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Classification of KawazuliteHide


2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
D : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 3 :4 and 2:3
C : Variable M:S

11 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
7 : Sulphides etc. of V, As, Sb and Bi

Physical Properties of KawazuliteHide

1½ on Mohs scale

Chemical Properties of KawazuliteHide

Common Impurities:

Crystallography of KawazuliteHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.24 Å, c = 29.66 Å
a:c = 1 : 6.995
Unit Cell V:
461.78 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of KawazuliteHide

Synonyms of KawazuliteHide

Other Language Names for KawazuliteHide


Relationship of Kawazulite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
TetradymiteBi2Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
TsumoiteBiTeTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Gold2 photos of Kawazulite associated with Gold on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.DC.05HedleyiteBi7Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.DC.05LaitakariteBi4Se2STrig. 3m : R3m
2.DC.05PilseniteBi4Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.DC.05TetradymiteBi2Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.DC.05TsumoiteBiTeTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
2.DC.05BaksaniteBi6Te2S3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.7.2DuranusiteAs4SOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
3.7.3DimorphiteAs4S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.4RealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m
3.7.5PararealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
3.7.6AlacrániteAs8S9Mon. 2/m : P2/b
3.7.8OrpimentAs2S3Mon. 2/m
3.7.10LaphamiteAs2(Se,S)3Mon. 2/m
3.7.11GetchelliteAsSbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
3.7.12Wakabayashilite[(As,Sb)6S9][As4S5]Orth. mm2 : Pna21
3.7.13PääkköneniteSb2AsS2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.7.14StibniteSb2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.7.17BismuthiniteBi2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.7.19GuanajuatiteBi2Se3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.22LaitakariteBi4Se2STrig. 3m : R3m
3.7.26TsumoiteBiTeTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
3.7.27PilseniteBi4Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.28HedleyiteBi7Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.29TetradymiteBi2Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.30JoséiteBi4TeS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.40JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for KawazuliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
American Mineralogist (1972): 57: 1312.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen (1995): 169: 305-308.
Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., Wagner, T., Stanley, C. J. (2007): Minerals of the system Bi-Te-Se-S related to the tetradymite archetype: review of classification and compositional variation. Canadian Mineralogist 45, 665-708.

