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Nephrite

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A variety of Ferro-Actinolite-Tremolite Series

Nephrite is a rock comprising mostly massive microcrystalline to cryptocrystalline felted amphiboles of the tremolite - actinolite series.

Nephrite is one of the two rocks termed as jade, the other being jadeitite = jadeite jade, consisting mostly of jadeite. Both are extremely tough and resistant to fracture such that they have been used for making choppers and blades since Neolithic times.

In addition to amphibole, nephrite can contain minor to trace amounts of diopside, grossularitic garnet, magnetite, chromite, graphite, apatite, rutile, pyrite, datolite, vesuvianite, prehnite, talc, the serpentine polymorphs and titanite.

White nephrite, termed white jade or mutton-fat jade, is nearly pure tremolite, while most nephrite is green owing to the Fe content in actinolite. Chromium colors nephrite emerald green (via a Na+-Cr3+ vs. Ca2+-Mg2+ substitution) and yellow to brown nephrite is stained by iron oxides and hydroxides introduced along grain boundaries.

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Classification of Nephrite

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Other Names for Nephrite

Synonyms:
AoteaAxe-stoneB.C. JadeGrave JadeKidney Stone
Lapis NephriticusNephrite-jadeNephrite (of Werner)New Zealand GreenstoneNew Zealand Jade
PounamuSpinach JadeTalcum NephriticusTomb Jade
Other Languages:
Dutch:Nefriet
French:Néphrite
German:Nephrit
Beilstein
Japanese:ネフライト
Latvian:Nefrīts
Polish:Nefryt
Simplified Chinese:软玉
Spanish:Nefrita
Nephrita
Varieties:
Black Nephrite JadeHetian JadeKunlun JadeLantian JadeManasi Jade
Meiling JadeTremolite JadeWhite JadeXiuyan Jade

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Nephrite

Reference List:

- +
Ronzio, A.R. and Salmon, M. (1970) Trace elements in jade. Gems and Minerals: 389: 24-25, 45.

Zhenhua Zhou and Jiarui Feng (2010): A petrological and mineralogical comparison between Xinjiang nephrite and Xiuyan nephrite. Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 29(3), 331-340.

Internet Links for Nephrite

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    Localities for Nephrite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • South Australia
      • Eyre Peninsula
        • Cowell
    J Townsend
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Lungau
        • Zederhaus valley
    G. Niedermayr, W. Postl, F. Walter: Carinthia II 175./95.:235-252 (1985)
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Liard Mining Division
        • Cassiar
    Rocks & Min.:60(1):11.; Simandl, G.J. (2009): Nonmetallic minerals other than coal: Industrial minerals, gemstones and aggregate in British Columbia, Canada; British Columbia Geological Survey, Paper 2009‐2, pages.
    Hudson, R. (2006); Gold, Gemstone & Mineral Sites of British Colubia (vol 2, p. 94)
    Simandl, G.J. (2009): Nonmetallic minerals other than coal: Industrial minerals, gemstones and aggregate in British Columbia, Canada; British Columbia Geological Survey, Paper 2009‐2, pages.
      • Lillooet Mining Division
    Richard Gunter Collection
    http://www.em.gov.bc.ca/cf/minfile/search/search.cfm?mode=capbib&minfilno=092JNE065
      • Omenica Mining Division
        • Kwanika Creek
    www.em.gov.bc.ca/cf/minfile/search/search.cfm?mode=capbib&minfilno=093N%20%20043
    www.em.gov.bc.ca/cf/minfile/search/search.cfm?mode=capbib&minfilno=093N%20%20064
    • Québec
      • Chaudière-Appalaches
        • Les Appalaches RCM
          • Saint-Joseph-de-Coleraine
    Amabili, M., Spertini, F., Auguste, M. B., and Bonin, G., (2009) Famous Mineral Localities: The Lac D'Amiante Mine, Back Lake, Thetford Mines, Quebec. Mineralogical Record 40(4) 297-304.
    • Yukon Territory
      • Dawson Mining District
        • Yukon river
    Traill, R. J., 1970, A Catalogue of Canadian Minerals
    China
     
