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Rutherfordine

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About RutherfordineHide

09186910014946460895403.jpg
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson
Formula:
(UO2)CO3
Colour:
Pale brownish-yellow, yellow to orange, yellowish green
Lustre:
Silky, Dull
Specific Gravity:
5.7
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named by W. Marckwald in 1906 in honor of Ernest Rutherford (30 August 1871, Brightwater, New Zealand - 19 October 1937, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom), atomic physicist. He made tremedous discoveries in nuclear physics including discovering the concept of radioactive half-life, proving that radioactivity involves the transmutation of one element into another, differentiating and naming alpha and beta radiation, discovering and naming the proton, and developing the Rutherford model of the atom (i.e. an atom with a small nucleus). He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908 and the element rutherfordium is named in his honor.
This page provides mineralogical data about Rutherfordine.


Classification of RutherfordineHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
5.EB.05

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
E : Uranyl Carbonates
B : UO2:CO3 = 1:1
14.1.4.1

14 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
1 : A(XO3)
11.11.2

11 : Carbonates
11 : Carbonates of Cr and U

Physical Properties of RutherfordineHide

Silky, Dull
Transparency:
Transparent
Comment:
Silky if fibrous
Colour:
Pale brownish-yellow, yellow to orange, yellowish green
Streak:
White
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {010}
less perfect on {001}
Density:
5.7 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.682 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of RutherfordineHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.700 - 1.723 nβ = 1.716 - 1.730 nγ = 1.755 - 1.795
2V:
Calculated: 53°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.055 - 0.072
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
relatively strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X= colorless
Y= pale yellow
Z= pale greenish yellow

Chemical Properties of RutherfordineHide

Formula:
(UO2)CO3
IMA Formula:
(UO2)(CO3)

Crystallography of RutherfordineHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Space Group:
Imm2
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.840 Å, b = 9.273 Å, c = 4.298 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.522 : 1 : 0.463
Unit Cell V:
192.90 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Acicular needles.

Crystal StructureHide

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AMCSDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0005627RutherfordineFinch R J, Cooper M A, Hawthorne F C, Ewing R C (1999) Refinement of the crystal structure of rutherfordine The Canadian Mineralogist 37 929-93819990293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Secondary mineral formed by weathering of uraninite.

Type Occurrence of RutherfordineHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Pulverulent masses composed of minute matted fibers, pseudomorphic after uraninite.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Smithsonian

Synonyms of RutherfordineHide

Other Language Names for RutherfordineHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
16 photos of Rutherfordine associated with Schoepite(UO2)8O2(OH)12 · 12H2O
15 photos of Rutherfordine associated with UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2•5H2O
9 photos of Rutherfordine associated with WölsendorfitePb7(UO2)14O19(OH)4 · 12H2O
8 photos of Rutherfordine associated with UraniniteUO2
5 photos of Rutherfordine associated with MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
5 photos of Rutherfordine associated with BillietiteBa(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 4-8H2O
4 photos of Rutherfordine associated with Soddyite(UO2)2SiO4 · 2H2O
3 photos of Rutherfordine associated with BecquereliteCa(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
3 photos of Rutherfordine associated with Studtite[(UO2)(O2)(H2O)2] · H2O
2 photos of Rutherfordine associated with CuprosklodowskiteCu(UO2)2(SiO3OH]2 · 6H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.EB.10Blatonite(UO2)CO3 · H2OHex.
5.EB.15Joliotite(UO2)CO3 · nH2OOrth.
5.EB.20Bijvoetite-(Y)Y8(UO2)16(CO3)16O8(OH)8 · 39H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.11.1StichtiteMg6Cr3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
11.11.3Joliotite(UO2)CO3 · nH2OOrth.
11.11.4GrimseliteK3Na(UO2)(CO3)3 · H2OHex.
11.11.5BayleyiteMg2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 18H2OMon.
11.11.6MetazelleriteCa(UO2)(CO3)2 · 3H2OOrth.
11.11.7ZelleriteCa(UO2)(CO3)2 · 5H2OOrth.
11.11.8WyartiteCaU5+(UO2)2(CO3)O4(OH) · 7H2OOrth.
11.11.9UrancalcariteCa(UO2)3(CO3)(OH)6 · 3H2OOrth.
11.11.10SharpiteCa(UO2)3(CO3)4 · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
11.11.11VogliteCa2Cu(UO2)(CO3)4 · 6H2OMon.
11.11.12AndersoniteNa2Ca(UO2)(CO3)3 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
11.11.13SwartziteMgCa(UO2)(CO3)3 · 12H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
11.11.14RabbittiteCa3Mg3(UO2)2(CO3)6(OH)4 · 18H2OMon.
11.11.15Kamotoite-(Y)Y2(UO2)4(CO3)3O4 · 14H2OMon. 2/m
11.11.16Shabaite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Sm,Y)2(UO2)(CO3)4(OH)2 · 6H2OTric. 1 : P1
11.11.17Astrocyanite-(Ce)Cu2(Ce,Nd,La)2(UO2)(CO3)5(OH)2 · 1.5H2OHex.
11.11.18Bijvoetite-(Y)Y8(UO2)16(CO3)16O8(OH)8 · 39H2OMon.
11.11.19WidenmannitePb2(OH)2[(UO2)(CO3)2]Orth.
11.11.20ZnucaliteZn12Ca(UO2)(CO3)3(OH)22 · 4H2OOrth.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
Radioactive

