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Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson
Pale brownish-yellow, yellow to orange, yellowish green
Silky, Dull
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named by W. Marckwald in 1906 in honor of Ernest Rutherford (30 August 1871, Brightwater, New Zealand - 19 October 1937, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom), atomic physicist. He made tremedous discoveries in nuclear physics including discovering the concept of radioactive half-life, proving that radioactivity involves the transmutation of one element into another, differentiating and naming alpha and beta radiation, discovering and naming the proton, and developing the Rutherford model of the atom (i.e. an atom with a small nucleus). He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908 and the element rutherfordium is named in his honor.
This page provides mineralogical data about Rutherfordine.

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Classification of RutherfordineHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

E : Uranyl Carbonates
B : UO2:CO3 = 1:1

1 : A(XO3)

11 : Carbonates
11 : Carbonates of Cr and U

Physical Properties of RutherfordineHide

Silky, Dull
Silky if fibrous
Pale brownish-yellow, yellow to orange, yellowish green
Perfect on {010}
less perfect on {001}
5.7 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.682 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of RutherfordineHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.700 - 1.723 nβ = 1.716 - 1.730 nγ = 1.755 - 1.795
Calculated: 53°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.055 - 0.072
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
relatively strong
X= colorless
Y= pale yellow
Z= pale greenish yellow

Chemical Properties of RutherfordineHide


Crystallography of RutherfordineHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.840 Å, b = 9.273 Å, c = 4.298 Å
a:b:c = 0.522 : 1 : 0.463
Unit Cell V:
192.90 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Acicular needles.

Type Occurrence of RutherfordineHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Pulverulent masses composed of minute matted fibers, pseudomorphic after uraninite.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:

Synonyms of RutherfordineHide

Other Language Names for RutherfordineHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Schoepite16 photos of Rutherfordine associated with Schoepite on
Uranophane15 photos of Rutherfordine associated with Uranophane on
Wölsendorfite9 photos of Rutherfordine associated with Wölsendorfite on
Uraninite8 photos of Rutherfordine associated with Uraninite on
Malachite5 photos of Rutherfordine associated with Malachite on
Billietite5 photos of Rutherfordine associated with Billietite on
Soddyite4 photos of Rutherfordine associated with Soddyite on
Becquerelite3 photos of Rutherfordine associated with Becquerelite on
Studtite3 photos of Rutherfordine associated with Studtite on
Cuprosklodowskite2 photos of Rutherfordine associated with Cuprosklodowskite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.EB.10Blatonite(UO2)CO3 · H2OHex.
5.EB.15Joliotite(UO2)CO3 · nH2OOrth.
5.EB.20Bijvoetite-(Y)Y8(UO2)16(CO3)16O8(OH)8 · 39H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.11.1StichtiteMg6Cr3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
11.11.3Joliotite(UO2)CO3 · nH2OOrth.
11.11.4GrimseliteK3Na(UO2)(CO3)3 · H2OHex.
11.11.5BayleyiteMg2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 18H2OMon.
11.11.6MetazelleriteCa(UO2)(CO3)2 · 3H2OOrth.
11.11.7ZelleriteCa(UO2)(CO3)2 · 5H2OOrth.
11.11.8WyartiteCaU5+(UO2)2(CO3)O4(OH) · 7H2OOrth.
11.11.9UrancalcariteCa(UO2)3(CO3)(OH)6 · 3H2OOrth.
11.11.10SharpiteCa(UO2)6(CO3)5(OH)4 · 6H2OOrth.
11.11.11VogliteCa2Cu(UO2)(CO3)4 · 6H2OMon.
11.11.12AndersoniteNa2Ca(UO2)(CO3)3 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
11.11.13SwartziteMgCa(UO2)(CO3)3 · 12H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
11.11.14RabbittiteCa3Mg3(UO2)2(CO3)6(OH)4 · 18H2OMon.
11.11.15Kamotoite-(Y)Y2(UO2)4(CO3)3O4 · 14H2OMon. 2/m
11.11.16Shabaite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Sm,Y)2(UO2)(CO3)4(OH)2 · 6H2O
11.11.17Astrocyanite-(Ce)Cu2(Ce,Nd,La)2(UO2)(CO3)5(OH)2 · 1.5H2OHex.
11.11.18Bijvoetite-(Y)Y8(UO2)16(CO3)16O8(OH)8 · 39H2OMon.
11.11.20ZnucaliteZn12Ca(UO2)(CO3)3(OH)22 · 4H2OOrth.

