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Nils Johan Berlin
Colourless, greyish or ...
Honouring Professor Nils Johan Berlin (18 February 1812 – 27 December 1891), pharmacologist in the University of Lund, Sweden.
Isostructural with:
The Al-P-analogue of quartz; ordering of Al and P atoms in the crystal structure leads to a doubled c axis.

Classification of Berlinite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
A : With small cations (some also with larger ones)

4 : AXO4

19 : Phosphates
7 : Phosphates of Al alone

Physical Properties of Berlinite

Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colourless, greyish or pale pink; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness (Mohs):
None Observed
2.64 - 2.66 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.618 g/cm3 (Calculated)
2.56 (artificial material).

Optical Data of Berlinite

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.524 nε = 1.532
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.008
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of Berlinite

Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of Berlinite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3 2 - Trapezohedral
Space Group:
P31 2 1
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.941 Å, c = 10.94 Å
a:c = 1 : 2.214
Unit Cell Volume:
V 231.30 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals similar to quartz. Granules to 6 mm; massive.
subparallel twinning lamellae
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
3.369 (100)
4.28 (25)
1.835 (16)
2.471 (12)
2.306 (12)
1.393 (12)
1.389 (12)

Type Occurrence of Berlinite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Wroclaw University, Wroclaw, Poland; II-9574.

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 101252
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Relationship of Berlinite to other Species

19.7.4SenegaliteAl2(PO4)(OH)(OH)2 · H2O
19.7.5VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
19.7.6MetavarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
19.7.7BolivariteAl2(PO4)(OH)3 · 4-5H2O
19.7.8WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
19.7.9EvansiteAl3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
19.7.10VantasseliteAl4(PO4)3(OH)3 · 9H2O
19.7.11KingiteAl3(PO4)2F2(OH) · 7H2O
19.7.12VashegyiteAl11(PO4)9(OH)6 · 38H2O

Other Names for Berlinite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:块磷铝矿

Other Information

may fluoresce dark red
Thermal Behaviour:
Exhibits the same thermal inversions as SiO2, but at somewhat lower temperatures.

Readily soluble in alkalies; virtually insoluble in cold acids.
Other Information:
Inverts at 583° to a polymorph isotypic with β-SiO2.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Berlinite

Reference List:
Blomstrand (1868) Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm, Handlingar, Öfv.: 25: 198.

Blomstrand (1868) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 105: 338.

Huttenlocher (1935) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 90: 508-516.

Strunz (1941) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 103: 228.

Beck (1949) Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 32: 147.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 696-697.

