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Asbolane

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Formula:
(Ni,Co)
 
2-x
Mn
4+
 
(O,OH)
 
4
· nH
 
2
O
System:HexagonalColour:Bluish to brownish black
Lustre:Dull
Name:Named from the Greek "to soil like soot".


A poorly defined species, essentially nickeloan "wad".
The chemical composition is rather variable (the mineral can also contain Co, Cu and other metals).

Classification of Asbolane

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/F.07-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.FL.30

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
L : Hydroxides with H2O +- (OH); sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 7th edition ID:6.4.9.1
Dana 8th edition ID:6.4.9.1

6 : HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
4 : Miscellaneous
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.21.4

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
21 : Oxides of Co
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Occurrences of Asbolane

Geological Setting:As a weathering product in silicic rocks; in siliceous schists; widespread in residual soils above ultramafic rocks

Physical Properties of Asbolane

Lustre:Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Bluish to brownish black
Streak:Black to brownish black

Crystallography of Asbolane

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Cell Parameters:a = 3.04Å, c = 9.34Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 3.072
Unit Cell Volume:V 74.75 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Thin lamellar aggregates of platelets up to several µm; massive
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
9.6 (w)
4.82 (s)
2.445 (mw)
1.7 (vw)
1.419 (vw)
Comments:Recorded on material from the Lipov deposit, Russia

Optical Data of Asbolane

Type:Uniaxial

Chemical Properties of Asbolane

Formula:
(Ni,Co)
 
2-x
Mn
4+
 
(O,OH)
 
4
· nH
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:(Ni,Co)2-xMn4+(O,OH)4·nH2O
Essential elements:H, Mn, Ni, O
All elements listed in formula:Co, H, Mn, Ni, O
Analytical Data:Analytical data from electron microprobe analysis of material from New Caledonia; total iron calculated as Fe2O3, water content calculated from the mass balance
Empirical formula based on TEM-EDS, supported by TGA and IR, of material from the Lipov deposit; individual results not reported
SiO2 (0.6)
Al2O3 (0.1)
Fe2O3 (0.9)
Co2O3 (1.0)
MnO2 (66.7)
NiO (17.9)
H2O (12.8)

sum 100.0 wt.-%
Empirical Formula:
(Ni
 
0.28
Co
 
0.12
Ca
 
0.05
)
 
=0.45
MnO
 
1.5
(OH)
 
2
· 0.64H
 
2
O
Common Impurities:Al,Ca,Fe,Si

Relationship of Asbolane to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.FL.Trébeurdenite
Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
4
O
 
2
(OH)
 
10
CO
 
3
·3H
 
2
O
4.FL.05Woodallite
Mg
 
6
Cr
 
2
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
4.FL.05Iowaite
Mg
 
6
Fe
3+
2
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
4.FL.05Jamborite
(Ni
2+
1-x
,Co
3+
x
(OH)
 
2-x
(SO
 
4
)
 
x
·nH
 
2
O [x ≤ ⅓; n ≤ (1 - x)]
4.FL.05Meixnerite
Mg
 
6
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
16
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
4.FL.05Muskoxite
Mg
 
7
Fe
 
4
O
 
13
· 10H
 
2
O
4.FL.05Fougèrite
Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
2
(OH)
 
12
[CO
 
3
]·3H
 
2
O
4.FL.10Hydrocalumite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
12
(Cl,CO
 
3
,OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
4.FL.15Kuzelite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
2
(OH)
 
12
[SO
 
4
] · 6H
 
2
O
4.FL.20Aurorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ag,Ca)Mn
4+
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
4.FL.20Chalcophanite
(Zn,Fe,Mn)Mn
 
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
4.FL.20Ernienickelite
NiMn
 
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
4.FL.20Jianshuiite
(Mg,Mn)Mn
 
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
4.FL.25Woodruffite
Zn(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
5
O
 
10
·3½H
 
2
O
4.FL.35Buserite
Na
 
4
Mn
 
14
O
 
27
· 21H
 
2
O
4.FL.40Ranciéite
(Ca,Mn)Mn
 
4
O
 
9
· 3H
 
2
O
4.FL.40Takanelite
(Mn,Ca)Mn
 
4
O
 
9
· H
 
2
O
4.FL.45Birnessite
(Na,Ca)
 
0.5
(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
O
 
4
· 1.5H
 
2
O
4.FL.55Cianciulliite
Mn(Mg,Mn)
 
2
Zn
 
2
(OH)
 
