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Ktenasite

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Konstantinos Ktenas
Formula:
Zn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Blue-green
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
2 - 2½
Name:
Named by P. Kokkoros in 1950 after Konstantinos I. Ktenas (1884-1935), Greek physician, professor of mineralogy and petrology (since 1908) and Dean (1918) of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Director of the Museum of Mineralogy and Paleontology and of the Zoological Museum of the University (1918), Head of the Greek Geological Survey and one of the founding members of the Academy of Athens (1926).
Rare secondary copper-zinc sulphate with typical pseudo-orthorhombic habit.
Mg- or Cd-bearing varieties are also known (U. Kolitsch & G. Giester, unpublished results), as well as a Zn-dominant analogue (Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite) ) and a Zn-free, Co-dominant analogue (Unnamed (Co-analogue of ktenasite)).

Ktenasite may have to be split up into a Cu- and a Zn-dominant species; the crystal structure contains a Zn site, a Cu site and a mixed Cu/Zn site with variable occupancy (U. Kolitsch & G. Giester, unpublished results). Data of Livingstone (1991) suggest dominant Zn on at least two sites, although this suggestion is based only on chemical analyses.
A joint proposal on the nomenclature of ktenasite-type minerals is in preparation (Leverett et al., 2009-2011).


Classification of Ktenasite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.DD.20

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
D : With only medium-sized cations; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
31.6.3.1

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
6 : (AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
25.5.4

25 : Sulphates
5 : Sulphates of Zn and Hg
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Type Occurrence of Ktenasite

Year of Discovery:
1950

Physical Properties of Ktenasite

Vitreous
Colour:
Blue-green
Hardness (Mohs):
2 - 2½

Crystallography of Ktenasite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.59Å, b = 6.12Å, c = 23.76Å
β = 95.55°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.913 : 1 : 3.882
Unit Cell Volume:
V 809.04 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Ktenasite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.571 nβ = 1.613 nγ = 1.623
2V:
Measured: 51° , Calculated: 50°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.052
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v

Chemical Properties of Ktenasite

Formula:
Zn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Ktenasite to other Species

Structurally related to group(s):
7.DD.05FelsőbányaiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 4H2O
7.DD.10LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
7.DD.10PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
7.DD.10WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
7.DD.15SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
7.DD.25ChristeliteCu2Zn3(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
7.DD.30CampigliaiteMn2+Cu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
7.DD.30DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
7.DD.30OrthoserpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
7.DD.30SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
7.DD.30NiedermayriteCdCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
7.DD.30EdwardsiteCu3Cd2(SO4)2(OH)6·4H2O
7.DD.35Carrboydite[(Ni1-xAlx)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2O
7.DD.35Glaucocerinite(Zn1-xAlx)(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
7.DD.35Honessite(Ni1-xFex3+)(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2O
7.DD.35Hydrohonessite(Ni1-xFex3+)(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2O
7.DD.35MotukoreaiteMg6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2O
7.DD.35Mountkeithite[(Mg1-xFex3+)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2O
7.DD.35ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2O
7.DD.35WermlanditeMg7Al2(OH)18[Ca(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2O
7.DD.35WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2O
7.DD.35ZincaluminiteZn6Al6(SO4)2(OH)16 · 5H2O
7.DD.35Hydrowoodwardite(Cu1-xAlx)(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2O
7.DD.35ZincowoodwarditeZn1-xAlx(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2O
7.DD.35NatroglaucoceriniteZn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2•6H2O
7.DD.35NikischeriteFe62+Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2O
7.DD.40Lawsonbauerite(Mn2+,Mg)9Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2O
7.DD.40Torreyite(Mg,Mn2+)72Mn22+Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2O
7.DD.45MooreiteMg92Mn2Zn4(SO4)2(OH)26 · 8H2O
7.DD.50Namuwite(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
7.DD.55Bechererite(Zn,Cu)6Zn2(SO4,HSiO4)2(OH)12
7.DD.60Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
7.DD.65VonbezingiteCa6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
7.DD.70RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
7.DD.75ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
7.DD.75Nickelalumite(Ni,Cu)Al4(SO4,(NO3)2)(OH)12 · 3H2O
7.DD.75KyrgyzstaniteZnAl4(SO4)(OH)12·3H2O
7.DD.80Guarinoite(Zn,Co,Ni)6(SO4)(OH,Cl)10 · 5H2O
7.DD.80Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4,CO3)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
7.DD.80Thérèsemagnanite(Co,Zn,Ni)6(SO4)(OH,Cl)10 · 8H2O
7.DD.80UM1992-30-SO:CCuHZn(Zn,Cu)7(SO4,CO3)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
7.DD.85MontetrisaiteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · 2H2O
25.5.1ZinkositeZnSO4
25.5.2GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
25.5.3Namuwite(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
25.5.5Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
25.5.6Boyleite(Zn,Mg)SO4 · 4H2O
25.5.7SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
25.5.8OrthoserpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
25.5.9ZincaluminiteZn6Al6(SO4)2(OH)16 · 5H2O
25.5.10Glaucocerinite(Zn1-xAlx)(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
25.5.11GunningiteZnSO4 · H2O
25.5.12ChaidamuiteZnFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2O
25.5.13Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
25.5.15Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2O
25.5.16Zincobotryogen(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)Fe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
25.5.17SchuetteiteHg32+(SO4)O2
25.5.18Gianellaite(Hg2N)2SO4

