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Åkermanite

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Formula:
Ca
 
2
Mg(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
System:TetragonalColour:Colorless, yellowish ...
Hardness:5 - 6
Member of:Melilite Group
Name:Named after Anders Richard Åkerman, Swedish metallurgist.

Classification of Åkermanite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/C.02-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.BB.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
B : Si2O7 groups, without non-tetrahedral anions; cations in tetrahedral [4] and greater coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:55.4.1.1

55 : SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups,Generally with no Additional Anions
4 : Si2O7 Groups, Generally with No Additional Anions with cations in [8] and lower coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.6.9

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
6 : Silicates of Ca with alkali or Mg or both
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Occurrences of Åkermanite

Geological Setting:A product of contact metamorphism of siliceous limestones and dolostones, and in rocks of the sanidinite facies. Also forms from alkalic magmas rich in calcium.

Physical Properties of Åkermanite

Lustre:Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colorless, yellowish gray, green, brown
Comment:in thin section, colorless to yellow
Streak:white
Hardness (Mohs):5 - 6
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Distinct on {001} , poor on {110}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal

Crystallography of Åkermanite

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Class (H-M):4 2m - Scalenohedral
Space Group:P4 21m
Cell Parameters:a = 7.8288(8) Å, c = 5.0052(2) Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.639
Unit Cell Volume:V 306.77 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals short prismatic to thin tabular, which may resemble squashed, octahedrally-modified cubes; granular, massive.
Twinning:On {100} and 001 , cruciform.
Comment:Synthetic material

Optical Data of Åkermanite

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.632 nε = 1.640
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.008

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate

Chemical Properties of Åkermanite

Formula:
Ca
 
2
Mg(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Essential elements:Ca, Mg, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Ca, Mg, O, Si

Relationship of Åkermanite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Gehlenite (see here)
Member of:Melilite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Alumoåkermanite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Al,Mg,Fe
2+
 
)(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
Ferri-gehlenite
Ca
 
2
Fe
3+
 
AlSiO
 
7
Gehlenite
Ca
 
2
Al(AlSiO
 
7
)
Gugiaite
Ca
 
2
Be(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
Hardystonite
Ca
 
2
Zn(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
Okayamalite
Ca
 
2
B(BSiO
 
7
)
Common Associates:
WollastoniteSpurriteMonticelliteMerwiniteMerwinite
LarniteForsteriteDiopside
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.BB.10Cebollite
Ca
 
5
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
4
9.BB.10Gehlenite
Ca
 
2
Al(AlSiO
 
7
)
9.BB.10Gugiaite
Ca
 
2
Be(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
9.BB.10Hardystonite
Ca
 
2
Zn(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
9.BB.10Jeffreyite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Be,Al)(Si
 
2
O
 
7
,HSi
 
2
O
 
7
)
9.BB.10Okayamalite
Ca
 
2
B(BSiO
 
7
)
9.BB.10Alumoåkermanite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Al,Mg,Fe
2+
 
)(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
9.BB.15Barylite
Be
 
2
Ba(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
9.BB.15Clinobarylite
Be
 
2
Ba(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
9.BB.20Andrémeyerite
BaFe
2+
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.6.1Combeite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
 
0.5
14.6.2Pectolite
NaCa
 
2
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
14.6.3Pectolite-M2abc
NaCa
 
2
[HSi
 
3
O
 
9
]
14.6.4Denisovite
Ca
 
2
(K,Na)Si
 
3
O
 
8
(F,OH)
 
2
14.6.5Tokkoite
K
 
2
Ca
 
4
Si
 
7
O
 
17
(O,OH,F)
 
4
14.6.6Mountainite
KNa
 
2
Ca
 
2
[Si
 
8
O
 
19
(OH)] · 6H
 
2
O
14.6.7Rhodesite
KHCa
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
19
· 5H
 
2
O
14.6.8Miserite
K(Ca,Ce)
 
4
Si
 
5
O
 
13
(OH)
 
3
14.6.10Monticellite
CaMgSiO
 
4
14.6.11Merwinite
Ca
 
3
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
14.6.12Diopside
CaMgSi
 
2
O
 
6
14.6.13Tremolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2

Other Names for Åkermanite

Synonyms:
OakermaniteOkermanite
Other Languages:
German:Åkermanit
Oakermanit
Okermanit
Russian:Окерманит
Simplified Chinese:镁黄长石
Spanish:Åkermanita
Oakermanita
Okermanita
Varieties:
Justite (of Hofmann-Degen)

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Åkermanite

Reference List:

- +
Christie, O.H.J. (1961) On sub-solidus relations of silicates; IV. The system åkermanite-sodium-gehlenite and gehlenite-sodium-gehlenite. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift: 42: 31-44.

Valley, J.W. and Essene, E.J. (1979) Vesuvianite, akermanite, monticellite and wollastonite equlibria and high X H2O/CO2 at Cascade slide, Mt Marcy Quad, Adirondack Mts. EOS: 60: 423.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1981): 1-10.

Courtial, P., Téqui, C., and Richet, P. (2000) Thermodynamics of diopside, anorthite, pseudowollastonite, CaMgGeO4 olivine, and åkermanite up to near the melting point. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 27: 242-250.

