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About BerliniteHide

Nils Johan Berlin
Colourless, greyish or pale pink; colourless in transmitted light.
Specific Gravity:
2.64 - 2.66
Crystal System:
Honouring Professor Nils Johan Berlin (18 February 1812 – 27 December 1891), pharmacologist in the University of Lund, Sweden.
Isostructural with:
The Al-P-analogue of quartz; ordering of Al and P atoms in the crystal structure leads to a doubled c axis.

Classification of BerliniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
A : With small cations (some also with larger ones)

4 : AXO4

19 : Phosphates
7 : Phosphates of Al alone

Physical Properties of BerliniteHide

Transparent, Translucent
Colourless, greyish or pale pink; colourless in transmitted light.
6½ on Mohs scale
None Observed
2.64 - 2.66 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.618 g/cm3 (Calculated)
2.56 (artificial material).

Optical Data of BerliniteHide

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.524 nε = 1.532
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.008
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of BerliniteHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of BerliniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3 2 - Trapezohedral
Space Group:
P31 2 1
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.941 Å, c = 10.94 Å
a:c = 1 : 2.214
Unit Cell V:
231.30 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals similar to quartz. Granules to 6 mm; massive.
subparallel twinning lamellae

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
3.369 Å(100)
4.28 Å(25)
1.835 Å(16)
2.471 Å(12)
2.306 Å(12)
1.393 Å(12)
1.389 Å(12)

Type Occurrence of BerliniteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Wroclaw University, Wroclaw, Poland; II-9574.

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 101252
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for BerliniteHide

Simplified Chinese:块磷铝矿

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Scorzalite5 photos of Berlinite associated with Scorzalite on
Rutile3 photos of Berlinite associated with Rutile on
Lazulite2 photos of Berlinite associated with Lazulite on
Burangaite2 photos of Berlinite associated with Burangaite on
Brazilianite2 photos of Berlinite associated with Brazilianite on
Ruifrancoite2 photos of Berlinite associated with Ruifrancoite on
Hydroxylherderite2 photos of Berlinite associated with Hydroxylherderite on
Trolleite2 photos of Berlinite associated with Trolleite on
Attakolite1 photo of Berlinite associated with Attakolite on
Lacroixite1 photo of Berlinite associated with Lacroixite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.AA.05AlarsiteAlAsO4Trig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
8.AA.05RodolicoiteFe3+PO4Trig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
8.AA.10BerylloniteNaBePO4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
8.AA.20LithiophosphateLi3PO4Orth. mm2 : Pmn21

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.7.2AugeliteAl2(PO4)(OH)3Mon. 2/m : B2/m
19.7.3TrolleiteAl4(PO4)3(OH)3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
19.7.4SenegaliteAl2(PO4)(OH)(OH)2 · H2OOrth. mm2
19.7.5VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
19.7.6MetavarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.7.7BolivariteAl2(PO4)(OH)3 · 4-5H2OAmor.
19.7.8WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
19.7.9EvansiteAl3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2OAmor.
19.7.10VantasseliteAl4(PO4)3(OH)3 · 9H2OOrth.
19.7.11KingiteAl3(PO4)2F2(OH) · 7H2OTric.
19.7.12VashegyiteAl11(PO4)9(OH)6 · 38H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Fluorescence of BerliniteHide

may fluoresce dark red

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Exhibits the same thermal inversions as SiO2, but at somewhat lower temperatures.

Readily soluble in alkalies; virtually insoluble in cold acids.
Inverts at 583° to a polymorph isotypic with β-SiO2.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BerliniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Blomstrand (1868) Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm, Handlingar, Öfv.: 25: 198.
Blomstrand (1868) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 105: 338.
Huttenlocher (1935) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 90: 508-516.
Strunz (1941) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 103: 228.
Beck (1949) Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 32: 147.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 696-697.
Scott, J. F. (1971). Raman Spectra and Lattice Dynamics of α-Berlinite (AlP O 4). Physical Review B, 4(4), 1360.
Ng, H. N., & Calvo, C. (1976). X-ray study of the α–β transformation of berlinite (AlPO4). Canadian Journal of Physics, 54(6), 638-647.
Snoeck, E., Roucau, C., & Saint-Grégoire, P. (1986). Electron microscopy study of the modulated phases in berlinite AlPO4 and quartz. Journal de physique, 47(12), 2041-2053.