10
· 2-4H
 
2
O
4.FL.60Jensenite
Cu
 
3
[TeO
 
6
] · 2H
 
2
O
4.FL.65Leisingite
Cu(Mg,Cu,Fe,Zn)
 
2
[TeO
 
6
] · 6H
 
2
O
4.FL.70Akdalaite
4Al
 
2
O
 
3
· H
 
2
O
4.FL.75Cafetite
(Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)
 
2
Ti
 
4
O
 
12
· 4H
 
2
O
4.FL.80Mourite
UMo
 
5
O
 
12
(OH)
 
10
4.FL.85Deloryite
Cu
 
4
(UO
 
2
)(MoO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.21.1Heterogenite
CoO(OH)
7.21.3Cochromite
(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)
 
2
O
 
4

Other Names for Asbolane

Synonyms:
AithaliteAsbolanoBlack CobaltCobalt graphiteCobaltide
Other Languages:
German:Asbolan
Aithalit
Asbolit
Erdkobalt
Simplified Chinese:钴土矿
Spanish:Aithalita
Asbolita
Traditional Chinese:鈷土礦
Varieties:
CuproasbolaneLampadite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Asbolane

Reference List:

- +
Palache, C., Berman, H. and Frondel, C. (1944): Dana's system of mineralogy, 7th ed., Vol. 1, 566, 568.

Chukhrov, F. V., Gorshkov, A. I., Vitovskaya, I. V., Drits, V. A., Sivtsov, A. V. and Rudnitskaya, Y. S. (1980): Crystallochemical nature of Co-Ni-asbolan. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Geol. 6, 73-81 (in Russian). - Mineral. Abs. (1981) 32, 322 (abstract). - American Mineralogist (1982) 67: 417 (abstract).

Chukhrov, F. V., Gorshkov, A. I., Vitovskaya, I. V., Drits, V. A., Sivtsov, A. V. and Dikov, Y. P. (1980): Crystallochemical nature of Ni-asbolan. Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Geol. 9, 108-120 (in Russian). - American Mineralogist (1982) 67: 418 (abstract).

Llorca, S. and Monchoux, P. (1991): Supergene cobalt minerals from New Caledonia. Canadian Mineralogist 29, 149-161.

Manceau, A., Gorshkov, A. I. and Drits, V. A. (1992): Structural chemistry of Mn, Fe, Co and Ni in mangenese hydrous oxides, part II: Information from EXAFS spectroscopy and electron X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist 77, 1144-1157.

Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 26.

Internet Links for Asbolane

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  • Asbolane details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Asbolane

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Queensland
    part of list from university of queensland
      • Mount Isa - Cloncurry area
        • Gunpowder District
          • Mount Gordon
    Day, B. E. & Beyer, B. D. (1996): Some mines of the Mt Isa district. Part 3 - The Mt Oxide mine. Australian J. of Mineralogy 2 (1), 3-10.
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Karawanken
        • Bad Eisenkappel (Bad Eisenkappl)
          • Ebriach
    G. Blass, H. Prasnik: Carinthia II 189./109.:263-266 (1999)
        • Finkenstein
          • Mallestiger Mittagskogel
    [Der Aufschluss 1996,4 p.186-192]
    • Salzburg
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Habach valley
    Niedermayr, G. et al. (2008): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LVII. Carinthia II, 198./118., 223-274.
      • Lungau
        • Murwinkel
          • Rotgülden
            • Lower Rotgülden lake
    E. Fugger: Die Mineralien des Herzogthumes Salzburgs, 11. Jahresber. d. k. k. Ober-Realschule in Salzburg (1878)
      • Saalfelden
        • Leogang
          • Hütten
            • Schwarzleograben
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
              • Schwarzleo District
    C.Auer (2014)
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    • Styria
      • Liesing - Palten valley
        • Rottenmann
          • Bärndorf
    C.Auer (2013)
      • Murau
        • Teufenbach
    Gröbner, J. & Kolitsch, U. (2007)
      • Schladming
        • Schladminger Tauern
          • Obertalbach valley
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
            • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
              • Geyer - Silberberg District
                • Silberberg
    R. Poeverlein and J. Gröbner (2007): "Der Bergbau Geyer bei Rattenberg in Tirol und seine Mineralien", Lapis 32(2), 34-38.
    Lapis 19(7/8):13-78 (1994)
            • Schwaz
              • Ringenwechsel District
    Lapis 19(7/8):13-78 (1994)
    • Vorarlberg
      • Montafon
        • Silber valley
          • Fresch alp
    Kolitsch, U. (2014): 1857) Allophan(?), Aragonit, Asbolan, Aurichalcit, Brochantit, Calcit, Chalkopyrit, Chlorit, Covellin, Galenit, Goethit, Greenockit(?), Hydrozinkit, Jarosit, Lepidokrokit, Malachit, Mikroklin, Pyrit, Pyrrhotin, Quarz, Siderit, Smithsonit und Sphalerit von einem alten Erzschurf bei der Alpe Fresch im Silbertal, Montafon, Vorarlberg. Pp. 94-96 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2014): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXIII. Carinthia II, 204./124., 65-146.
        • Vandans
          • Rells valley
    Niedermayr, G. et al. (2007): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LVI. Carinthia II, 197/117, 149-190.
    Bolivia
     