    • Henan Province
      • Luoyang Prefecture
        • Luanchuan Co.
    [var: Tremolite Jade] Xiaoxiao Ling, Ruihua Wu, Feng Bai, Jiangning Yin, and Wenwen Li (2008): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 27(2), 157-163
    • Jiangsu Province
      • Changzhou Prefecture
        • Liyang Co.
          • Xiaomeiling
    [Tremolite Jade var: Meiling Jade] Huabang Zhong (1995): Jiangsu Geology 19(3), 176-178; Mingyue He, Younan Zhu, and Hongbo Li(2002): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 21(s1), 99-104
    • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Anshan Prefecture
        • Xiuyan Co.
    [var: Xiuyan Jade] Liangju Zhang (2002): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 22(3), 137-142.
    • Qinghai Province
      • Golog Autonomous Prefecture (Guoluo Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Maqên Co.
    [var: Kunlun Jade] Ran Li, Zongting Liao, Yujia Li, and Zhengyu Zhou (2004): Journal of Gems & Gemmology 6(1), 17-19
      • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Golmud Co. (Ge'ermu Co.)
    [var: Kunlun Jade] http://news.at0086.com/China-Mountain-River-Tours/Shopping-in-Qinghai.html
    • Shaanxi Province
      • Xi'an Prefecture
        • Lantian Co.
    [var: Lantian Jade] Juanxia Zhang and Baoping Luo (2002): Geology of Shaanxi 12(2), 75-80
    • Sichuan Province
      • Ya'an Prefecture
        • Shimian Co.
    Xiaofen Su, Kaicai Zhou, Lijian Qi, and Xiangli Qian (2006): China Mining Magazine 15(5), 73-75
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Changji Autonomous Prefecture (Sanji Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Manasi Co. (Manas Co.)
    [Tremolite Jade var: Manasi Jade] Yanling Tang, Dequan Liu, and Ruhong Zhou (2002): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 21(s1), 22-25
    [Tremolite Jade var: Manasi Jade] Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    [Tremolite Jade var: Manasi Jade] Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
      • Hetian Prefecture (Khotan Prefecture; Hotan Prefecture; Hoten Prefecture)
    [Tremolite Jade var: Hetian Jade] Yanling Tang, Dequan Liu, and Ruizhong Zhou (2002): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 21(s1), 13-21
    [Tremolite Jade var: Hetian Jade] Reuters (2007): China orders crackdown on rush for rare white jade, October 30, 2007
        • Yutian Co. (Keriye Co.)
    [Tremolite Jade var: Hetian Jade] Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
      • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Tacheng Prefecture (Tarbaghatay Prefecture)
          • Shawan Co. (Saven Co.)
    [Tremolite Jade var: Manasi Jade] Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
          • Wusu Co. (Usu Co.)
    [Tremolite Jade var: Manasi Jade] Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Franconian Forest
          • Bad Berneck
    F. Müller: "Bayerns steinreiche Ecke", 2nd ed., Oberfränkische Verlagsanstalt und Druckerei GmbH (Hof), 1984
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Ne
          • Graveglia Valley
    Antofilli, Borgo, Palenzona, 1985. I nostri minerali. Geologia e mineralogia in Liguria. Edizioni Melita, La Spezia.
        • Sestri Levante
    Antofilli M., Borgo E., Palenzona A. (1983): I Nostri Minerali. Geologia e Mineralogia in Liguria. Sagep, Ed., Genova, 295 pp.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chubu Region
        • Niigata Prefecture
          • Itoigawa City
            • Ohmi
    Alfredo Petrov, field collected specimens
    New Zealand
     
    • South Island
    Beck, R. (1991). Jade in the South Pacific. In Jade (pp. 221-258). Springer US.
    Johnston, M. R. (1983). Nephrite in the Pounamu Formation, McArthur Crags, Olderog Creek, Arahura Valley, Westland. Industrial rocks and minerals, 8, 5-8.
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Gogołów-Jordanów Massif
    Szełęg, E., Galuskina, I. 2010: Mineralogy of Lower Silesia, Poland. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, Field Guide Series, Vol. 17, 1–15.
      • Ząbkowice District
    Eligiusz Szełęg collection
    Russia
     
    • Southern Siberia
      • Sayan Mts
        • Eastern Sayan
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    South Korea
     
    • Gangwon-do (Kangwon-do; Gang'weondo)
      • Chuncheon City
    Alvin E. Nieder (1982) Nephrite jade in the Republic of Korea. Lapidary Journal, March 1982, 2374-2380.
    Switzerland
     
    • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
      • Albula Valley
        • Oberhalbstein (Surses; Sursass)
          • Bivio
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 25
      • Puschlav (Poschiavo Valley)
        • Selva
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 412.; Romani E. (2000): Andar per cristalli - Tesori nascosti. Centro studi del Museo mineralogico naturalistico di Bormio, 151 p.
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Hérens Valley
        • Les Haudères
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 25
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 25
    Taiwan
     
    • Taiwan Province
      • Hualien Co.
    Zhengzhang Tao (1992): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 13(4), 21-27; Wan, H. M., & Yeh, C. L. (1984). Uvarovite and grossular from the Fengtien nephrite deposits, eastern Taiwan. Mineralogical Magazine, 48(346), 31-37.
        • Wan-Lon
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Northwest Arctic Borough
        • Ambler District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
        • Kiana District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
        • Shungnak District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
      • Valdez-Cordova Borough
        • Tok District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    • California
    Pelletier, 1962. Mineral Species & Localities of Marin County
        • Petaluma area
          • Vonson Ranch
            • Massa Hill
    Chesterman, C.W. (1951), Nephrite in Marin County, California: (abstract) Geological Society of America Bulletin: 62: 1517; …California Division Mines Special Report 10-B: 3; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 66; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 397.
      • Mariposa Co.
        • Mother Lode Belt
          • Bagby-Mariposa-Mount Bullion-Whitlock District
            • Bagby
              • Charcoal flat
    Evans, James R. (1966b) Nephrite jade in Mariposa County. California Division Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 19: 135-148; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 397.
    Anonymous (O.E.B.) (1964), New jade deposit found by division: California Division of Mines and Geology, Mineral Information Service: 17: 21; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 66.
    USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10285136.
      • Mendocino Co.
        • Coastal Range
          • Mina
    Anonymous (1950), New jade occurrence in California: California Division of Mines, Mineral Information Service: 3(11): 2; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 66, 70, 309, 310; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 390.
          • Reeves Place
            • Leech Lake Mountain
    Chesterman, C.W. (1952), Nephrite and associated rocks at Leech Lake Mountain, Mendocino County, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin: 63: 1323; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 397.
    Chesterman, C.W. (1952), Nephrite and associated rocks at Leech Lake Mountain, Mendocino County, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin: 63: 1323; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 397.
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 390; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 409, 410.
    Chesterman, C.W. (1952), Nephrite and associated rocks at Leech Lake Mountain, Mendocino County, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin: 63: 1323; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 397.
            • Williams Creek
    Chesterman, C.W. (1952), Nephrite and associated rocks at Leech Lake Mountain, Mendocino County, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin: 63: 1323; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 397.
      • Monterey Co.
        • Santa Lucia Mts (Santa Lucia Range)
          • Los Burros District
            • Plaskett
              • Cape San Martin
                • Jade Cove
    Rogers, Austin Flint (1940), Nephrite jade from Monterey County, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Bulletin: 51: 1941; Crippen, R.A. (1951), Nephrite jade and associated rocks of the Cape Martin region, Monterey County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 10-A, 14 pp.: 3-14; Hart, E.W. (1966) Mines and mineral resources of Monterey County, California. California Division Mines and Geology County Report 5, 142 pp.: 43; Heinrich, G.I. (1969) Botryoidal jade in California. Gems and Minerals: 386: 42; Draper, J.W. (1969) Botryoidal jade of the California Coast. Lapidary Journal: 23: 682-686; Ronzio, A.R. and Salmon, M. (1970) Trace elements in jade. Gems and Minerals: 389: 24-25, 45; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 397-398.
                • Willow Creek
    Crippen, Richard A., Jr. (1949), Nephrite jade and associated rocks of the Cape San Martin region, Monterey County, California: 1-14; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 66.