Other Names for Ktenasite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Ktenasit
Simplified Chinese:基性铜锌矾
Spanish:Ktenasita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Ktenasite

Reference List:
Kokkoros, P. (1950): Ktenasit, ein Zink-Kupfersulfat aus Lavrion (Griechenland). Tschermaks Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 1, 342-346. (in German).

American Mineralogist (1951): 36: 381.

Raade (1977): New data on ktenasite. Mineralogical Magazine: 41: 65-71.

American Mineralogist (1977): 62: 1262.

Mellini, M. and Merlino, S. (1978): Ktenasite, another mineral with 2[infinity][(Cu,Zn)2(OH)3O)]- octahedral sheets. Z. Kristallogr. 147, 129-140.

Olsen, E. and Lewis, C. F. (1979): Ktenasite from Creede, Colorado. Am. Mineral. 64, 446-448.

Mellini, M., Orlandi, P. and Boscardin, M. (1981): Chemical and crystallographic data for ktenasite. Rend. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol. 37, 409-414.

Yakhontova, L. K., Postnikova, V. P., Sergeeva, N. E. and Yudin, R. N. (1984): New data on rare copper sulphates. Moscow Univ. Geol. Bull. 39 (3), 41-46. (in Russian)

Sarp, H., Perroud, P. & Camerola, M. (1990): Cobalt nickel-kténasite de la mine de Cap Garonne (Var), France, nouvelle variété de kténasite. Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen: 70, 333-335. (in French).

Courtney, S. F. and Rodgers, K. A. (1990): Ktenasite, (Cu2+,Zn)5(SO4)2(OH)6.6H2O – a further occurrence. N. Jb. Mineral. Mh. 1990, 320-326.

Livingstone, A. (1991): The zinc analogue of ktenasite from Smallcleugh and Brownley Hill mines, Nenthead, Cumbria. J. Russel Soc. 4, 13-15.

Internet Links for Ktenasite

Localities for Ktenasite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill
Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
          • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
Lapis 19(7/8):13-78 (1994); Schnorrer, G. & Poeverlein, R. (2008): Schwaz-Brixlegger Fundstellen. 6. Die Minerale des Gratlspitz bei Brixlegg in Tirol. Aufschluss 59, 7-28.
Belgium
 
  • Liège Province
    • Verviers
      • Plombières-Vieille Montagne District (Plombières-Altenberg)
        • Plombières (Bleyberg)
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995b): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
  • Limburg Province
    • Dilsen-Stokkem
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Golden Mining Division
      • Invermere
M. Mauthner personal collection
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
      • Buchans
Sabina (2003) 94.
SABINA, A.P. (1976): Rocks & minerals for the collector: The Magdalen Islands, Quebec and the island of Newfoundland. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 75-36, 199p. Reissued in 2003 as Île de la Madeleine, Quebec, the Island of Newfoundland and Labrador. Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 58, 94-97.
SABINA, A.P. (1976): Rocks & minerals for the collector: The Magdalen Islands, Quebec and the island of
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Příbram
RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
France
 