    • Potosí Department
      • Cornelio Saavedra Province
        • Serranía Huarihuari
    GEOBOL, Boletín #11, June 1968.
      • Tomás Frías Province
        • Chulchucani
    Ahlfeld, F. (1955): Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia
    Cameroon
     
    • East Region
      • Lomié
    Lambert, R.J., and Noble, A.C. (2008): Nkamouna Cobalt Project Feasibility Study. Pincock, Allen & Holt NI 43-101 Technical Report for Geovic Mining Corp.
    Canada
     
    • Northwest Territories
      • Mackenzie District
        • Great Bear Lake
    Chile
     
    • Atacama Region
      • Copiapó Province
    Sample in the I. Domeyko Museum, of La Serena School of Mines
      • Huasco Province
        • Freirina
          • Sierra Perdices
    Pnud Chile/Corfo; "Evaluaciones de los conocimientos existentes sobre Cobalto, Manganeso, Mercurio"; Stgo de Chile, Chile; 1969
        • Germán Riesco district
    C. Ruiz Fuller/F. Peebles (1988): "Yacimientos metalíferos de Chile": Fondecyt, Stgo de Chile.
        • Sierra Totorita
    C. Ruiz Fuller/F. Peebles (1988): "Yacimientos metalíferos de Chile": Fondecyt, Stgo de Chile.
    • Santiago Metropolitan Region
      • Cordillera Province
    C. Ruiz Fuller/F. Peebles (1988): "Yacimientos metalíferos de Chile": Fondecyt, Stgo de Chile.
    China
     
    • Guangdong Province
      • Heyuan Prefecture
        • Longchuan Co. (Lungchuan Co.)
    Liangkai Gu (1986): Geology and Prospecting 22(1), 15-18
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
          • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
    Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
      • Liberec Region
    Scharm, B.: Přehled minerálů nalezených v oblasti uranových koncentrací v severočeské křídě. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1995, roč. 3, s. 169-172.
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    [var: Cuproasbolane] [Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]
      • Katanga Copper Crescent
        • Shinkolobwe
    Mineralogical Record: 20: 287-288.
    Dominican Republic
     