References for RutherfordineHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Marckwald, W. (1906) Ueber Uranerz aus Deutsch-Ostafrika. Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 761-763. (in German)
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 129.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 274-275.
Frondel, C., Meyrowitz, R. (1956) Studies of uranium minerals (XIX): rutherfordine, diderichite, and clarkeite. American Mineralogist: 41: 127-133.
International Mineralogical Association (1962) International Mineralogical Association: Commission on new minerals and mineral names. Mineralogical Magazine: 33: 260-263.
International Mineralogical Association (1980) International Mineralogical Association: Commission on new minerals and mineral names. Mineralogical Magazine: 43: 1053-1055.
Finch, R.J., Cooper, M., Hawthorne, F.C., Ewing, R.C. (1999) Refinement of the crystal structure of rutherfordine. Canadian Mineralogist 37: 929-938.
Kubatko, K.-A., Helean, K., Navrotsky, A., Burns, P.C. (2005) Thermodynamics of uranyl minerals: Enthalpies of formation of rutherfordine, UO2CO3, andersonite, Na2CaUO2(CO3)3(H2O)5, and grimselite, K3NaUO2(CO3)3H2O: American Mineralogist: 90: 1284-1290.
Burns, P.C. (2005) U 6+ minerals and inorganic compounds: insights into an expanded structural hierarchy of crystal structures. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1839-1894.
Bonales, L. J., Colmenero, F., Cobos, J., & Timón, V. (2016). Spectroscopic Raman characterization of rutherfordine: a combined DFT and experimental study. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 18(24), 16575-16584.

Internet Links for RutherfordineHide

Localities for RutherfordineHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Northern Territory
    • West Arnhem Region
Econ Geol (1987)82:1152-1168; Angela Giblin (2004) Alligator Rivers Uranium deposits (Koongarra, Nabarlek and Ranger One) Northern Territory. CRC LEME
      • South Alligator River
Henry, D.A., Pogson, R.E. and Williams, P.A. (2005) Threadgoldite from the South Alligator Valley uranium field, Northern Territory, Australia: second world occurrence. , Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 7-11
  • South Australia
    • Central North
      • Peake and Denison Ranges
Fairclough, M.C., McAvaney, S.O. and Wilson, T.C., (compilers) 2009. South Australian Uranium Occurrences – Updated second edition
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Arkaroola Region (Arkaroola Wilderness Sanctuary; Arkaroola Station)
          • Mt Painter area
J. Brugger at al.: Australian Journal of Mineralogy 9(1):15-31 (2003); J. Brugger et al.: Amer. Min. 89:339-347 (2004); Lapis 29(3):41 (2004)
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Wolfsberg District
      • Wolfsberg
        • Übelskogel
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Galiléia
      • Sapucaia do Norte
Cassedanne, J.P. & Baptista, A. (1999): Famous Mineral Localities: The Sapucaia Pegmatite Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record, 30: 347-360 + 365
Canada
 
  • Saskatchewan
    • Athabasca Basin
Boulanger, R. A. (2012). Geological, petrographic and geochemical characterization of the Roughrider West Zone unconformity-type uranium deposit, Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan (Masters thesis, Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, University of Regina).
WATKINSON, D.H., HESLOP, J.B. & EWERT, W.D. (1975) Nickel sulphide-arsenide assemblages associated with uranium mineralization, Zimmer Lake area, Northern Saskatchewan. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 198-204.
    • Beaverlodge Lake area
      • Eldorado Mining & Refining Ltd. mines
Jeremy Zolan
China
 
  • Hunan
Aizhen Wang and Jingyi Zhang (1988): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 8(3), 272-275
Czech Republic
 
