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Breithauptite

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Formula:
NiSb
System:HexagonalColour:Copper-red with a violet ...
Hardness:
Member of:Nickeline Group
Name:
Named in 1840 by Julius Fröbel in honor of Saxon mineralogist Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt {May 16,1791 Probstzella, Germany - September 22, 1873). Breithaupt was professor at the Bergakademie in Freiburg, Germany and later successor to Friedrich Mohs at the Natural History Museum in Vienna. Breithaupt was a prolific systematic mineralogist and originated the concept of paragenesis. Originally named antimonickel and described in 1833 by Friedrich Stromeyer.

Classification of Breithauptite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/C.20-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.CC.05

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
C : With Ni, Fe, Co, PGE, etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:2.8.11.2

2 : SULFIDES
8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.11.36

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
11 : Sulphides etc. of Ni
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Type Occurrence of Breithauptite

Type Locality:St Andreasberg, St Andreasberg District, Harz, Lower Saxony, Germany
Year of Discovery:1840

Occurrences of Breithauptite

Geological Setting:In hydrothermal veins associated with other nickle and cobalt arsenides.

Physical Properties of Breithauptite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Copper-red with a violet tint
Streak:Reddish brown
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):7.591 - 8.23 g/cm3
Density (calculated):8.629 g/cm3

Crystallography of Breithauptite

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:P63/mmc
Cell Parameters:a = 3.946Å, c = 5.148Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.305
Unit Cell Volume:V 69.42 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Thin tabular, arborescent, disseminated, massive
Twinning:Twin plane {1011}
Crystal Atlas:
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Breithauptite - Tabular {001}

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Optical Data of Breithauptite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:noticeable in oil and air
Pleochroism:Visible

Chemical Properties of Breithauptite

Formula:
NiSb
Essential elements:Ni, Sb
All elements listed in formula:Ni, Sb
Common Impurities:Fe,Co,As,S

Relationship of Breithauptite to other Species

Member of:Nickeline Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Achavalite
(Fe,Cu)Se
Freboldite
CoSe
Kotulskite
Pd(Te,Bi)
Langisite
(Co,Ni)As
Nickeline
NiAs
Sobolevskite
Pd(Bi,Te)
Sudburyite
(Pd,Ni)Sb
Common Associates:
SilverNickelineCalcite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.CC.UM2007-26-S:CuFeIrNiPtRh
(Ir,Cu,Ni,Pt,Rh,Fe)
 
9
S
 
11
2.CC.05Achavalite
(Fe,Cu)Se
2.CC.05Freboldite
CoSe
2.CC.05Kotulskite
Pd(Te,Bi)
2.CC.05Langisite
(Co,Ni)As
2.CC.05Nickeline
NiAs
2.CC.05Sederholmite
beta-NiSe
2.CC.05Sobolevskite
Pd(Bi,Te)
2.CC.05Stumpflite
Pt(Sb,Bi)
2.CC.05Sudburyite
(Pd,Ni)Sb
2.CC.05Jaipurite
CoS
2.CC.05Zlatogorite
NiCuSb
 
2
2.CC.10Pyrrhotite
Fe
 
1-x
S (x = 0 to 0.17)
2.CC.10Smythite
(Fe,Ni)
 
3+x
S
 
4
(x=0-0.3)
2.CC.10Troilite
FeS
2.CC.15Cherepanovite
RhAs
2.CC.15Modderite
(Co,Fe)As
2.CC.15Ruthenarsenite
(Ru,Ni)As
2.CC.15Westerveldite
(Fe,Ni,Co)As
2.CC.20Millerite
NiS
2.CC.20Mäkinenite
γ-NiSe
2.CC.20UM1990-38-S:CuFeIrNiPtRh
(Ir,Pt,Ni,Fe)S
2.CC.25Mackinawite
(Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
8
2.CC.30Hexatestibiopanickelite
(Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)
2.CC.30Vavřínite
Ni
 
2
SbTe
 
2
2.CC.35aBraggite
(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
2.CC.35bCooperite
PtS
2.CC.35aVysotskite
(Pd,Ni)S
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.11.1Heazlewoodite
Ni
 
