Mindat Logo

Vaterite

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.



Formula:
CaCO
 
3
System:HexagonalColour:Colorless
Hardness:3
Name:Named after Heinrich Vater [September 5, 1859 Bremen, Germany - February 10, 1930 Dresden, Germany], Professor of Mineralogy and Chemistry, Tharandt, Saxony (Germany).
Polymorph of:Aragonite, Calcite


A rare CaCO3 modification that is metastable below approx. 400°C.
May be stabilised by sulphate (Fernández-Díaz et al., 2010).

Vaterite is actually composed of at least two different crystallographic structures that coexist within a pseudo–single crystal. The major structure exhibits hexagonal symmetry; the minor structure, existing as nanodomains within the major matrix, is still unknown (Kabalah-Amitai et al., 2013).

Not uncommon as a biomineral.

Classification of Vaterite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/B.02-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.AB.20

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
A : Carbonates without additional anions, without H2O
B : Alkali-earth (and other M2+) carbonates
Dana 8th edition ID:14.1.2.1

14 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
1 : A(XO3)
Hey's CIM Ref.:11.4.3

11 : Carbonates
4 : Carbonates of Ca
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-4161.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Physical Properties of Vaterite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Waxy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colorless
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):3
Tenacity:Brittle
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Splintery
Density (measured):2.645 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.645 g/cm3

Crystallography of Vaterite

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:P63/mmc {P63/m 2/m 2/c}
Cell Parameters:a = 4.13Å, c = 8.49Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.056
Unit Cell Volume:V 125.41 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:6
Morphology:Thin fibers, spherulitic aggregates.
Comment:Wang, J.W. & Becker, U. (2009): Structure and carbonate orientation of vaterite (CaCO3). Am. Mineral. 94, 380-386.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.57 (55)
3.30 (100)
2.73 (95)
2.065 (60)
1.858 (25)
1.823 (70)
1.647 (25)
Comments:See also 33-268; 13-192 (synthetic)

Optical Data of Vaterite

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.550 nε = 1.650
Birefringence:0.10
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.100

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Optical Extinction:Parallel

Chemical Properties of Vaterite

Formula:
CaCO
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:CaCO3
Essential elements:C, Ca, O
All elements listed in formula:C, Ca, O
CAS Registry number:471-34-1

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society

Relationship of Vaterite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.AB.05Calcite
CaCO
 
3
5.AB.05Gaspéite
(Ni,Mg,Fe)CO
 
3
5.AB.05Magnesite
MgCO
 
3
5.AB.05Otavite
CdCO
 
3
5.AB.05Rhodochrosite
MnCO
 
3
5.AB.05Siderite
FeCO
 
3
5.AB.05Smithsonite
ZnCO
 
3
5.AB.05Spherocobaltite
CoCO
 
3
5.AB.10Ankerite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.10Dolomite
CaMg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.10Kutnohorite
Ca(Mn,Mg,Fe)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.10Minrecordite
CaZn(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.15Aragonite
CaCO
 
3
5.AB.15Cerussite
PbCO
 
3
5.AB.15Strontianite
SrCO
 
3
5.AB.15Witherite
BaCO
 
3
5.AB.25Huntite
CaMg
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
5.AB.30Norsethite
BaMg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.35Alstonite
BaCa(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.40Olekminskite
Sr(Sr,Ca,Ba)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.40Paralstonite
BaCa(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.45Barytocalcite
BaCa(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.50Carbocernaite
(Ca,Na)(Sr,Ce,Ba)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
5.AB.55Benstonite
(Ba,Sr)
 
6
(Ca,Mn)
 
6
Mg(CO
 
3
)
 
13
5.AB.60Juangodoyite
Na
 
2
Cu(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
11.4.1Calcite
CaCO
 
3
11.4.2Aragonite
CaCO
 
3
11.4.4Monohydrocalcite
CaCO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
11.4.5Ikaite
CaCO
 
3
· 6H
 
2
O
11.4.6Dolomite
CaMg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.4.7Huntite
CaMg
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
11.4.8Sergeevite
Ca
 
2
Mg
 
11
(CO
 
3
)
 