Internet Links for BerliniteHide

Localities for BerliniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Australian Capital Territory
    • Brindabella Range
      • Cotter River
        • Paddy's River Cu Mine
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV; McQueen, Ken G.; J. R. Caldwell; P. W. Millsteed (July 1988). "Primary and Secondary Minerals at the Paddy's River Mine, Australian Capital Territory". Australian Mineralogist 3: 83–100.
  • Queensland
    • North Burnett Region
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV; Duggan, M. B., Jones, M. T., Richards, D. N., & Kamprad, J. L. (1990). Phosphate minerals in altered andesite from Mount Perry, Queensland, Australia. Canadian Mineralogist, 28, 125-131.
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • North Mt Lofty Ranges
        • Robertstown
Peter Elliott
  • Western Australia
    • Meekatharra Shire
      • Milgun Station
Peter Downes, WA Museum
  • Bahia
    • Boquira
Franz, G., Morteani, G., Gerdes, A., & Rhede, D. (2014). Ages of protolith and Neoproterozoic metamorphism of Al-P-bearing quartzites of the Veredas formation (Northern Espinhaco, Brazil): LA-ICP-MS age determinations on relict and recrystallized zircon and geodynamic consequences. Precambrian Research, 250, 6-26.
Franz, G., Morteani, G., Gerdes, A., & Rhede, D. (2014). Ages of protolith and Neoproterozoic metamorphism of Al-P-bearing quartzites of the Veredas formation (Northern Espinhaco, Brazil): LA-ICP-MS age determinations on relict and recrystallized zircon and geodynamic consequences. Precambrian Research, 250, 6-26.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Galiléia
      • Sapucaia do Norte
Cassedanne, J.P. & Baptista, A. (1999): Famous Mineral Localities: The Sapucaia Pegmatite Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record, 30: 347-360 + 365
    • Itinga
      • Taquaral
        • Piauí Valley
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Ulanhad League (Chifeng Prefecture)
      • Hexigten Banner (Keshiketeng Co.)
Luo, S. Y., Cao, J. J., & Wu, Z. Q. (2014). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and near infrared spectrum (NIR) analysis of the soil overlying the Bairendaba deposit of the Inner Mongolia Grassland. Guang pu xue yu guang pu fen xi= Guang pu, 34(8), 2268-2272.
Czech Republic
  • Olomouc Region
    • Jeseník District
Reif, J., Rezek, K., Zachař, Z.: Berlinit AlPO4 ze sulfidického ložiska Zlaté Hory - západ. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1989, roč. 34, č. 4, s. 363-372.
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Tirschenreuth
        • Wiesau
          • Triebendorf
Pöllmann, H., (1990): Mineralparagenesen im Nephelinbasanit von Triebendorf/ Opf., Der Aufschluss, Vol. 41(4), 219-226
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
      • Ehrenfriedersdorf
Thomas, R., and Webster, J.D. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 570-582.
  • Java
    • West Java Province
      • Bandung
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Carbonia
        • Barbusi
Sauro, F., De Waele, J., Onac, B. P., Galli, E., Dublyansky, Y., Baldoni, E., & Sanna, L. (2014). Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: the case of Corona'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy). Geomorphology, 211, 77-88.
  • Amoron'i Mania
    • Ambatofinandrahana
      • Itremo
        • Itremo massif
Ackermand et al.(2006): "Lazulite-bearing metaquartzite of the Itremo Group (Central Madagascar); Scientific significance and economic importance" in Proceedings of the Malagasy-German Research Cooperation in Life and Earth sciences, 5-18
  • Sarawak