3
S
 
2
3.11.2Godlevskite
(Ni,Fe)
 
9
S
 
8
3.11.3Millerite
NiS
3.11.4Polydymite
Ni
2+
 
Ni
3+
2
S
 
4
3.11.5Vaesite
NiS
 
2
3.11.6Shandite
Ni
 
3
Pb
 
2
S
 
2
3.11.7Donharrisite
Ni
 
8
Hg
 
3
S
 
9
3.11.8Violarite
Fe
2+
 
Ni
3+
2
S
 
4
3.11.9Pentlandite
(Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
8
3.11.10Bravoite
(Fe,Ni)S
 
2
3.11.11Siegenite
CoNi
 
2
S
 
4
-NiCo
 
2
S
 
4
3.11.12Fletcherite
Cu(Ni,Co)
 
2
S
 
4
3.11.13Villamaninite
(Cu,Ni,Co,Fe)S
 
2
3.11.14Mäkinenite
γ-NiSe
3.11.15Sederholmite
beta-NiSe
3.11.16Trüstedtite
Ni
 
3
Se
 
4
3.11.17Wilkmanite
Ni
 
3
Se
 
4
3.11.18Kullerudite
NiSe
 
2
3.11.19Penroseite
(Ni,Co,Cu)Se
 
2
3.11.20Tyrrellite
Cu(Co
3+
 
,Ni
3+
 
)
 
2
Se
 
4
3.11.21Imgreite
NiTe (?)
3.11.22Melonite
NiTe
 
2
3.11.23Kitkaite
NiTeSe
3.11.24Dienerite
3.11.25Orcelite
Ni
 
5-x
As
 
2
3.11.26Maucherite
Ni
 
11
As
 
8
3.11.27Nickeline
NiAs
3.11.28Rammelsbergite
NiAs
 
2
3.11.29Pararammelsbergite
NiAs
 
2
3.11.30Nickelskutterudite
NiAs
 
2-3
3.11.31Oregonite
Ni
 
2
FeAs
 
2
3.11.32Westerveldite
(Fe,Ni,Co)As
3.11.33Langisite
(Co,Ni)As
3.11.34Gersdorffite
NiAsS
3.11.35Jolliffeite
NiAsSe
3.11.38Ullmannite
NiSbS
3.11.39Willyamite
(Co,Ni)SbS

Other Names for Breithauptite

Synonyms:
Antimonnicke (of Stromeyer)Briethauptite (of Fröbel)
Other Languages:
German:Antimonnickel (of Stromeyer)
Breithauptit
Russian:Брейтгауптит
Simplified Chinese:红锑镍矿
Spanish:Breithauptita
Varieties:
Arite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Breithauptite

Reference List:

- +
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 238-239.

Economic Geology (1948): 43: 408.

