe32+(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O SenarmontiteSb2O3
O StibiconiteSb3+Sb25+O6(OH)
O Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
SSulfur
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BerthieriteFeSb2S4
S FülöppitePb3Sb8S15
S JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
S KermesiteSb2S2O
S SemseyitePb9Sb8S21
S SphaleriteZnS
S StibniteSb2S3
S SulphurS8
S ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42
CaCalcium
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
MnManganese
Mn Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
FeIron
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe BerthieriteFeSb2S4
Fe JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Fe ParasymplesiteFe32+(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Fe Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As Claudetite (var: Antimonian Claudetite)(As,Sb)2O3
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As ClaudetiteAs2O3
As ParasymplesiteFe32+(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
SbAntimony
Sb Claudetite (var: Antimonian Claudetite)(As,Sb)2O3
Sb AntimonySb
Sb BerthieriteFeSb2S4
Sb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Sb FülöppitePb3Sb8S15
Sb JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Sb KermesiteSb2S2O
Sb SemseyitePb9Sb8S21
Sb SenarmontiteSb2O3
Sb StibiconiteSb3+Sb25+O6(OH)
Sb StibniteSb2S3
Sb ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
W Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
HgMercury
Hg MercuryHg
PbLead
Pb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Pb FülöppitePb3Sb8S15
Pb JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Pb SemseyitePb9Sb8S21
Pb ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Ordovician
443.8 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 2033347
Ordovician Rocks (Undifferentiated)

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone, siltstone and sandstone

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Ordovician
443.8 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 3187232
Paleozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Strataform assemblage(s); intermediate volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Early Ordovician
470 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 3157764
Early Ordovician limestone

Age: Early Ordovician (470 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{limestone}, Minor{sandstone,siltstone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Appleton, J.D. and Wadge, A.J. (1976) Investigation of tungsten and other mineralisation associated with the Skiddaw granite near Carrock Mine, Cumbria. Mineral Reconnaissance Programme. Report of the Institute of Geological Sciences No. 7.
Fortey, N.J., Ingham, J.D., Skilton, B.R.H., Young, B., and Shepherd, T.J. (1984) Antimony mineralization at Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 45(1-2), 59-65.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Leppington, C.M. and Green, D.I. (1998) Antimonian claudetite from Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 7(1), 36-37.
Green, D.I., Neall, T., and Tindle, A.G. (2005) The composition of fülöppite from Wet Swine Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 8(2), 101–102.


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