13
· 10H
 
2
O

Other Names for Vaterite

Synonyms:
μ-CalciteVaterite-B
Other Languages:
German:Vaterit
Russian:Фатерит
Simplified Chinese:六方球方解石
球文石
Spanish:Vaterita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not known to fluoresce.
Thermal Behaviour:Dry crystals convert to calcite when heated to about 440°.
Other Information:Converts to aragonite or calcite when boiled in water. Converts to calcite when boiled in NaCl solution.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
External LinksSearch for toxicity information at the United States National Library of Medicine

References for Vaterite

Reference List:

- +
Doelter, C. (1911) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 1: 113.

Meigen, W. (1911): Über kohlensauren Kalk. Verhandl. Ges. Deut. Naturforscher u. Ärtzte, 82, 120-124.

Johnston, Merwin, and Williamson (1916) American Journal of Science: 41: 473.

Gibson, Wyckoff, and Merwin (1925) American Journal of Science: 10: 325 (as Vaterite-B).

Heide (1925) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 198.

Hintze, Carl (1926) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 2883.

Yoshimura (1930) Japanese Journal of Geology and Geography: 7: 3.

American Mineralogist (1931): 16: 770-772.

Donnay (1936) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Bulletin: 59: 215.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 181-182.

McConnel, J.D.C. (1960): Vaterite from Ballycraigy, Larne, Northern Ireland. Mineralogical Magazine: 32: 534-544.

American Mineralogist (1960): 45: 1316.

Meyer, H.J. (1969): Struktur und Fehlordnung des Vaterits. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 128, 183–212.

Turnbull, A. G. (1973): Thermochemical study of vaterite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 37, 1593-1601.

Plummer, L. N. & Busenberg, E. (1982): The solubilities of calcite, aragonite, and vaterite in carbon dioxide-water solutions between 0 and 90° C, and an evaluation of the aqueous model for the system calcium carbonate-carbon dioxide-water. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 46, 1011-1040.

De Visscher, A. & Vanderdeelen, J. (2003): Estimation of the Solubility Constant of Calcite, Aragonite, and Vaterite at 25° C Based on Primary Data Using the Pitzer Ion Interaction Approach. Monatshefte für Chemie 134, 769-775.

Wang, J.W. & Becker, U. (2009): Structure and carbonate orientation of vaterite (CaCO3). Am. Mineral. 94, 380-386.

Emilie M. Pouget, Paul H. H. Bomans, Archan Dey, Peter M. Frederik, Gijsbertus de With and Nico A. J. M. Sommerdijk (2010): The Development of Morphology and Structure in Hexagonal Vaterite. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 11560–11565.

Lurdes Fernández-Díaz, Ángeles Fernández-González and Manuel Prieto (2010): The role of sulfate groups in controlling CaCO3 polymorphism. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, 6064-6076.

Kabalah-Amitai, L., Mayzel, B., Kauffmann, Y., Fitch, A.N., Bloch, L., Gilbert, P.U.P.A., Pokroy, B. (2013): Vaterite Crystals Contain Two Interspersed Crystal Structures. Science, 340, 454-457.

Internet Links for Vaterite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Vaterite on Google
  • Look for Vaterite images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Vaterite on Webmineral
  • Look for Vaterite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Vaterite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Vaterite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Vaterite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Fine and rare minerals from mintreasure.com
  • Fine Minerals from Weinrich Minerals, Inc.
  • High-end worldwide specimens & outstanding customer service
  • Mineral Classics - Worldwide Collector Quality Minerals and Gems
  • Find Vaterite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Top quality minerals from Kristalle of California
  • Search for Vaterite on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Buy RARE Minerals from Rocks of Africa
  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • The Arkenstone - Fine Minerals
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Vaterite specimens
  • Lapis Mineral Magazin
  • Localities for Vaterite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Tasmania
      • Central Plateau
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Obersulzbach valley
          • Hopffeld area
    Schebesta, K. (1986): Neue Mineralien vom Hopffeldboden im Obersulzbachtal. Lapis 11 (4), 9-18; 42; Kolitsch, U. (2011): 1688) „Vaterit“ vom Hopffeldboden, Obersulzbachtal: eine Fehlbestimmung. P. 155-156 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2011): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LX. Carinthia II, 201./121., 135-186.
    Canada
     