Internet Links for Breithauptite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Breithauptite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Breithauptite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Jujuy
      • Humahuaca Department
        • Aguilar district
    Econ Geol (1992) 87:2085-2112; Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Yancowinna Co.
        • Broken Hill
    L.Lawrence, A.R.Ramsden & I.T.Graham 1999. On oxidation of Dyscrasite and associated minerals of the Consols Lode, Broken Hill, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Mineralogy Vol.5, No.2, Dec.1999, pp. 63-68
    Ramdohr, P. (1950): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 2(4), 291-333.
    Ramdohr, P. (1950): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 2(4), 291-333.
    • South Australia
      • Mt Lofty Ranges
        • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
          • Mount Barker
            • Nairne
    No reference listed
    • Western Australia
      • Ashburton Shire
        • Tom Price
    American Mineralogist, Volume 72, pages 401-403, 1987
      • East Pilbara Shire
        • Nullagine
    Nickel, E. H.; Hallbert, J. A.; Halligan, R. (1979): Unusual nickel mineralization at Nullagine, Western Australia. Journal of the Geological Society of Australia 26, 61-71.
      • Wiluna Shire
        • Mount Keith
    Grguric, B.A. (2003) Minerals of the MKD5 nickel deposit, Mount Keith, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 9, No. 2 , pg. 55-71.
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Radstadt
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
    • Styria
      • Frohnleiten
        • Kirchdorf
    Kolitsch, U. & Brandstätter, F. (2010): 1666) Ein vorläufiger Bericht über seltene Ni- und Cr-Mineralien vom Kirchdorftunnel der Brucker Schnellstraße, Steiermark. Pp. 250-252 in Niedermayr et al. (2010): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LIX. Carinthia II, 200./120., 199-260.
      • Leoben
    Meixner, H. (1959): Kraubather Lagerstättenstudien. V. Die Nickelmineralisation im Kraubather Serpentingebiet. - Berg- und Hüttenmännische Mh. 104, 83-87; Aufschluss 1972(SB), 80-83
    Meixner, H. (1953): Die Minerale aus dem Dunitserpentinit von Kraubath. Mitteilungsblatt der Abteilung für Mineralogie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, 1953 (1), 21-23.; Alker, A. (1959): Zur Mineralogie der Steiermark. Mitteilungsblatt der Abteilung für Mineralogie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, 127 pp.
      • Schladming
        • Schladminger Tauern
          • Obertalbach valley
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993); Kolitsch, U. & Brandstätter, F. (2008); Pribitzer, F. (1956): Die Minerallagerstätte Zinkwand bei Schladming in Steiermark (Österreich). Aufschluss, 7 (3), 59-63.
      • Weiz
    Reiter, D. & Weber, L. (2005): Zur Charakterisierung primärer und sekundärer Vererzungen der Blei-Zinkerzlagerstätte von Arzberg (Steiermark). Joannea - Geologie und Paläontologie, 7, 25-42.
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Osoyoos Mining Division
        • Hedley
    MINFILE No 092HSE038
      • Similkameen Mining Division
        • Tulameen River
    Nixon, G. T., Cabri, L. J., & Laflamme, J. G. (1990). Platinum-group-element mineralization in lode and placer deposits associated with the Tulameen Alaskan-type complex, British Columbia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 28(3), 503-535.
    • Manitoba
      • Lynn Lake District
    Bernhardt Augsten, Ralph I. Thorpe, Donald C. Harris, and Mark A. F. Fedikow (1986) Ore mineralogy of the Agassiz (MacLellan) gold deposit in the Lynn Lake region, Manitoba Can Mineral, 24:369-377
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      • Labrador
        • Voisey´s Bay
    Kelvin et al. Can. Min. 49, 1505
    • Northwest Territories
      • Mackenzie District