  • Languedoc-Roussillon
    • Gard
      • Saint-Laurent-le-Minier
Minéralogie de la mine des malines (Daniel Gol, Alain Martaud, Nicolas Meisser, Pascal Chollet) - Le regne minéral, H.S. XVI, pp 49-86.
- Gol, D, Martaud, A., Meisser, N. & Chollet, P. (2010): Minéralogie des Malines, Gard. Le Règne Minéral, HS XVI, 49-88.
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
      • Caixas
        • Fontcouverte
BERBAIN, C., FAVREAU, G. & MORENO, C. (2010): Mas Vicenç, Fontcouverte, Caixas (Pyrénées-Orientales). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 107, 20-25.
  • Midi-Pyrénées
    • Ariège
      • Auzat
Philippe Rémy collection
    • Aveyron
      • Saint-Rome-de-Tarn
Patrice Queneau Collection
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
      • Aure Valley
Patrice Queneau Collection
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Le Pradet
SARP H., PERROUD P. and CAMEROLA M. (1990) Cobalt nickel - kténasite de la mine de Cap Garonne (Var), France, nouvelle variété de kténasite. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 70, 333 - 335.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
  • Hesse
    • Richelsdorf District
      • Süss
        • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
        • Bockswies veins
          • Oberschulenberg
No reference listed
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
        • Grane Reservoir
No reference listed
        • Rammelsberg
No reference listed
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Stolberg
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Eifel
      • Mechernich
        • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Niederberg area
      • Heiligenhaus
Lapis 1988(1), 17-35
      • Velbert
Lapis 1988(1), 13-35
Lapis 1988(1), 14-33
      • Wülfrath
        • Rohdenhaus
Lapis 1988(1), 16-35
Lapis 1988(1), 16-35
    • Sauerland
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
      • Meschede
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Siegerland
      • Eiserfeld
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Lahn valley
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Braubach
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. & David, W. (1991): Die Blei- und Silberhütte Braubach und ihre Haldenminerale. Lapis, 16 (1), 38-49; 58 (in German).
        • Frücht
Der Aufschluss Vol.55, March/April 2004
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld Basin
      • Hettstedt
Luigi Chiappino specimen
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Schwarzenberg District
        • Beierfeld
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
LAPIS 24 (7/8) 1999; Wendel, W. and Markl, G. (1999) Lavrion: Mineralogische Klassiker und Raritäten für Sammler. LAPIS 24 (7/8):34-52
          • Kamariza Mines (Kamareza Mines)
No reference listed
            • Hilarion area
J. Gröbner und U. Kolitsch (2002): Neufunde von Laurion aus den Jahren 2001 und 2002. Aufschluss 53 (5-6), 363-371; Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German).
J. Gröbner und U. Kolitsch (2002): Neufunde von Laurion aus den Jahren 2001 und 2002. Aufschluss 53 (5-6), 363-371.
GRÖBNER, J. (2001): Roter Skorodit und weitere ungewöhnliche Arsenate: Die Mineralien des Abbaus 132 der Grube Christiana, Lavrion/Griechenland. Lapis, 26 (11), 13-21.
        • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
No reference listed
        • Plaka
          • Villia
Lapis, 28/5 (May 2003)
        • Sounion area
Blaß, G., Fabritz, K. H., Mühlbauer, W. and Prachar, I. (1998): Immer wieder Neues aus Lavrion. Mineralien-Welt 9 (2), 46-48 (in German).; Hanke, H. (1998): Laurion - ein Rückblick auf die Funde der letzten drei Jahre. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (2), 37-45.
Lapis, 24, 7/8 (1999); J. Gröbner und U. Kolitsch (2002): Neufunde von Laurion aus den Jahren 2001 und 2002. Aufschluss 53 (5-6), 363-371.
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Rewitzer, C., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1988): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrions antiken Schlacken. Lapis 13 (2), 11-14.
Fritz Schreiber Collection
Italy
 