              • Plaskett Creek
                • South of Plaskett Creek
    Crippen, Richard A., Jr. (1949), Nephrite jade and associated rocks of the Cape San Martin region, Monterey County, California: (abstract) Geological Society of America Bulletin 60: 1938; […California Division Mines Special Report 10-A (1951)]: 1-14; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 66; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 397-398.
          • Point Sur
    Rogers, Austin Flint (1940), Nephrite jade from Monterey County, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Bulletin: 51: 1941; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 66.
      • Riverside Co.
        • Eagle Mts
          • Western Eagle Mountains
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 66.
        • Hexie Mts
          • Chiriaco summit
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 66.
    Saul, R.B., Evans, J.R., and Gray, C.H. (1970) Mines and mineral resources of Riverside County. California Division of Mines and Geology County Report 9. Unpublished manuscript: 267-268; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 398.
      • San Benito Co.
        • Diablo Range
          • Emmett
    Rob Lavinsky photo
      • Santa Barbara Co.
        • San Rafael Mts
          • Cachuma District
            • Cachuma Village
              • Figueroa Mountain
                • South Slope of Figueroa Mountain
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 66.
      • Siskiyou Co.
        • Klamath Mts
          • Happy Camp
    Kraft, James L. (1947), Adventure in jade: 34, 35; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 66, 204; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 399.
      • Tulare Co.
        • Porterville
          • Lewis Hill
    Anonymous (1950), New jade occurrence in California: California Division of Mines, Mineral Information Service: 3(11): 2; Mineral Notes and News (1950), No. 150: 1; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 66; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 400.
    • Connecticut
      • Litchfield Co.
    Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State; Samuel Robinson (1825) A Catalogue of American Minerals, with their localities. Boston
    • Georgia
      • Murray Co.
        • Chatsworth
    Rocks & Minerals 54:4 pp161-165
    • Nebraska
      • Morrill Co.
    The Minerals and Gemstones of Nebraska CSD U Neb EC 2
      • Otoe Co.
    The Minerals and Gemstones of Nebraska CSD U Neb EC 2
    The Minerals and Gemstones of Nebraska CSD U Neb EC 2
      • Richardson Co.
    The Minerals and Gemstones of Nebraska CSD U Neb EC 2
      • Saunders Co.
    The Minerals and Gemstones of Nebraska CSD U Neb EC 2
      • Scotts Bluff Co.
    The Minerals and Gemstones of Nebraska CSD U Neb EC 2
    The Minerals and Gemstones of Nebraska CSD U Neb EC 2
    • Nevada
      • Esmeralda Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Oregon
      • Baker Co.
        • Durkee
    Rocks & Min.: 4:80.
      • Jackson Co.
    Phyllis Richardson
    • Pennsylvania
      • Northampton Co.
        • Forks Township
          • Easton
            • Chestnut Hill
    Rocks & Min.: 17:344.
    • Washington
      • Skagit Co.
    www.stonetrails.com
        • Mount Vernon
    Rocks & Min.: 14:112-113.
      • Snohomish Co.
        • Darrington
          • Jumbo Mountain
    Minerals of Washington, B. Cannon, 1975
    • Wyoming
      • Carbon Co.
        • Seminoe Mountains District
    W. Dan Hausel (1994) Economic Geology of the Seminoe Mountains Mining District, Carbon County, Wyoming. Wyoming Geological Survey Report of Investigation 50.
    W. Dan Hausel (1994) Economic Geology of the Seminoe Mountains Mining District, Carbon County, Wyoming. Wyoming Geological Survey Report of Investigation 50.
    Rocks & Minerals 76:384
      • Converse Co.
    Rocks & Minerals 76:385
      • Fremont Co.
        • Christina Lake
    Rocks & Minerals 76:386
    Rocks & Minerals 76:386
    Rocks & Minerals 76:386
    Rocks & Minerals 76:387; Osterwald, F. W. and D. B. Osterwald (1952) Wyoming Mineral Resources. Wyoming Geological Survey Bulletin 45
    Rocks & Minerals 76:387
    Rocks & Minerals 76:387; Osterwald, F. W. and D. B. Osterwald (1952) Wyoming Mineral Resources. Wyoming Geological Survey Bulletin 45
        • Tin Cup Mountain
    Rocks & Minerals 76:386
      • Natrona Co.
    Patricia Renz specimen
    Rocks & Minerals 76:388
      • Teton Co.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Vietnam
     
    • Son La Province
    Nguyôn Kinh Quèc, Nguyôn Quúnh Anh () Aquamarine, Beryl And Possibility Of Finding Emerald And Alexandrite In Việt Nam. Generations, 41, 50-58.
    Nguyôn Kinh Quèc, Nguyôn Quúnh Anh () Aquamarine, Beryl And Possibility Of Finding Emerald And Alexandrite In Việt Nam. Generations, 41, 50-58.
    Zimbabwe
     
    • Midlands
      • Shurugwi District (Selukwe District)
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