        • Great Bear Lake
    Lang,A.H (1952) Canadian Deposits of Uranium and Thorium. Geological Survey of Canada. Economic Geology Series No.16, p.53
    Lang,A.H (1952) Canadian Deposits of Uranium and Thorium. Geological Survey of Canada. Economic Geology Series No.16
    Lang,A.H (1952) Canadian Deposits of Uranium and Thorium. Geological Survey of Canada. Economic Geology Series No.16, p.53
    • Nunavut Territory
      • Mackenzie District
        • Itchen Lake
    Canadian Mineralogist (1984) 22, 493-498
    • Ontario
      • Kenora District
    CABRI, L.J. & HARRIS, D.C. (1969) New minerals from an unusual antimonial assemblage from the Red Lake area, Ontario. Canadian Mineralogist, 10(1), 128. (abstract).
    Canadian Mineralogist (1971): 10: 128
      • Sudbury District
        • McKim Township
    Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 511.
        • Snider Township
    Canadian Mineralogist (1974): 12: 275-279.
      • Thunder Bay District
        • Bomby Township
    ontariominerals.com
    Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49. p.86
        • Sibley Township
          • Silver Islet
    [MinRec 17:59]
      • Timiskaming District
        • Cobalt-Gowganda region
    Joel Grice (1989) Famous Mineral Localities of Canada. Fitzhenry & Whiteside, Markham Ontario 190pp
            • Coleman Township
    Satterly, J. (1977) A Catalogue of the Ontario Localities Represented by the Mineral Collection of the Royal Ontario Museum; Ontario Geological Survey Miscellaneous Paper MP70,464p.
    Satterly, J. 1977: A Catalogue of the Ontario Localities Represented by the Mineral Collection of the Royal Ontario Museum; Ontario Geological Survey Miscellaneous Paper MP70,464p.
    Sergiades, A.O., Silver Cobalt Calcite Vein Deposits of Ontario, 1968
    ontariominerals.com
    geological survey of canada paper 73-13
    R.Mielke
    Van King
    Sabina, Ann P., 2000. Rocks and Minerals for the Collector: Cobalt-Belleterre-Timmins, Ontario and Quebec, GSC. Miscellaneous Report 57, 266 p.
    the Canadian Mineralogist V 11 Part 1 1971
              • Nipissing Mine
    Maggie Wilson
    Sabina, Ann P., 2000. Rocks and Minerals for the Collector: Cobalt-Belleterre-Timmins, Ontario and Quebec, GSC. Miscellaneous Report 57, 266 p.
    Sabina, Ann P., 2000. Rocks and Minerals for the Collector: Cobalt-Belleterre-Timmins, Ontario and Quebec, GSC. Miscellaneous Report 57, 266 p.
    Ann P. Sabina (1974) Rocks and Minerals for the Collector: Cobalt-Belleferre-Timmins; Ontario and Quebec. Canadian Geological Survey Paper 73-13; Satterly, J. (1977) A Catalogue of the Ontario Localities Represented by the Mineral Collection of the Royal Ontario Museum; Ontario Geological Survey Miscellaneous Paper MP70,464p.
    Sabina, Ann P., 2000. Rocks and Minerals for the Collector: Cobalt-Belleterre-Timmins, Ontario and Quebec, GSC. Miscellaneous Report 57, 266 p.
    Satterly, J. (1977) A Catalogue of the Ontario Localities Represented by the Mineral Collection of the Royal Ontario Museum; Ontario Geological Survey Miscellaneous Paper MP70,464p.
          • Gowganda area
            • Nichol Township
    Geological Survey of Canada Paper 73-13
          • South Lorrain Township
    geological survey of canada paper 73-13
    • Québec
      • Centre-du-Québec
        • Arthabaska RCM
          • Saints-Martyrs-Canadiens
    Min. Rec. 27, 133
      • Gaspésie-Îles-de-la-Madeleine
        • La Haute-Gaspésie RCM
          • Mont-Albert
    Girard, P. (1971)
    • Yukon Territory
      • Whitehorse Mining District
        • Kluane District
    Can. Min. Special Publication 6; Barkov, A.Y., Laflamme, J.H.G., Cabri, L.J., and Martin, R.F. (2002) Platinum-group minerals from the Wellgreen Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, Yukon, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 651-669.; 5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
    China
     
    • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
      • Nanning Prefecture
        • Wuming Co.
    Yijiang Ban (1980): Geology and Prospecting 16(6), 52-59
    • Sichuan Province
      • Garzê Autonomous Prefecture (Ganzi Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Batang Co.
    Quan Liu (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(2), 121-128
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
          • Fuyun Co. (Koktokay Co.)
    Minqing Cheng, Yuchun Yang, Fuyi Jia, Qingshan Yang, Guifang Zhao, Cunchang Wang, and Sen Huang (1993): Geology and Prospecting 29(7), 35-39
    • Yunnan Province
      • Pu'er Prefecture
        • Mojiang Co.
    Yuan Li (1998): Geology and Prospecting 34(5), 28-32
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
        • Příbram
          • Březové Hory ore region (Birkenberg)
            • Bohutín
    Ettler, V., Červinka, R., Johan, Z. (2009): Mineralogy of medieval slags from lead and silver smelting (Bohutín, Příbram district, Czech Republic): towards estimation of historical smelting conditions. Archaeometry 51, 987-1007.
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
          • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
    Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
    Finland
     
    • Northern Finland Region
      • Vihanti
    Sergeeva, N. E., Eremin, N. I., & Dergachev, A. L. (2011, February). Vanadium mineralization in ore of the Vihanti massive sulfide base-metal deposit, Finland. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 436, No. 2, pp. 210-212). SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica.; Geological Survey of Finland 2007 Vihanti - ZINC Database
    • Southwestern Finland Region
      • Pargas (Parainen)
    Hangala Leake S. 1987 The early proterozoic Zn-Pb-Cu massive sulfide deposit at Attu, SW Finland Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 341 61s
      • Somero
    Eilu, P. (2003). Exploration for orogenic gold deposits. Fennoscandian Exploration and Mining 2003. Rovaniemi, Finland
    • Western and Inner Finland Region
      • Akaa
    Gervilla et al 1997. Mineralogy of thePt-, Pd- and Au bearing arsenide ores of the Kylmäkoski Ni-Cu deposit, Vammala nickel belt, SW Finland. Mineral Deposits: Research and Exploration. Where do they meet. Proceedings of the fourth Biennial SGA meeting, Turku, Finland, 11-13 August 1997. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 419-422.
    American Mineralogist (1977): 62: 1059-1060.
    Geological Survey of Finland website
    France
     
    • Aquitaine
      • Pyrénées-Atlantiques
        • Eaux-Bonnes
    [var: Arite] Clark (1993) Heys Mineral Index 3rd ed.
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Hautes-Pyrénées
        • Argelès-Gazost
          • Pierrefitte
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1 (1990)
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Alpes-Maritimes
        • Saint-Etienne-de-Tinée
    R. Pierrot, P. Picot, J. Feraud, J. Vernet : "Inventaire Minéralogique de la France, N° 4, Alpes Maritimes", BRGM, 1974
    R. Pierrot, P. Picot, J. Feraud, J. Vernet : "Inventaire Minéralogique de la France, N° 4, Alpes Maritimes", BRGM, 1974
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Rhône
        • Le Bois d'Oingt
          • Chessy-les-Mines
    French BRGM data
      • Savoie
        • La Lauzière massif
          • Montchabert
    DE ASCENCAO GUEDES R. (2000). La Lauzière : les espèces minérales, Savoie, France. Le Règne Minéral hors-série n°6, pp. 24-39. Editions du Piat.
    DE ASCENCAO GUEDES R. (2000). La Lauzière : les espèces minérales, Savoie, France. Le Règne Minéral hors-série n°6, pp. 24-39. Editions du Piat.
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Wieden
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Frohnbach valley
    [var: Arite] Frank Keutsch collection
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Braunlage
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • St Andreasberg District
    Haidinger W (1845) Zweite Klasse: Geogenide. XIII. Ordnung. Kiese. I. Nickelkies. Breithauptit., in Handbuch der Bestimmenden Mineralogie Bei Braumüller and Seidel Wien 559-562
    No reference listed
    own collection
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    No reference listed
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Sauerland
        • Meschede
          • Bestwig
            • Nuttlar
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Lahn valley
        • Bad Ems District
          • Bad Ems
    Ramdohr, P., (1975): Die Erzminerale und ihre Verwachsungen, p. 671, Stuttgart
      • Palatinate
        • Alsenz-Obermoschel
    Lapis 2001(6), 13-40
        • Winnweiler
          • Imsbach
    Lapis, 9 (5), 36-39.
      • Siegerland
        • Niederfischbach
    Collection Holger Adelmann
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Vogtland
        • Oelsnitz
          • Schönbrunn
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    Gröbner, J. and Kolitsch, U. (2007): The minerals of the uranium prospect at Tirpersdorf, Vogtland. Lapis 32, 37-42; 58. (in German)
    Greenland
     
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
    Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
          • Tunulliarfik Fjord (Tunugdliarfik)
    Soerensen, H. (1962): On the occurence of Steenstrupine in the Ilimaussaq massif, southwest Greenland, Meddelelser om Groenland, Reitzels Forlag Koebenhavn; I. S. Oen, E. A. J. Burke and C. Kieft (1977) Westerveldite from Igdlúnguaq, Ilímaussaq Alkaline Massif, South Greenland. Mineralogical Magazine 41:77-83.
    India
     