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Karlovy Vary District
Sejkora, J., Čejka, J., Bureš, B.: Nález vzácného karbonátu uranylu (rutherfordinu) v jáchymovském rudním revíru. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2004, roč. 12, s. 163-166.
Skala, R., et al. Min.Petrol. 103,167 (2011)
    • Sokolov District
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
Plašil J, Sejkora J, Ondruš P, Veselovský F, Beran P, Goliáš V (2006): Supergene minerals in the Horní Slavkov uranium ore district, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 149-158. ; Sejkora, J. & Plasil, J. (2009): Mineralien aus dem Uranrevier Horni Slavkov. Lapis 34 (7-8), 63-67; 70 (in German).
DR Congo
 
  • Haut-Katanga
    • Kambove District
      • Shinkolobwe
Daltry, V.D.C. (1992) The Type Mineralogy Of Africa: Zaire. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique, 115(1), 33-62.; Deliens, M. (1996) Overzicht van de mineralogie van de koper-, kobalt- en uraniumvoorkomens in Zuid-Shaba (Zaïre). Pages 35-49 in: Schatten der Aarde. Van mineraal tot juweel. Tentoonstelling in de abdij Saint-Gérard de Brogne van 27 april tot 27 oktober 1996. Catalogus opgemaakt onder de leiding van R. Warin, AGAB en P. Van hee, MKA (in Dutch).
  • Lualaba
    • Kolwezi mining district
      • Kolwezi
Deliens, M. (1996) Overzicht van de mineralogie van de koper-, kobalt- en uraniumvoorkomens in Zuid-Shaba (Zaïre). Pages 35-49 in: Schatten der Aarde. Van mineraal tot juweel. Tentoonstelling in de abdij Saint-Gérard de Brogne van 27 april tot 27 oktober 1996. Catalogus opgemaakt onder de leiding van R. Warin, AGAB en P. Van hee, MKA (in Dutch).; Wilson, W.E. (2018) The Musonoi mine, Kolwezi District, Lualaba Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Mineralogical Record, 49(2), 236-304.
Rob Lavinsky specimen
  • South Kivu
    • Shabunda Territory
Egypt
 
  • Red Sea
    • Eastern Desert
      • Central Eastern Desert
El-Naby, H. H. A. (2009). Role of geochemical alteration on the formation of secondary Zr-and U-bearing minerals in El Atshan trachyte, central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 104(1), 37-51.
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Clermont-Ferrand
        • Olloix
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV (1998)
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Deux-Sèvres
      • La Chapelle Largeau
Le Cahier des micromonteurs, 2002, N°75, pp 8-25
      • Saint-Amand-sur-Sèvre
Le Cahier des micromonteurs, 2002, N°75, pp 8-25
  • Occitanie
    • Hérault
      • Lodève
        • Le Bosc
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV (1998)
          • Saint-Martin-du-Bosc
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
        • Le Puech
Caubel, A. (1997) Minéralogie du gisement d'uranium de Rabejac (Hérault). Le Règne Minéral: 13: 5-18.; Bariand, P., Bachet, B., Brassy, C., Medenbach, O., Deliens, M., Vautier, R., & Piret, P. (1993) A New Uranium Mineral from the Talmessi Mine, Iran, and Rabejac, France. Mineralogical Record: 24: 463-467; Dal Bo, F., Hatert, F., & Philippo, S. (2018). Supergene Uranyl Mineralization of the Rabejac Deposit, Lodève, France. Minerals, 8(9), 414.
        • Lodève
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV (1998)
    • Lozère
      • Mende
        • Saint-Léger-de-Peyre
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
Gabon
 
  • Haut-Ogooué Province
    • Franceville
Janusz Janeczek (1999) Mineralogy and geochemistry of natural fission reactors in Gabon. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, MSA, v. 38, p. 321-392
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg Region
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Haslach im Kinzigtal
          • Schnellingen
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001; Schmeltzer, H. (1993): Die Grube Segen Gottes bei Schnellingen - ein polymetallisches Mineralvorkommen. Der Erzgräber, 7 (2), 34-35.
      • Rottweil
        • Schenkenzell
          • Wittichen
            • Böckelsbach valley
No reference listed
      • Waldshut
        • St Blasien
          • Menzenschwand
Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
Dill, H. G., & Weber, B. (2010). Accessory minerals of fluorite and their implication regarding the environment of formation (Nabburg–Wölsendorf fluorite district, SE Germany), with special reference to fetid fluorite (“Stinkspat”). Ore Geology Reviews, 37(2), 65-86.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Birkenfeld District
      • Birkenfeld
        • Ellweiler
Aufschluss 69/(7+8), Lapis 79/(7+8)
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
      • Annaberg-Buchholz
        • Kleinrückerswalde
Desor, J. (05/2020) SEM-EDS & PXRD
Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
Italy
 