    • La Vega Province
      • Bonao
        • Falcondo Mine
    Tamara Gallardo, Esperanca Tauler, Joaquin A. Proenza, John F. Lewis, Salvador Gali, Manuel Labrador, Francisco Longo, Giovanni Bloise (2010): Geology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Loma Ortega Ni Laterite Deposit, Dominican Republic. Macla no 13. septiembre ‘10, Revista de la Sociedad Española de Mineralogía.
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Haute-Loire
        • Lubilhac
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Pyrénées-Orientales
        • Mosset
    Remy, P., Gatel, P., Meisser, N. (2014): Indice à terres rares de Mosset (Pyrénées-Orientales). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 1-2014, 3-17.
    • Lorraine
      • Moselle
    [var: Lampadite] Van King
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Isère
        • Allemont
    Henwood, W.J. (1871): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 8(1), 517-529; "Les minéraux, leurs gisements, leurs associations", P. Bariand, F. Cesbron et J. Geffroy (1977), Editions Minéraux et Fossiles, BRGM
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Schapbach
          • Wildschapbach valley
    J. Gröbner: Neufunde von der Grube Katharina im Wildschapbach, Der Erzgräber 18 (2/2004), 34-37.
        • Schenkenzell
          • Wittichen
            • Böckelsbach valley
    S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
            • Burgfelsen
    No reference listed
            • Heubach Valley
    No reference listed
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
        • Schiltach
          • Stammelbach valley
    [Lapis 1992, 11, p.13-20]
    • Hesse
      • Odenwald
        • Bensheim
          • Hochstädten
    S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Bad Lauterberg
    J. Gröbner: Neufunde aus den Bergbaurevieren St. Andreasberg, Bad Lauterberg und von Oberschulenberg im Harz, MINERALIEN-WELT 18 (2007), 43-51.
    J. Gröbner (2001): Eine neue Mineralisation vom Klingenthaler Gang bei Bad Lauterberg im Harz. Mineralien-Welt 12 (6), 16-22. (in German)
        • Goslar
    Gröbner, J., Hajek, W., Junker, R. & Nikoleizig, J. (2011): Neue Mineralschätze des Harzes. Papierflieger Verlag GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany, 127 pp.
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Sauerland
        • Sundern
          • Hellefeld
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Siegerland
        • Eiserfeld
        • Eisern
    Weiss. "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Niederschelden
    Heinrich, M. & Reinhardt, M. (2011): Die Mineralien der Kobaltgrube "Alte Buntekuh" bei Niederschelden im Siegerland. Mineralien Welt. 22 (3): 14-27
        • Siegen
    Weiss: Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Harz
        • Wernigerode
          • Hasserode
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Annaberg District
          • Schlettau
    Nickerl, F., and Röthig, H. (2000): Verzeichnis der Berggebäude von Schlettau 1500-1900. Streifzüge durch die Geschichte des oberen Erzgebirges, Bergbaunachrichten. Arbeitskreis Annaberg-Buchholzer Heimatforscher, 124 pp.
        • Ehrenfriedersdorf
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Johanngeorgenstadt District
          • Johanngeorgenstadt
    Gröbner, J., Grimm, O. & Zienau, H. (2005): Neufunde interessanter Wismut- und Uranmineralien am Schaarschacht, Johanngeorgenstadt, Sachsen. Lapis 30 (6), 44-51; 62.
        • Niederschlag-Bärenstein District
          • Bärenstein
            • Niederschlag
    Lapis, 19 (4), 13-22+50.
        • Schneeberg District
          • Neustädtel
    Lapis 30(7/8):41-70 (2005)
    Lapis 30(7/8):41-70 (2005)
            • Weißer Hirsch Mine (Shaft 3)
    Lapis 30(7/8):41-70 (2005)
    Frenzel, A. (1874): Mineralogisches Lexicon für das Königreich Sachsen, Leipzig.
          • Wolfgang Maaßen Mine field
    Lapis 30(7/8):41-70 (2005)
        • Schwarzenberg District
          • Langenberg
            • Graul
              • Gottes Geschick Vereinigt Feld Mine
    http://www.dergraul.de
      • Vogtland
        • Oelsnitz
    Gröbner, J. and Kolitsch, U. (2007): The minerals of the uranium prospect at Tirpersdorf, Vogtland. Lapis 32, 37-42; 58. (in German)
    • Thuringia
      • Harz
        • Nordhausen
          • Ilfeld
    J. Gröbner & J. Wesiger (2008): Die Mineralien des Kupferschieferbergbaus an südlichen Harzrand bei Ilfeld in Thüringen. Mineralien-Welt 19 (2), 18-28.
        • Stempeda
    J. Gröbner & J. Wesiger (2008): Die Mineralien des Kupferschieferbergbaus an südlichen Harzrand bei Ilfeld in Thüringen. Mineralien-Welt 19 (2), 18-28.
      • Saalfeld
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Thuringian Forest
        • Schweina
    No reference listed
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Plaka
            • Plaka Mines
    No reference listed
    Ireland
     