    • Québec
      • Montérégie
        • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
          • Mont Saint-Hilaire
    HORVÁTH, L. and HORVÁTH-PFENNINGER, E. (2000) Die Mineralien des Mont Saint-Hilaire. Lapis, 25, Nr. 7/8, 23-61 (in German). [p. 61]; HORVÁTH, L., and PFENNINGER‑HORVÁTH, E. (2000) I minerali di Mont-Saint-Hilaire (Québec, Canada) Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, XXIV, 140-202 (in Italian with English summary). [p. 146 & 152]
      • Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean
        • Le Fjord-du-Saguenay RCM
          • Saint-Honoré
    Fournier, A. (1993)
    FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    WALENTA, K. (1995): Neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara. 6. Folge, 2. Teil. - Lapis 20 (6), 41 und 46-49.
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
          • Bockswies veins
            • Oberschulenberg
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1991): Mineralogische Notizen V, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 42, 155-171
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Daun
          • Üdersdorf
    Schüller, W., Betz, V., Die Mineralien vom Emmelberg, Lapis 12/1986
        • Hillesheim
          • Zilsdorf
    Hentschel. G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
        • Mayen
          • Ettringen
            • Bellerberg volcano
    [Hentschel, G., Seltene Minerale in Calcium-reichen Auswürflingen vom Bellerberg bei Mayen/Eifel, Aufschluß 29, 77-83, 1978] [Lapis, 15 (5), 9-36]
              • Southern lava flow
    Hentschel, G., Dent Glasser, L.S., Lee, C.K. (1983): Jasmundite. Ca22(Si04)8O4S2. a new mineral, N. Jb. Mineral., Mh., 337-342.
        • Mendig
          • Niedermendig
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
    Hungary
     
    • Somogy Co.
    Szakáll & Gatter: Hun. Min. Spec., 1993
    Israel
     
    • Negev
    Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
          • Monte Somma
            • Ercolano
              • San Vito
    Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data, Luigi Chiappino material
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Tokachi Province
        • Ashoro-cho (Asyoro-tyo)
    Ito et al. (1999) Ganseki-Koubutsu-Koshogaku Zasshi, 94, 176-182.
    Namibia
     
    • Otjozondjupa Region
      • Grootfontein District
        • Kombat
    ex J Lamond Micro Collection (ex Rob Sielecki)
    Palestine
     
    • West Bank
      • Hatrurim formation
    Shulamit Gross (1977) The mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geol. Surv. of Israel, bull. # 70.
    Poland
     
    • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
      • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
        • Katowice area
          • Siemianowice Śląskie
    Kruszewski L. 2006: Oldhamite-periclase-portlandite-fluorite assemblage and coexisting minerals of burnt dump in Siemianowice Śląskie - Dąbrówka Wielka area (Upper Silesia, Poland) - preliminary report. Mineralogia Polonica Special Papers, vol.28, 118-120
    Romania
     
    • Harghita Co.
      • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
        • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
    Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Hunedoara
    Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
    Russia
     
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/khib.htm
        • Northern Karelia
    New Data on Minerals (2004): 39: 50-64
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Kalahari manganese field
        • Hotazel
    Minerals of South Africa
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Maricopa Co.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 412.
    • Michigan
      • Houghton Co.
        • Osceola
    Mineralogy of Michigan (E. W. Heinrich & G. W. Robinson)
    • New Mexico
      • Otero Co.
        • Cornudas Mts
    XRD - Laszlo Horvath collection
    • Tennessee
      • Smith Co.
        • Central Tennessee Ba-F-Pb-Zn District
          • Carthage
    www.excaliburmineral.com
    Mineral and/or Locality  
    Search Google  
    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
    Current server date and time: June 2, 2014 14:26:14
    Mineral and Locality Search
    Mineral:
    and/or Locality:
    Options
    Fade toolbar when not in focusFix toolbar to bottom of page
    Hide Social Media Links
    Slideshow frame delay seconds