    • Karnataka
      • Kolar District
    Safonov, Yu.G. et al (1984) Journal of the Geological Society of India, 25, 33, 145-154.
    • Rajasthan (Rajputana)
      • Ajmer Division
        • Bhilwara District
    Höller, W., and Gandhi, S.M. (1997): Mineralogy and Petrology 60, 99-119.
      • Udaipur Division
        • Udaipur District
          • Rajpura-Dariba deposit
    Pal, T., & Deb, M. (2009). Breithauptite: A rare antimonide in the Dariba-Rajpura-Bethumni belt, Rajsamand district, Rajasthan. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 74(1), 35-38.
    Pal, T., & Deb, M. (2009). Breithauptite: A rare antimonide in the Dariba-Rajpura-Bethumni belt, Rajsamand district, Rajasthan. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 74(1), 35-38.
    Pal, T., & Deb, M. (2009). Breithauptite: A rare antimonide in the Dariba-Rajpura-Bethumni belt, Rajsamand district, Rajasthan. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 74(1), 35-38.
    Ireland
     
    • Co. Kerry
      • Killarney
        • Lough Leane
    Ixer, R.A. 2004. Catalogue of Petrographic Descriptions for Rock and Ore Samples, Ross Island Mine. In: O'Brien, W. ed. Ross Island - Mining, Metal and Society in Early Ireland. Bronze Age Studies 6, Department of Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway, 768pp.
    Italy
     
    • Piedmont
      • Torino Province
        • Lanzo Valleys
          • Balangero
    Prete, R. (1995): L'amiantifera di S. Vittore, Balangero, Torino. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1995, 313-333.
    • Sardinia
      • Cagliari Province
        • Muravera
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Brizzi G., (1993): Sarrabus Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", 208 pp.
        • San Vito
    De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R. & Brizzi, G. (1993). Sarrabus. Miniere e minerali. Associazione Mineralogica Sarda, Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo, Associazione Piemontese Miner. Paleont. e Mostra Torinese Minerali, Centro Mineralogico Varesino, Amici Mineralogisti Fiorentini, Gr. Mineral. Paleont. Piacentino, Gr. Mineral. Cremonese, Gr. Liguria, 210 pp.
    De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.; Stara, P., Rizzo, R. & Brizzi, G. (1993). Sarrabus. Miniere e minerali. Associazione Mineralogica Sarda, Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo, Associazione Piemontese Miner. Paleont. e Mostra Torinese Minerali, Centro Mineralogico Varesino, Amici Mineralogisti Fiorentini, Gr. Mineral. Paleont. Piacentino, Gr. Mineral. Cremonese, Gr. Liguria, 210 pp.
    "Les minéraux, leurs gisements, leurs associations", P. Bariand, F. Cesbron et J. Geffroy (1977), Editions Minéraux et Fossiles, BRGM
      • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
        • Fluminimaggiore
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 2°, 192 pp.
        • Iglesias
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work
      • Medio Campidano Province
        • Arbus
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 2, 192 pp.
        • Gonnosfanadiga
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 2°, 239 pp.
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 2°, 239 pp.
    - G.Conti-Vecchi, P. Stara,: (1991) "I Minerali della Sardegna" STEF S.p.A. Cagliari pp.176
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 2, 192 pp.
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 2°, 239 pp.
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Bolzano Province (South Tyrol)
        • Isarco Valley (Eisack Valley)
          • Ridanna Valley (Ridnaun Valley)
    Exel, R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Athesia, Bolzano, 204 pp.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kinki Region
        • Hyogo Prefecture
          • Yabu City
            • Oya-cho-Natsume
    [var: Arite] Takeo Kato: "Two Types of Nickeliferous Pyrrhotite Deposits Found in Korea." (9 pp)
        • Kyoto Prefecture
    Agata (1973) Sanko-Gakkai Kou'en-Youshi, B30.
    Norway
     