    • Co. Dublin
    F. Rutley: "Elements of Mineralogy", 12th Ed. (1900)
    Italy
     
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Trento Province
        • Valsugana
          • Roncegno
    De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chubu Region
        • Aichi Prefecture
    (mistaken ID for cobalt-rich lithiophorite)
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Aktobe Province (Aqtöbe Oblysy; Aktubinskaya Oblast')
      • Urals
    P.M. Kartashov data
    Am.Min.79,388(1994)
    Kyrgyzstan
     
    • Osh Oblast
      • Alai Range (Alay Range)
        • Fergana Valley
          • Fergana
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 26
    Mexico
     
    • Coahuila
      • Mun. de Cuatrociénegas
        • Cuatro Ciénegas (Cuatrociénegas de Carranza; Venustiano Carranza)
          • Limestone caves
    Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
    • Queretaro
      • Mun. de San Juan del Río
        • San Pedro Ahuacatlán (Ahuacatlán)
    Panczner(1987):100.
    • Sonora
      • Mun. de Hermosillo
        • El Zubiate
    Panczner(1987):100.
    Moldova
     
    • Edinet
      • Criva
    Klimchouk, A. (2012). Gypsum karst in the Western Ukraine. International Journal of Speleology, 25(3), 20.
    Morocco
     
    • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
      • Ouarzazate Province
        • Tazenakht
    S. Weiß: Lapis 31(7/8), 72-73 (2006)
    New Caledonia
     
    • Northern Province
      • Houaïlou Commune
    Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., Bliss, J.D., and Moring, B.C., 2011, Ni-Co laterite deposits of the world; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1058.
    • Southern Province
      • Mont-Dore Commune
    C. Gineste
    Poland
     
    • Świętokrzyskie
      • Świętokrzyskie Mts (Holy Cross Mts)
        • Kielce District
          • Chęciny
    Wojciechowski, J. (1958): Minerals occurring at Miedzianka near Checiny (Swietokrzyskie Mts., Central Poland). Prace Muzeum Ziemi (No. 1), 133-156.
    Portugal
     
    • Aveiro District
      • Albergaria-a-Velha
        • Branca
    Antonio Jesus Pimentel specimens; www.mindat.org/mesg-25-107652.html
    Red Sea
     
    Sediment-Hosted Mineral Deposits: Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Beijing, People's Republic of China, 30 July-4 August 1988
    Romania
     
    • Suceava Co.
      • Suceava district
        • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
    http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
    Russia
     
    • Central Region
      • Moscow Oblast' (Moskovskaya Oblast')
    Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
    • Urals Region
      • Middle Urals
        • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
          • Nizhnii Tagil
    [var: Lampadite] Kievlenko E.V., Senkevich N.N. (1983) Geology of gem stone deposits, - Moscow, "Nedra", pp. 97-99 (in Rus.)
          • Rezh District
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 26
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 26
      • Southern Urals
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 26
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Banská Bystrica Co.
        • Ľubietová (Libetbánya; Libethen)
    Pauliš,P.,Ďuďa,R.,2002: Nejzajímavejší mineralogická naletište Slovenska. Kuttna,K.Hora, 136p
    Pauliš,P.,Ďuďa,R.,2002: Nejzajímavejší mineralogická naletište Slovenska. Kuttna,K.Hora, 136p
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Almería
        • Huércal-Overa
          • Cuesta Alta
            • Cerro Minado Mines
    ARANA CASTILLO, R. (1972) : Investigaciones mineralogicas en Sierra Nevada. PhD report Grenada University.
        • Níjar
          • Huebro
    Dr. César Menor Salván
      • Granada
        • Molvizar
    J. Gröbner and M. A. Fernández Périz (2006): Minerals of the Copper-Cobalt Deposits Molvizar and Cerro Minado in Andalusia. Mineralup February 2006, 48-56.
      • Jaén
        • Linares-La Carolina District
          • Linares
    Colectivo Arrayanes, Fernando J. Palero, Gonzalo Garcia, Cesar Menor (2008): El Coto de la Luz. Bocamina, 22: 56-105.
    • Catalonia
      • Girona (Gerona)
        • Ripollès
          • Camprodon
            • Rocabruna
    Joan Rosell
    • Valencian Community
      • Castellón
        • Chóvar
          • Bellota ravine
    Joan Vinals & Miguel Calvo (2007) Corderoite, Kenhsuite and Perroudite, mercury sulphohalides from Chovar (Xovar), Castello, Spain. Mineral Up, June 2007.
          • El Hembrar
    Casanova Honrubia, Juan Miguel & Canseco Caballé, Manuel, 2002, Minerales de la Comunidad Valenciana : 237 p. Ed. Caja de Ahorros del Mediterráneo. Alicante
    Casanova Honrubia, Juan Miguel & Canseco Caballé, Manuel, 2002, Minerales de la Comunidad Valenciana : 237 p. Ed. Caja de Ahorros del Mediterráneo. Alicante
        • Vall d'Uixó
          • La Corraliza
    Casanova Honrubia, Juan Miguel & Canseco Caballé, Manuel, 2002, Minerales de la Comunidad Valenciana : 237 p. Ed. Caja de Ahorros del Mediterráneo. Alicante
      • Valencia
        • Vilamarxant (Villamarchante)
          • La Rodana
    CASANOVA HONRUBIA, JUAN MIGUEL & CANSECO CABALLÉ, MANUEL, 2002, Minerales de la Comunidad Valenciana : 237 p. Ed. Caja de Ahorros del Mediterráneo. Alicante
    Turkey
     