Internet Links for Åkermanite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Åkermanite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Åkermanite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
    Kolitsch, U. (2013): 1799) Anglesit, Brochantit, Calcit, Callaghanit, Connellit, Cuprit, Diopsid, Elyit, Forsterit, Kupfer, Lithargit, Magnesiochromit, Malachit, Monohydrocalcit, Phoenicochroit, Rouait und Willemit in Schlacken der Montanwerke Brixlegg, Tirol. Pp. 111-114 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2013): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXII. Carinthia II, 203./123., 91-146.
    Canada
     
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      • Labrador
    OWENS, B.E. & KREMSER, P.T. (2010) Åkermanite breakdown to cuspidine-bearing sympectite in a calc-silicate xenolith, Kiglapait intrusion, Labrador, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 48, 809-819.
    Am Min 85:1595–1605, (2000)
    • Québec
      • Laurentides
        • Deux-Montagnes RCM
          • Oka
            • Oka complex
    Sabina (1968)
          • Saint-Joseph-du-Lac
            • Oka complex
    Sabina (1968)
    China
     
    • Shaanxi Province
      • Hanzhong Prefecture
        • Ningqiang Co.
    Xiyue Wang, Huimin Zhang, Sichao Wang, and Yuezhen Wu (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 296-306
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
        • Kutná Hora (Kuttenberg)
          • Poličany
            • Vrchlice river valley
    Pauliš P. Mineralogické lokality okolí Kutné Hory. Kuttna, Kutná Hora 1999. ISBN 80-902719-0-1.
      • Ústí Region
        • Duchcov (Dux)
    Žáček V., Skála R., Chlupáčová M., Dvořák Z. 2005: Ca-Fe3+-rich, Si-undersaturated buchite from Želénky, North-Bohemian Brown Coal Basin, Czech Republic. Eur. J. Mineral., 17, 623-633
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Kaiserstuhl
        • Schelingen
          • Orberg - Badberg area
    Keller, J., Williams T. (1995): Niocalite and Wöhlerite from the alkaline and carbonatite rocks at Kaiserstuhl, Germany, Mineralogical Magazine, Vol.: 59, 561-566
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Goslar
          • Astfeld
    No reference listed
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Aachen
        • Stolberg
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    Rolf Luetcke specimen; Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Sauerland
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
    BLAß, G. & GRAF, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von bekannten Fundstellen (13). Mineralien-Welt 6 (3), 47-51.
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Hillesheim
    in the collection of Christof Schäfer
        • Mayen
          • Ettringen
            • Bellerberg volcano
    [Blass, G., Graf, H.W., Neue Mineralienfunde aus der Eifel und dem Siegerland, Mineralien-Welt 10/3, 23, 1999] [A. Wittern: Mineralfundorte in Deutschland, Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001]
              • Southern lava flow
                • Mayener Feld
    Christof Schäfer
    Iraq
     
    • Qala-Diz (Qala-Dizeh; Qala-Diza)
      • Hero
    Israel
     
    • Negev
    Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    [Lapis 1994:5 p.13-23,58]
    • Latium
      • Rome Province
        • Sacrofano Caldera
          • Campagnano di Roma
          • Sacrofano
    Vik Vanrusselt Collection
    • Umbria
      • Perugia Province
        • Spoleto
    Stoppa F., Sharygin V.V., 2009. Melilitolite intrusion and pelite digestion by high temperature kamafugitic magma at Colle Fabbri, Spoleto, Italy. Lithos, 112, 306-320.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chugoku region
        • Shimane Prefecture
          • Hamada City
    The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
    Namibia
     
    • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
      • Tsumeb
    Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
    Norway
     
    • Telemark
      • Skien
    Jamtveit B., Dahlgren S. and Austrheim H. (1997): High-grade contact metamorphism of calcareous rocks from the Oslo Rift, Southern Norway. American Mineralogist. 82 : 1241 - 1254
    Romania
     
    • Harghita Co.
      • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
        • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
    Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
        • Maimecha and Kotui Rivers Basin
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/khib.htm
    Kalinkina, E. V., Kalinkin, A. M., Forsling, W., & Makarov, V. N. (2001). Sorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide and structural changes of Ca and Mg silicate minerals during grinding: II. Enstatite, åkermanite and wollastonite. International journal of mineral processing, 61(4), 289-299.
    South Africa
     
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Eastern Bushveld Complex
        • Lydenburg
    Minerals of South Africa
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Kalahari manganese field
        • Hotazel
    Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
    Sweden
     
    • Medelpad
      • Timrå
    Sandström, F., Binett, T., Wiklund, C. & Vikström, J. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Litiofilen. 27 (2) :14-42
    UK
     
    • Northern Ireland
      • Co. Antrim
        • Glenoe
    P. A. Sabine, M. T. Styles and B. R. Young (1985) The Nature and Paragenesis of Natural Bredigite and Associated Minerals from Carneal and Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. Mineralogical Magazine 49:663-670.
    Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
      • North West Highlands (Argyllshire)
        • Ardnamurchan
    Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Mineralogical Magazine 1965 34 : 1-15.
    USA
     
    • Colorado
      • Gunnison Co.
        • White Earth District (Powderhorn District)
    "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
    • New York
      • Essex Co.
        • Keene
          • Cascade Mountain
    EOS: 60: 423.; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 74, 143-152 (1980)
    • Texas
      • Culberson Co.
        • Apache Peak area
    Rocks & Minerals: 66(3): 196-224.
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    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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