Internet Links for KawazuliteHide

Localities for KawazuliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Salta
    • Los Andes department
      • San Antonio de los Cobres
        • Organullo mining district
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina); DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.; Paar, W. H., Putz, H., Topa, D., de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Sureda, R. J. (2005, January). Occurrence and paragenesis of tellurium in mineral deposits of Argentina. In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 1419-1422). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  • South Australia
    • Stuart Shelf
      • Roxby Downs
Ehrig, K., McPhie, J., Kamenetsky, V. (2012) Geology and mineralogical zonation of the Olympic Dam iron oxide Cu-U-Au-Ag deposit, South Australia. Economic Geology Special Publication 16, pg. 237-267.
  • Sofiya Oblast (Sofia Oblast)
    • Chelopech
Bonev, I.K.; Petrunov, R.; Cook, N. J.; Ciobanu, C. L. (2005): Kostovite and its argentian varieties: Deposits and mineral associations. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology. 42, 1-22
    • Zlatitsa Obshtina
      • Zlatitsa
Georgiev, Georgi (2008) A genetic model of the Elatsite porphyry copper deposit, Bulgaria. GEOCHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY • SOFIA 46, 143-160.
  • Northwest Territories
    • Mazenod Lake District
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
  • Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region
    • Pala
Rigobert, T., Claude, D. J., Marambaye, D., & Yannick, B. (2013): On the occurrence of gold mineralization in the Pala Neoproterozoic formations, South-Western Chad. Journal of African Earth Sciences 84, 36-46.
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
Brent Thorne specimen
Mineral label from Steffen Mockel. In the collection of Brent Thorne; see discussion on
  • Eastern Finland Region
    • Rantasalmi
Kojonen,Kari 2008. Au-Ag tellurides-selenides in Finland. International Geological Congress, Oslo August 6-14th. Abstract
  • Northern Finland Region
    • Kuusamo
Eilu, P. (2003). Exploration for orogenic gold deposits. Fennoscandian Exploration and Mining 2003. Rovaniemi, Finland ; Geological Survey of Finland 2007 Juomasuo - Gold Database
  • Thraki Department (Thrace; Thracia)
    • Évros Prefecture
      • Alexandroupoli (Alexandroupolis)
Panagiotis Christos Voudouris, Vasilios Melfos, Paul G. Spry, Robert Moritz, Constantinos Papavassiliou und George Falalakis (2011): Mineralogy and geochemical environment of formation of the Perama Hill high-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag-Te-Se deposit, Petrota Graben, NE Greece. Mineralogy and Petrology 103, 79-100.
  • Heves Co.
    • Mátra Mts
      • Gyöngyössolymos
GEODA, 2001
      • Recsk
Takács, Á., Molnár, F., Turi, J., Mogessie, A. & Menzies, J. C. (2017): Ore mineralogy and fluid inclusion constraints on the temporal and spatial evolution of a high-sulfidation epithermal Cu-Au-Ag deposit in the Recsk Ore Complex, Hungary. Economic Geology 112, 1461-1481.
  • Hokkaido
    • Shiribeshi Province
Shuji Ono, et al. (2004) Resource Geology, 54, 4, 453-464.
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Shizuoka Prefecture
        • Shimoda City
          • Rendaiji
Am. Min.: 57:1312 (1972 )(abstract); Kato (1970).; Int Geol Congr (2008) Oslo. MRD-09
  • Telemark
    • Fyresdal
      • Moisesberg Mines
Nordrum, F.S. (2001): Noen funn av mineraler i Norge 2000-2001. STEIN 28 (2): 13- 19
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Rudawy Janowickie Mts
      • Czarnów
        • Rędziny
Pieczka, A., Gołębiowska, B., & Parafiniuk, J. (2011). Gold in sulfide-telluride assemblages at Rędziny, Rudawy Janowickie Range. Gold in Poland, AM Monograph, (2), 119-134.
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Banat Mts
      • Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District
        • Ocna de Fier (Vaskö-Moraviţa; Vaskö-Moravicza; Eisenstein)
Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 65(3), pp. 351–372
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Bashkortostan Republic (Bashkiria Republic)
        • Uchaly
Vikentev, I. (2016, April). Selenium, tellurium and precious metal mineralogy in Uchalinsk copper-zinc-pyritic district, the Urals. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 123, No. 1, p. 012027). IOP Publishing.
  • Hälsingland
    • Ljusdal
No reference listed
  • Södermanland
    • Nyköping
      • Tunaberg
        • Dammgruvan Ore Field
Dobbe, R. T. M. (1991): Tellurides, Selenides and Associated Minerals in the Tunaberg Copper Deposits, SE Bergslagen, Central Sweden. Mineralogy and Petrology. 44:89-106
Dobbe, Rene T. M. (1991): Tellurides, selenides, and associated minerals in the Tunaberg copper deposits, SE Bergslagen, central Sweden. Mineralogy and Petrology 44, 89-106
  • Värmland
    • Arvika
      • Glava
Cook, N. J.,Ciobanu, C.L.& Danushevskiy, L, (2007): LA-ICP-MS determination of gold in Bi-chalcogenides from four deposits in the Fennoscandian Shield. Geological Survey of Finland, Guide 53, 23-30; Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., Spry, P. G., & Voudouris, P. (2009). Understanding gold-(silver)-telluride-(selenide) mineral deposits. Episodes, 32(4), 249.
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Silver Lake District
        • Soda Mts
          • Zzyzx (Fort Soda; Soda; Soda Springs; Zzyzx Mineral Spring Resort)
Collected by and in the collection of Brent Thorne. PXRD analzyed by Tony Kampf.
  • Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
      • Fitting District
        • Kinkaid
Handbook of Mineralogy
    • White Pine Co.
      • Ward District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Navoiy Viloyati (Navoi)
    • Central Kyzylkum Region
      • Zarafshan
        • Muruntau ore field
Rustam Koneev, Evgeniy Ignatikov, Arpay Turesebekov, Umid Aripov, Rustam Khalmatov, Obidjon Kodirov, Miraziz Usmanov (2005) Gold ore deposits of Uzbekistan: Geochemistry and nanomineralogy of tellurium and selenium. IGCP Project 486, 2005 Field Workshop, Kiten, Bulgaria, 14-19 September 2005
Koneev, R.I., Turesebekov, A.H., Ignatikov, E.N., Vasilevsky, B.B., and Rakhimov, R.R. (2005), In: Jingwen Mao and Bierlein, F.P. (Eds.): Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge, Vol. 1, 1403-1406
  • Tashkent Viloyati (Toshkent)
    • Angren Region
      • Chatkal-Kuraminskii Range
Kovalenker, V. et al New Data on Minerals (2003): 38: 45-56; Plotinskaya, O. Y., Kovalenker, V. A., Seltmann, R., & Stanley, C. J. (2006). Te and Se mineralogy of the high-sulfidation Kochbulak and Kairagach epithermal gold telluride deposits (Kurama Ridge, Middle Tien Shan, Uzbekistan). Mineralogy and Petrology, 87(3-4), 187-207.
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