McFarlane, D. A., & Lundberg, J. (2018). New records of guano-associated minerals from caves in northwestern Borneo. International Journal of Speleology, 47(2), 1.
  • Ondo
Ademila, O., & Adebanjo, O. J. (2017). Geotechnical and Mineralogical Characterization of Clay Deposits in Parts of Southwestern Nigeria.
  • Arequipa
    • Islay Province
Miofuvhoedki, A. P. (2001). Geochemistry and Petrology of the Tia Maria Prospect, Department of Arequipa, Peru. Thesis (M.S.)--New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
  • Viana do Castelo
    • Ponte da Barca
      • São Lourenço de Touvedo
Leal Gomes, C., Azevedo, A., Lopes Nunes, J., & Dias, P. A. (2009). Phosphate fractionation in pegmatites of Pedra da Moura II claim–Ponte da Barca–Portugal. Estudos Geológicos, 19(2), 172.
  • Bihor
    • Nucet
      • Băiţa mining district (Baita Bihor; Rézbánya)
Onac, B. P., & Damm, P. (2002). Preliminary Data on the Mineralogy of Limestone and Skarn-Hosted Caves from Baita (Bihor county, Romania). Studia UBB Geologia, 47(1), 93-104.
  • Hunedoara
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.; Am. Min., 88, 1395–1397 (2003) ; Am. Min. 90,1203-1208 (2005); Am. Min. 92,1998-2001(2007)
  • Western Province
    • Ngororero District
      • Gatumba
Gallagher, M.J. and Gerards, J.F. (1963) Berlinite from Rwanda. Mineralogical Magazine: 33: 613-615.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.; Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV.;
Fransolet, Andre-Mathieu, 1989, The Problem of Na-Li Substitution in Primary Li-Al Phosphates: New Data on Lacroixite, a Relatively Widespread Mineral, Canadian Mineralogist, v. 27, p. 211-217.
F. Hatert, P. Lefèvre, A.M. Fransolet, M.R. Spirlet, F. Fontan, P. Keller : "Ferrorosemaryite, []NaFe2+Fe3+Al(PO4)3, a new phosphate mineral from the Rubindi pegmatite, Rwanda", Bull. Liaison S.F.M.C., Vol. 16, 2004, pp 44-45.; Lefèvre, P., Fransolet, A. M., Fontan, F., & Keller, P. Petrographic study of the Al-rich phosphate mineral associations of the Rubindi-Kabilizi pegmatite, Gatumba area, Rwanda.
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV.; Handbook of Mineralogy (
  • Catalonia
    • Girona (Gerona)
      • Alt Empordà
        • Cadaqués
Bareche, E. (2005) "Els minerals de Catalunya. Segle XX" Ed. Museu Mollfulleda de Mineralogia - Grup Mineralògic Català, 269 p.; Pura Alfonso - J. C. Melgarejo, Boron vs. Phosphorus in granitic pegmatites: the Cap de Creus case, Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 45/1-2 (2000)
Sweden (TL)
  • Skåne County
    • Bromölla
      • Näsum
Blomstrand, C.W. (1868) Om Vestanå Mineralier. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 25 (3), 197-212.; Gallagher, M.J. and Gerards, J.F. (1963) Berlinite from Rwanda. Mineralogical Magazine: 33: 613-615 (referring to berlinite from the type locality).
  • Värmland County
    • Torsby
Grensman, F. (1989) Hålsjøberg- En fyndortsbeskrivning. NAGS-nytt 16(3), 24-27.; Ek, Roland and Nysten, Per (1990) Phosphate mineralogy of the Hålsjöberg and Hökensås kyanite deposits. Geologiska Föreningens I Stockholm. Förhandlingar, Stockholm: 112: 9-18.; Grensman, F. & Sandström, F. (2002): Kyanitmineraliseringen i Hålsjöberg, Torsby, Värmland. Litiofilen 19 (2): 26-38.
  • Valais
    • Zermatt - Saas Fee area
      • Matt Valley
        • Stalden
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 72
  • Arizona
    • Gila Co.
      • Globe-Miami Mining District
        • Miami-Inspiration Mining District
          • Inspiration
            • Miami-Inspiration deposit
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 132.
  • Maine
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, volume 1.
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