    • Aust-Agder
      • Vegårshei
    Naik, M.S. (1975): Silver sulphosalts in galena from Espeland, Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidskrift, 55: 185-189
    • Nordland
      • Ballangen
    Karup-Møller, S. (1973): A giessenite-cosalite-galena-bearing mineral suite from the Bjørkåsen sulphide deposit at Ofoten in Northern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 53: 41-64
      • Fauske
        • Sulitjelma
          • Sulitjelma Cu Mines
    Cook, N. J. (1996): Mineralogy of the sulphide deposits at Sulitjelma, northern Norway. Ore Geology Reviews 11: 303-308
    Cook, N. J. (1996): Mineralogy of the sulphide deposits at Sulitjelma, northern Norway. Ore Geology Reviews 11: 303-308
      • Hemnes
        • Bleikvassli
    Vokes, F.M. (1963): Geological studies on the Caledonian pyritic zinc-lead orebody at Bleikvassli, Nordland, Norway. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse. 222, 1-126; Cook, N.J., Spry, P.G., and Vokes, F.M. (1998): Mineralogy and textural relationships among sulphosalts and related minerals in the Bleikvassli Zn-Pb-(Cu) deposit, Nordland, Norway. Mineralium Deposita 34, 35-56.
      • Rana
    Saager, R. (1967): Drei Typen von Kieslagerstätten im Mofjell-Gebiet, Nordland, und ein neuer Vorschlag zur Gliederung der kaledonischen Kieslager Norwegens. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 47: 333-358
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
        • Taimyr Peninsula
          • Putoran Plateau
            • Noril'sk
              • Talnakh Cu-Ni Deposit
    Gritsenko, Y.D., and Spiridonov, E.M. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(7), 590-598.; Yulia D. Gritsenko, Ernst M. Spiridonov (2005) Minerals Of The Nickeline-Breithauptite Series From MetamorphogenicHydrotermal Veins Of The Norilsk Ore Field. New Data on Minerals. 40:51-64
    Gritsenko, Y.D., and Spiridonov, E.M. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(7), 590-598.; Geology of Ore Deposits (2009) 50:755-762; Yulia D. Gritsenko, Ernst M. Spiridonov (2005) Minerals Of The Nickeline-Breithauptite Series From MetamorphogenicHydrotermal Veins Of The Norilsk Ore Field. New Data on Minerals. 40:51-64
      • Tuva Republic
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Khabarovskiy Kray
        • Komsomolski ore District
    No reference listed
      • Magadanskaya Oblast'
        • Kolyma River Basin
          • Ducat District
            • Omsukchan
              • Ducat ore field
    Bryzgalov, I. A., Krivitskaya, N. N., & Spiridonov, E. M. (2007, November). First finding of nisbite and aurostibite in the eastern Transbaikal region. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 417, No. 1, pp. 1265-1267). MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica.
          • Omchak gold field
    Goryachev, N.A., Vikent’eva, O.V., Bortnikov, N.S., Prokof’ev, V.Y., Alpatov, V.A., and Golub, V.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(5), 362-390.
    • Northern Caucasus Region
      • Adygea Republic (Adygeya)
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Khibiny Massif
            • Lovchorr Mt
    Karpov S.M., Voloshin A.V., Savchenko E.E., Selivanova E.A., Polekhovskii Yu.S. (2012) coulsonite in pyrrhotite gorge deposit (Kola peninsula): the first find in Russia, - Doklady RAN, 445/2, in press (in Russ.)
          • Pechengsky District
    Abzalov, M.Z., and Both, R.A. (1997): Mineralogy and Petrology 61, 119-143.
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
          • Karabash (Karabasch)
            • Soimon Valley
    Gritsenko, Y.D., and Spiridonov, E.M. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(7), 590-598.
    • Western-Siberian Region
      • Prepolar Ural
        • Tyumenskaya Oblast'
          • Khanty-Mansi Okrug (Khanty Mansiysk)
            • Saranpaul
    [MinRec 30:465]
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Poltár Co.
    Maťo,Ľ., Maťová, 1994: Mineralizácia v okolí Ozdína, výskyt zlata s obsahom Sb-Ni v tmavých bridliciach, JZ časti veporského kryštalinika (stredné Slovensko). Min.Slovaca, 26,1,30 – 37
    • Košice Region
      • Spišská Nová Ves Co.
    Ďuďa R., Peterec D., 1995 : Die Mineralien der siderit - baryt lagersttäte von Rudňany ( Kotterbach ) in der Slowakei. Mineralien Welt /Haltern/, 1, s.20 - 31
    • Prešov Region
      • Prešov Co.
    Duda et. all.,1981:Minerály severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovca,Monografia 2,Bratislava, 98 p
    Spain
     