Other InformationHide

Soluble in acids.
Health Risks:

References for RutherfordineHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Marckwald, W. (1906) Ueber Uranerz aus Deutsch-Ostafrika. Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 761-763. (in German)
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 129.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 274-275.
Frondel, C., Meyrowitz, R. (1956) Studies of uranium minerals (XIX): rutherfordine, diderichite, and clarkeite. American Mineralogist: 41: 127-133.
International Mineralogical Association (1962) International Mineralogical Association: Commission on new minerals and mineral names. Mineralogical Magazine: 33: 260-263.
International Mineralogical Association (1980) International Mineralogical Association: Commission on new minerals and mineral names. Mineralogical Magazine: 43: 1053-1055.
Finch, R.J., Cooper, M., Hawthorne, F.C., Ewing, R.C. (1999) Refinement of the crystal structure of rutherfordine. Canadian Mineralogist 37: 929-938.
Kubatko, K.-A., Helean, K., Navrotsky, A., Burns, P.C. (2005) Thermodynamics of uranyl minerals: Enthalpies of formation of rutherfordine, UO2CO3, andersonite, Na2CaUO2(CO3)3(H2O)5, and grimselite, K3NaUO2(CO3)3H2O: American Mineralogist: 90: 1284-1290.
Burns, P.C. (2005) U 6+ minerals and inorganic compounds: insights into an expanded structural hierarchy of crystal structures. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1839-1894.