Internet Links for Berlinite URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Berlinite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • Australian Capital Territory
    • Brindabella Range
      • Cotter River
        • Paddy's River Cu Mine
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV; McQueen, Ken G.; J. R. Caldwell; P. W. Millsteed (July 1988). "Primary and Secondary Minerals at the Paddy's River Mine, Australian Capital Territory". Australian Mineralogist 3: 83–100.
  • Queensland
    • North Burnett Region
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV; Duggan, M. B., Jones, M. T., Richards, D. N., & Kamprad, J. L. (1990). Phosphate minerals in altered andesite from Mount Perry, Queensland, Australia. Canadian Mineralogist, 28, 125-131.
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • North Mt Lofty Ranges
        • Robertstown
Peter Elliott
  • Western Australia
    • Meekatharra Shire
      • Milgun Station
Peter Downes, WA Museum
  • Bahia
    • Boquira
Franz, G., Morteani, G., Gerdes, A., & Rhede, D. (2014). Ages of protolith and Neoproterozoic metamorphism of Al-P-bearing quartzites of the Veredas formation (Northern Espinhaco, Brazil): LA-ICP-MS age determinations on relict and recrystallized zircon and geodynamic consequences. Precambrian Research, 250, 6-26.
Franz, G., Morteani, G., Gerdes, A., & Rhede, D. (2014). Ages of protolith and Neoproterozoic metamorphism of Al-P-bearing quartzites of the Veredas formation (Northern Espinhaco, Brazil): LA-ICP-MS age determinations on relict and recrystallized zircon and geodynamic consequences. Precambrian Research, 250, 6-26.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Galiléia
      • Sapucaia do Norte
Cassedanne, J.P. & Baptista, A. (1999): Famous Mineral Localities: The Sapucaia Pegmatite Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record, 30: 347-360 + 365
    • Itinga
      • Taquaral
        • Piauí Valley
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
Czech Republic
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Olomouc Region
Reif, J., Rezek, K., Zachař, Z.: Berlinit AlPO4 ze sulfidického ložiska Zlaté Hory - západ. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1989, roč. 34, č. 4, s. 363-372.
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Wiesau
        • Triebendorf
Pöllmann, H., (1990): Mineralparagenesen im Nephelinbasanit von Triebendorf/ Opf., Der Aufschluss, Vol. 41(4), 219-226
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Ehrenfriedersdorf
Thomas, R., and Webster, J.D. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 570-582.
  • Java (Jawa)
    • Jawa Barat Province (West Java Province)
      • Bandung
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Carbonia
        • Barbusi
Sauro, F., De Waele, J., Onac, B. P., Galli, E., Dublyansky, Y., Baldoni, E., & Sanna, L. (2014). Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: the case of Corona'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy). Geomorphology, 211, 77-88.
  • Fianarantsoa Province
    • Amoron'i Mania Region
      • Ambatofinandrahana District
        • Itremo Commune
          • Itremo massif
Ackermand et al.(2006): "Lazulite-bearing metaquartzite of the Itremo Group (Central Madagascar); Scientific significance and economic importance" in Proceedings of the Malagasy-German Research Cooperation in Life and Earth sciences, 5-18
  • Viana do Castelo District
    • Ponte da Barca
      • São Lourenço de Touvedo
Leal Gomes, C., Azevedo, A., Lopes Nunes, J., & Dias, P. A. (2009). Phosphate fractionation in pegmatites of Pedra da Moura II claim–Ponte da Barca–Portugal. Estudos Geológicos, 19(2), 172.
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.; Am. Min., 88, 1395–1397 (2003) ; Am. Min. 90,1203-1208 (2005); Am. Min. 92,1998-2001(2007)
  • Western Province
    • Gatumba District
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV; Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 613-615; Daltry, V.D.C. and O. von Knorring (1998) Type-Mineralogy of Rwanda with Particular Reference to the Buranga Pegmatite. Geologica Belgica 1:1-9
Fransolet, Andre-Mathieu, 1989, The Problem of Na-Li Substitution in Primary Li-Al Phosphates: New Data on Lacroixite, a Relatively Widespread Mineral, Canadian Mineralogist, v. 27, p. 211-217.
F. Hatert, P. Lefèvre, A.M. Fransolet, M.R. Spirlet, F. Fontan, P. Keller : "Ferrorosemaryite, []NaFe2+Fe3+Al(PO4)3, a new phosphate mineral from the Rubindi pegmatite, Rwanda", Bull. Liaison S.F.M.C., Vol. 16, 2004, pp 44-45.; Lefèvre, P., Fransolet, A. M., Fontan, F., & Keller, P. Petrographic study of the Al-rich phosphate mineral associations of the Rubindi-Kabilizi pegmatite, Gatumba area, Rwanda.
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV
  • Catalonia
    • Girona (Gerona)
      • Alt Empordà
        • Cadaqués
Bareche, E. (2005) "Els minerals de Catalunya. Segle XX" Ed. Museu Mollfulleda de Mineralogia - Grup Mineralògic Català, 269 p.; Pura Alfonso - J. C. Melgarejo, Boron vs. Phosphorus in granitic pegmatites: the Cap de Creus case, Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 45/1-2 (2000)
Sweden (TL)
  • Skåne
    • Bromölla
      • Näsum
Blomstrand, C. W. (1868): Om Vestanå Mineralier. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 25 (3), 197-212;
  • Värmland
    • Torsby
Grensman, F. (1989): Hålsjøberg- En fyndortsbeskrivning. NAGS-nytt 16(3), 24-27; Grensman, F. & Sandström, F. (2002): Kyanitmineraliseringen i Hålsjöberg, Torsby, Värmland. Litiofilen 19 (2): 26-38; Ek, Roland & Nysten, Per (1990): Phosphate mineralogy of the Hålsjöberg and Hökensås kyanite deposits. Geologiska Föreningens I Stockholm. Förhandlingar, Stockholm: 112: 9-18.
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Zermatt - Saas Fee area
      • Matt Valley
        • Stalden
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 72
  • Arizona
    • Gila Co.
      • Globe-Miami District
        • Miami-Inspiration District
          • Inspiration
            • Miami-Inspiration deposit
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 132.
  • Maine
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, volume 1.
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