  • Sardinia
    • Cagliari Province
      • Villaputzu
Orlandi, P. & Campostrini, I. (2005): Zibaldone. Aggiornamenti di mineralogia italiana 2004. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/2005, 184-191.
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Nuxis
Ciriotti, M.E., Blaß, G. (2010): Pot-pourri 2009: Identificazioni UKiS AMI, Minerali italiani di interesse. Micro, 1/2010, 124-127
    • Medio Campidano Province
      • Gonnosfanadiga
        • Fenugu Sibiri Mine
Brizzi, G., Olmi, F., Sabelli, C. (1994): Gli arseniati di Pira Inferida, Gonnofanadiga (CA). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/1994, 193-206.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campiglia Marittima
Biagioni, C., Orlandi, P., Cerri, M., Pistolesi, M., Rapaccini, S. & Santucci, A. (2013). Temperino e Lanzi. Le paragenesi secondarie dello skarn. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 1/2013, 40-55.
        • Temperino
Biagioni, C., Orlandi, P., Cerri, M., Pistolesi, M., Rapaccini, S. & Santucci, A. (2013). Temperino e Lanzi. Le paragenesi secondarie dello skarn. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 1/2013, 40-55.
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Torrebelvicino
        • Contrada Trentini
Lapis, 9, 18-20, 1984; Uwe Kolitsch SXRD- and EDS-analyses (sample from Giorgio Bortolozzi)
        • Mercanti Valley
Lapis, 9 (2), 18-25.; Pegoraro S., Orlandi P., Chiereghin P., Contin.A. and Toniolo E. (2009): I minerali del Monte Trisa, Torrebelvicino, Vicenza. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, No. 3, 160-179
Pegoraro S., Orlandi P., Chiereghin P., Contin.A. and Toniolo E. (2009): I minerali del Monte Trisa, Torrebelvicino, Vicenza. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, No. 3, 160-179
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Kinki Region
      • Osaka Prefecture
        • Minoh (Minoo)
          • Onsen-cho
M. Ohnishi, et al. (2002) Ktenasite from the Hirao mine at Minoo, Osaka, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 97, 185-189.
Morocco
 
  • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Djebel Saghro (Jbel Saghro)
        • Bou Skour district
Georges FAVREAU collection
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Te Aroha
Courtney, S.F., King, P. & Rodgers, K.A., (1990). A Check List of Minerals from the Tui Mine, Te Aroha, New Zealand. New Zealand Natural Sciences 17: 95-98.
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
    • Kongsberg
      • Kjennerudvann
Nordrum, F.S. (2002): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2001-2002. STEIN 29 (2): 4-10
    • Modum
      • Åmot
Raade et al.(1977): New data on Ktenasite. Mineralogical Magazine 41, 65-70 ; Neumann (1985), p. 112.
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Níjar
        • Rodalquilar
microprobe university of munich
Switzerland
 
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Le Trient Valley
      • Les Marécottes
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 243; American Mineralogist 88(4), 676-685.; - Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cumbria
      • Alston Moor District
        • Nenthead
Livingstone, A. (1991): The zinc analogue of ktenasite from Smallcleugh and Brownley Hill mines, Nenthead, Cumbria. J. Russel Soc. 4, 13-15.
Livingstone, A. (1991): The zinc analogue of ktenasite from Smallcleugh and Brownley Hill mines, Nenthead, Cumbria. J. Russel Soc. 4, 13-15.
  • Wales
    • Ceredigion
      • Ysgubor-y-coed
        • Furnace
BMS Database, UKJMM No18
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
[MinRec 24:421]
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 269; Graeme, R. (1993), Bisbee revisited, Min.Rec.: 24: 421-436.
    • Gila Co.
      • Dripping Spring Mts
        • Banner District
          • Hayden area
            • Chilito
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 270.
              • Keystone Gulch
                • Reagan claims (Regan/Reagan Camp prospects; Lee Reagan property; Lee Reagan prospects; Kullman-McCool group)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 270.
Michael Cline collection
              • Toronado Peak
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 368.
  • Colorado
    • Eagle Co.
      • Gilman District (Battle Mountain District; Red Cliff District)
        • Gilman
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", pp. 13-14, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
    • Mineral Co.
      • Creede District
        • Amethyst Vein
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • New Mexico
    • Socorro Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • Utah
    • Piute Co.
      • Tushar Mts
        • Cottonwood Creek
          • Mount Baldy District
Collected by and in the collection of Brent Thorne.
    • Tooele Co.
      • Oquirrh Mts
        • Ophir District
          • Ophir Hill area
Self collected by Brent Thorne. Confirmed by SEM EDS and XRD.; Rocks & Minerals 83:1 pp 52-62
    • Utah Co.
      • East Tintic Mts
        • East Tintic District
In the collection of Brent Thorne
Mineral and/or Locality  
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