Internet Links for RutherfordineHide

Localities for RutherfordineHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Northern Territory
    • West Arnhem Region
Econ Geol (1987)82:1152-1168; Angela Giblin (2004) Alligator Rivers Uranium deposits (Koongarra, Nabarlek and Ranger One) Northern Territory. CRC LEME
      • South Alligator River
Henry, D.A., Pogson, R.E. and Williams, P.A. (2005) Threadgoldite from the South Alligator Valley uranium field, Northern Territory, Australia: second world occurrence. , Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 7-11
  • South Australia
    • Central North
      • Peake and Denison Ranges
Fairclough, M.C., McAvaney, S.O. and Wilson, T.C., (compilers) 2009. South Australian Uranium Occurrences – Updated second edition
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Arkaroola Region (Arkaroola Station)
          • Mt Painter area
J. Brugger at al.: Australian Journal of Mineralogy 9(1):15-31 (2003); J. Brugger et al.: Amer. Min. 89:339-347 (2004); Lapis 29(3):41 (2004)
  • Carinthia
    • Koralpe
      • Waldenstein
        • Übelskogel
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Minas Gerais
    • Galiléia
      • Sapucaia do Norte
Cassedanne, J.P. & Baptista, A. (1999): Famous Mineral Localities: The Sapucaia Pegmatite Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record, 30: 347-360 + 365
  • Saskatchewan
    • Athabasca Basin
WATKINSON, D.H., HESLOP, J.B. & EWERT, W.D. (1975) Nickel sulphide-arsenide assemblages associated with uranium mineralization, Zimmer Lake area, Northern Saskatchewan. Canadian Mineralogist 13, 198-204.
    • Beaverlodge Lake area
      • Eldorado Mining & Refining Ltd. mines
Jeremy Zolan
  • Hunan Province
Aizhen Wang and Jingyi Zhang (1988): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 8(3), 272-275
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
Plašil J, Sejkora J, Ondruš P, Veselovský F, Beran P, Goliáš V (2006): Supergene minerals in the Horní Slavkov uranium ore district, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 149-158. ; Sejkora, J. & Plasil, J. (2009): Mineralien aus dem Uranrevier Horni Slavkov. Lapis 34 (7-8), 63-67; 70 (in German).
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
Sejkora, J., Čejka, J., Bureš, B.: Nález vzácného karbonátu uranylu (rutherfordinu) v jáchymovském rudním revíru. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2004, roč. 12, s. 163-166.
Skala, R., et al. Min.Petrol. 103,167 (2011)
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
  • Katanga (Shaba)
    • Kambove District
      • Shinkolobwe
V.D.C. Daltry (1992) The Type Mineralogy Of Africa : Zaire pp 33-62
    • Kolwezi District
      • Kolwezi
No reference listed
Rob Lavinsky specimen
  • Sud-Kivu
    • Mwenga
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Saint-Amant-Tallende
        • Olloix
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV (1998)
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Deux-Sèvres
      • La Chapelle Largeau
Le Cahier des micromonteurs, 2002, N°75, pp 8-25
      • Saint-Amand-sur-Sèvre
Le Cahier des micromonteurs, 2002, N°75, pp 8-25
  • Occitanie
    • Hérault
      • Lodève
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV (1998)
[Le Règne Minéral 1997, 13, p.5-18]; Bariand, P., Bachet, B., Brassy, C., Medenbach, O., Deliens, M., Vautier, R., & Piret, P. (1993) A New Uranium Mineral from the Talmessi Mine, Iran, and Rabejac, France. Mineralogical Record: 24: 463-467
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV (1998)
      • Saint Martin du Bosc
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
    • Lozère
      • Marvejols
        • St Léger-de-Peyre
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
  • Haut-Ogooué Province
    • Franceville
Janusz Janeczek (1999) Mineralogy and geochemistry of natural fission reactors in Gabon. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, MSA, v. 38, p. 321-392
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Haslach
        • Schnellingen
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001; Schmeltzer, H. (1993): Die Grube Segen Gottes bei Schnellingen - ein polymetallisches Mineralvorkommen. Der Erzgräber, 7 (2), 34-35.
      • Menzenschwand
Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
      • Schenkenzell
        • Wittichen
          • Böckelsbach valley
No reference listed
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Wölsendorf Fluorite Mining District
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Hunsrück
      • Birkenfeld
        • Ellweiler
Aufschluss 69/(7+8), Lapis 79/(7+8)
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
  • Lombardy
    • Lecco Province
      • Colico
        • Piona Peninsula
Vignola P., Fransolet A.-M., Guastoni A., Appiani R. (2011): Le pegmatiti di Piona. Recenti studi sui filoni Malpensata, Luna e Sommafiume. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 35, 1, 30-38.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Trento Province
      • Giudicarie Valleys
        • Chiese Valley
          • Daone
            • Daone Valley
              • Limes
Campostrini, I., Demartin, F., Gramaccioli, C.M. (2005): Val Daone. Minerali secondari del giacimento uranifero presso Limes, Daone (TN). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2005, 228-240.
New Zealand
  • South Island
    • West Coast (Westland)
      • Westport
        • Buller River
Christie, A.B., Brathwaite, R.L. (2000) Mineral Commodity Report 19 - Beryllium, Gallium, Lithium, Magnesium, Uranium and Zirconium. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd.
  • Buskerud
    • Krødsherad
      • Krøderen Lake
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 103
  • Østfold
    • Sarpsborg
      • Skjeberg
        • Setreåsen
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 103.
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Jelenia Góra District
      • Kowary area
Mochnacka, K., Banaś, M. (2000): Occurrence and genetic relationships of uranium and thorium mineralization in the Karkonosze-Izera Block (The Sudety Mts, SW Poland). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae: 70: 137-150
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Le Trient Valley
      • Les Marécottes
- Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
Tanzania (TL)
  • Morogoro Region
    • Uluguru Mts (Uruguru Mts)
Centr.Min.(1906) p. 761-764; J. Geffroy, J.A. Sarcia, J. Chervet : "Les Minéraux Uranifères Français", 1960, Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucléaires / Saclay - PUF.; Frondel C, Meyrowitz R (1956) Studies of uranium minerals (XIX): rutherfordine, diderichite, and clarkeite. American Mineralogist 41, 127-133
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Austell District
        • St Stephen-in-Brannel
          • St Stephen
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
      • St Just
        • Botallack
[Journal of the Russell Society, 6(1), 17-26 (1995)]
  • Kiev Oblast' (Kyiv Oblast'; Kyivshchyna)
    • Ivankiv Raion
      • Pripyat
Burakov, B.E., Strykanova, E.E., Anderson, E.B. (): Secondary Uranium Minerals on the Surface of Chernobyl “Lava”. MRS Proceedings: 465; :
  • Colorado
    • Eagle Co.
      • McCoy District
Minerals of Colorado (1997)
    • Moffat Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield Co.
      • Danbury
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut: 192-201.
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Newry
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1; King, V. (ed), 2000, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 2.
  • Michigan
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Spring Mts
        • Goodsprings District
          • Shenandoah Peak (Shenandoah Mountain)
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10037219.
    • Lander Co.
      • Reese River District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Jensen, M. and J. Herrmann (2012) Uranium mineralization at the Apex Mine, Lander County, Nevada. Rocks and Minerals 87:270-276
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Rocks & Min. 80:256 (2005)
    • Sullivan Co.
      • South Acworth
Januzzi, R.E. and Seaman, David M. (1976) Mineral Localities Of Connecticut and Southern New York State and Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
  • New Mexico
    • McKinley Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
        • Ambrosia Lake Sub-district
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • North Carolina
    • Burke Co.
      • Brindletown
Rocks & Min.:60:86.
  • Utah
    • Emery Co.
      • San Rafael District (San Rafael Swell)
        • Delta
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp263-279
    • San Juan Co.
      • Interriver District
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • White Canyon District
        • White Canyon
Min Rec 30 pp231-238
  • Washington
    • Stevens Co.
      • Benjamin Lake
Charles Creekmur collection
  • Wyoming
    • Fremont Co.
Rocks & Minerals 76:386
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp361-370.
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