  • Lombardy
    • Lecco Province
      • Colico
        • Piona Peninsula
Vignola P., Fransolet A.-M., Guastoni A., Appiani R. (2011): Le pegmatiti di Piona. Recenti studi sui filoni Malpensata, Luna e Sommafiume. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 35, 1, 30-38.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige
    • Trento Province (Trentino)
      • Valdaone
        • Daone
          • Daone Valley
            • Limes
Campostrini, I., Demartin, F., Gramaccioli, C.M. (2005): Val Daone. Minerali secondari del giacimento uranifero presso Limes, Daone (TN). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2005, 228-240.
Namibia
 
  • Hardap Region
    • Daweb
Bowell, R. J., & Davies, A. A. (2017). Assessment of supergene uranium-vanadium anomalies, Meob Bay deposit, Namibia. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 17(2), 101-112.
New Zealand
 
  • West Coast Region
    • Buller District
      • Westport
Christie, A.B., Brathwaite, R.L. (2000) Mineral Commodity Report 19 - Beryllium, Gallium, Lithium, Magnesium, Uranium and Zirconium. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd.
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
    • Krødsherad
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 103
  • Østfold
    • Sarpsborg
      • Skjeberg
        • Setreåsen
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 103.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Jelenia Góra County
Mochnacka, K., Banaś, M. (2000): Occurrence and genetic relationships of uranium and thorium mineralization in the Karkonosze-Izera Block (The Sudety Mts, SW Poland). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae: 70: 137-150
Switzerland
 
  • Valais
    • Saint-Maurice
      • Salvan
        • Les Marécottes
- Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
Tanzania (TL)
 
  • Morogoro Region
    • Uluguru Mts (Uruguru Mts)
Centr.Min.(1906) p. 761-764; J. Geffroy, J.A. Sarcia, J. Chervet : "Les Minéraux Uranifères Français", 1960, Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucléaires / Saclay - PUF.; Frondel C, Meyrowitz R (1956) Studies of uranium minerals (XIX): rutherfordine, diderichite, and clarkeite. American Mineralogist 41, 127-133
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Just
        • Botallack
[Journal of the Russell Society, 6(1), 17-26 (1995)]
      • St Stephen-in-Brannel
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Ukraine
 
  • Kiev Oblast
    • Ivankiv Raion
Burakov, B.E., Strykanova, E.E., Anderson, E.B. (): Secondary Uranium Minerals on the Surface of Chernobyl “Lava”. MRS Proceedings: 465; : http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/PROC-465-1309
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • Eagle Co.
      • McCoy Mining District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Moffat Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield County
      • Danbury
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut: 192-201.
  • Maine
    • Oxford County
      • Newry
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1; King, V. (ed), 2000, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 2.
  • Michigan
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Spring Mountains
        • Goodsprings Mining District
          • Shenandoah Peak (Shenandoah Mountain)
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10037219.
    • Lander Co.
      • Reese River Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Jensen, M. and J. Herrmann (2012) Uranium mineralization at the Apex Mine, Lander County, Nevada. Rocks and Minerals 87:270-276
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Rocks & Min. 80:256 (2005); Korzeb, Stanley L., Foord, Eugene E., and Lichte, Frederick E. (1997) The chemical evolution and paragenesis of uranium minerals from the Ruggles and Palermo granitic pegmatites, New Hampshire. Canadian Mineralogist, 35, 135-144.
    • Sullivan Co.
      • South Acworth
Januzzi, R.E. and Seaman, David M. (1976) Mineral Localities Of Connecticut and Southern New York State and Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
  • New Mexico
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
    • McKinley Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • North Carolina
    • Burke Co.
      • Brindletown
Rocks & Min.:60:86.
Barton, I., Barton, M. D., & Thorson, J. (2018) Characteristics of Cu and UV Deposits in the Paradox Basin (Colorado Plateau) and Associated Alteration. Guidebook series, 59.
  • Utah
    • Emery Co.
      • San Rafael Mining District (San Rafael Swell)
        • Delta
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp263-279
    • San Juan Co.
      • Interriver Mining District
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • White Canyon
Mandarino, J.A. (1999) Abstracts of New Mineral Descriptions (Department). The Mineralogical Record: 30(3): 231-238.
  • Washington
    • Stevens Co.
      • Benjamin Lake
Charles Creekmur collection
  • Wyoming
    • Fremont Co.
Rocks & Minerals 76:386
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp361-370.
 
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