    • Catalonia
      • Lleida (Lérida)
        • Aran Valley
          • Naut Aran
    Mata-Perelló (1990) "Els minerals de Catalunya" Institut d'Estudis Catalans, Barcelona: 441p
      • Tarragona
        • Priorat
          • Falset
    MTI Mineralogía Topográfica Ibérica, 2009
    Sweden
     
    • Lappland
      • Vilhelmina
    Juve, Gunnar (1974) - Ore mineralogy and ore types of the Stekenjokk deposit, Central Scandinavian Caledonides, Sweden. SGU ser C 706.
    • Närke
      • Askersund
        • Zinkgruvan
    Andersen, C. (2009): The mineralcomposition of the Burkland Cu-sulphide deposit at Zinkgruvan, Sweden- a supplementary study:Examensarbeten i Geologi vid Lunds Universitet- Bergrundsgeologi NR 249, 41 p
    • Östergötland
      • Finspång
        • Doverstorp ore field
    Zakrzewski et al (1982): Can.Min. 20, 281-290
    • Södermanland
      • Nyköping
        • Långsjön
    NJMMh 1982, 201
        • Tunaberg
    Dobbe, R. T. M. (1991): Ullmannite, cobaltian ullmannite and willyamite from Tunaberg, Bergslagen, central Sweden, The Canadian Mineralogist. 29, 199-205; EurJMin 5, 165
    Dobbe, R. T. M., Lustenhouwer, W. and Zakrzewski, M. A. (1994): Kieftite, CoSb3, a new member of the Skutterudite group from Tunaberg, Sweden. Canadian Mineralogist. 32, 179-183
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
        • Långban district
    Neues Jahrb.Mineral. Monatsch., 145-154
        • Persberg district
          • Gruvåsen mines
    No reference listed
    • Västerbotten
      • Sandfors
    Nysten, P. (1990): Tsumoite from the Björkdal gold deposit, Västerbotten County, northern Sweden. GFF 112, 59-60.
    T. Wikström, thesis from Stockholm University
    • Västmanland
      • Hällefors
        • Grythyttan
    Burke, E. A., & Zakrzewski, M. A. (1990). Herzenbergite and associated antimony minerals from Björkskogsnäs, Hällefors, Sweden. GFF, 112(1), 85-86.
      • Lindesberg
    No reference listed
      • Ljusnarsberg
        • Kopparberg
    No reference listed
      • Sala
    Kieft, C., Holmgren, J. & Eriksson, G.: (1987): The Silver-Mercury-Antimony minerals of Sala, Sweden. Canadian Mineralogist. 25 :647-658
    Tanzania
     
    • Tabora Region
      • Lake Victoria Goldfield
        • Nzega District
    Vos, I.M.A. et al. (2009): The geology and mineralization at the Golden Pride gold deposit, Nzega Greenstone Belt, Tanzania. Mineralium Deposita 44, 751-764.
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cumbria
        • North and Western Region (Cumberland)
          • Caldbeck Fells
            • Potts Gill
    No reference listed
    Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
      • Shetland Islands
        • Unst
    5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
    USA
     
    • California
      • Humboldt Co.
        • Coastal Range
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 66.
    • Connecticut
      • Middlesex Co.
        • East Hampton (Chatham)
          • Cobalt
    Shepard (1864)
      • New Haven Co.
        • Seymour
    Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Franklin
            • Franklin Mine
    Verbeek, E.R. & Sutphin H.B., The Picking Table:31(1):2-5 (1990); Dunn(1995):Pt4:544.
    Uzbekistan
     
    • Kyzylkum Desert
      • Kokpatas village
    Mineraly Uzbekistana(Minerals of the Uzbekistan) - izd."FAN" UzbSSR-vol.1-4 - 1976-1977
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