    • Aegean Region
      • Manisa Province
        • Turgutlu
    Masurenko, C., and Tanaskovic, D. (2007), In: Andrew, C.J. et al. (eds.): Proc. 9th Biennial SGA Meeting, Dublin (Ireland), August 20-24, 2007.
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cheshire
        • Alderley Edge
    No reference listed
    BMS Database
    BMS Database
    BMS Database
    BMS Database
    No reference listed
    BMS Database
      • Cornwall
        • Camborne - Redruth - St Day District
          • Gwennap
            • St Day United Mines (Poldice Mines)
    Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Collins, J.H. (1892): "A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon", 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.
    Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Collins, J.H. (1892): "A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon", 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.
        • St Austell District
          • St Stephen-in-Brannel
            • St Stephen
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
        • St Just District
          • St Just
            • Botallack
              • Cliff outcrops
    Carne, J. (1822): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 2, 290-358; Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Collins, J.H. (1892): A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon, 2nd ed., Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro), 108 pp.
      • Cumbria
        • North and Western Region (Cumberland)
          • Caldbeck Fells
    Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
      • Shropshire
        • Clive
    Dewey & Eastwood: Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain, vol XXX Copper Ores of the Midlands, pp18-19
        • Shrewsbury
    Dewey & Eastwood: Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain, vol XXX Copper Ores of the Midlands, pp19
    Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
      • Stirling District
        • Tyndrum
    Henwood, W.J. (1871): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 8(1), 643-649
    • Wales
      • Denbighshire (Clwyd)
        • Dyserth
    Le Neve Foster, C. (1879): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 10, 107-112
      • Powys (Radnorshire)
        • Old Radnor
          • Wethel
    Cotterell TF et al (2011) The mineralogy of Dolyhir quarry, Old Radnor. Powys, Wales. UKJMM 32:5-61
    USA
     
    • Arkansas
    Jay Ellis Ransom,1974, Gems and Minerals of America
    • California
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
          • Calico District (Daggett District)
            • Borate
    [Murdoch, J & Webb, R (1966) Minerals of California, California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 189]
      • Tulare Co.
        • Lindsay
          • King C. Gillette farm
    Melhase, John (1934), A diversity of many fine minerals available in California for collectors: Oregon Mineralogist: 2(7): 23; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 299.
        • Tennessee Knob
    Murdoch, "Minerals of California" 1966 p. 298
    • Missouri
      • Crawford Co.
    R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
      • Madison Co.
        • Fredericktown District
          • Mine La Motte
    Dana 6:1083.
    • North Carolina
      • Catawba Co.
    J.H.Pratt,1907,NCGS Economic Paper No.11,The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1905
      • Gaston Co.
        • Lincolnton
    J.H,Pratt,1907,NCGS Economic Paper No.11,The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1905
      • Wake Co.
    J.H,Pratt,1907,NCGS Economic Paper No.11,The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1905
    • Utah
      • San Juan Co.
        • White Canyon District
          • White Canyon
    R&M 75:4 p240-248
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