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About ArmeniteHide

BaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Colourless, green
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Member of:
Named after the type locality, the Armen Mine, Kongsberg, Norway.
The type specimen was collected already in 1877 by cand. min. O. A. Corneliussen. He labelled the sample as "Epidote?". It was kept in the collection of the University of Oslo until February 1939 when it was rediscovered by Henrich Neumann, who also recognized it as a new mineral.
This page provides mineralogical data about Armenite.

Classification of ArmeniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
M : [Si6O18]12- 6-membered double rings (sechser-Doppelringe)

63 : CYCLOSILICATES Condensed Rings
2 : Condensed Rings (Milarite - Osumilite group)

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
12 : Aluminosilicates of Sr, Ba and Zn

Pronounciation of ArmeniteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of ArmeniteHide

Colourless, green
7½ on Mohs scale
2.77 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of ArmeniteHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.550 nβ = 1.552 nγ = 1.556
Measured: 59° to 60°, Calculated: 72°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.006
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r < v strong

Chemical Properties of ArmeniteHide

BaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
IMA Formula:
BaCa2(Al6Si9)O30 · 2H2O
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of ArmeniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 13.874(2) Å, b = 18.660(2) Å, c = 10.697(1) Å
a:b:c = 0.744 : 1 : 0.573
Unit Cell V:
2,769.33 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Prismatic pseudohexagonal crystals

The pseudohexagonal form is due to twinning along an axis parallel to the optic direction a.
Space group is Pnna. Symmetry reduction is due to partial ordering of Si and Al. Ordering of water gives primitive orthorhombic unit cell.

Type Occurrence of ArmeniteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
A silver-bearing calcite-vein, Kongsberg, Norway
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for ArmeniteHide

Simplified Chinese:钡钙大隅石
Traditional Chinese:鋇鈣大隅石

Relationship of Armenite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Agakhanovite-(Y)(YCa)□2KBe3Si12O30Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
AlmaruditeK(□,Na)2(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2(Be,Al)3[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
BerezanskiteK□2Li3(Ti,Zr,Sn)2[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
Brannockite(K,Na)□2Li3(Sn,Zr,Ti)2[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
DarapiositeK(Na,◻,K)2(Li,Zn,Fe)3(Mn,Zr,Y)2[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
DusmatoviteK(Na,□)2(Zn,Li)3(Mn2+,Y,Zr)2[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
FriedrichbeckeiteK(□0.5Na0.5)2Mg2Be3Si12O30Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
Klöchite(□Na)KFe2+2Zn3(Si12O30)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
MilariteK2Ca4Al2Be4Si24O60 · H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
OftedaliteK(Sc,Ca,Mn2+)22[(Be,Al)3Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
Osumilite-(Mg)KMg2Al3(Al2Si10)O30 Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
Roedderite(Na,K)2(Mg,Fe)5Si12O30Hex. 6 m2 : P62c
ShibkoviteK(□,K,Na)2Zn3Ca2[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
SogdianiteK(□,Na)2Li3(Zr,Fe,Ti)2[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
Trattnerite□(Fe3+,Mg,Fe2+)2(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)3(Si12O30)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
Unnamed (Al-dominant analog of Sugilite)K(Na,□)2Li3(Al,Mn,Fe)2[Si12O30]
Yagiite(Na,K)3Mg4(Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)24O60Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m)

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Epidote2 photos of Armenite associated with Epidote on mindat.org.
Ganterite2 photos of Armenite associated with Ganterite on mindat.org.
Quartz1 photo of Armenite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.CM.05Brannockite(K,Na)□2Li3(Sn,Zr,Ti)2[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CM.05ChayesiteK(Mg,Fe)4FeSi12O30Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CM.05DarapiositeK(Na,◻,K)2(Li,Zn,Fe)3(Mn,Zr,Y)2[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CM.05MilariteK2Ca4Al2Be4Si24O60 · H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CM.05Osumilite-(Mg)KMg2Al3(Al2Si10)O30 Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CM.05PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CM.05Roedderite(Na,K)2(Mg,Fe)5Si12O30Hex. 6 m2 : P62c
9.CM.05SogdianiteK(□,Na)2Li3(Zr,Fe,Ti)2[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CM.05Yagiite(Na,K)3Mg4(Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)24O60Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m)
9.CM.05BerezanskiteK□2Li3(Ti,Zr,Sn)2[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CM.05DusmatoviteK(Na,□)2(Zn,Li)3(Mn2+,Y,Zr)2[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CM.05ShibkoviteK(□,K,Na)2Zn3Ca2[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CM.05AlmaruditeK(□,Na)2(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2(Be,Al)3[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
9.CM.05Trattnerite□(Fe3+,Mg,Fe2+)2(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)3(Si12O30)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CM.05OftedaliteK(Sc,Ca,Mn2+)22[(Be,Al)3Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CM.10FaizieviteK2Na(Ca6Na)Ti4Li6[F2|Si24O66]Tric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.12.4CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)Mon. 2/m
16.12.6CymriteBaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2OMon.
16.12.7EdingtoniteBa[Al2Si3O10] · 4H2O
16.12.9Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
16.12.13Wellsite(K,Ba,Ca,K2)Al2Si6O16 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
16.12.14Merlinoite(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2OOrth.
16.12.15Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
16.12.17SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
16.12.19HendricksiteK(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
16.12.20Baileychlore(Zn,Fe2+,Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8Tric. 1

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ArmeniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Neumann, H. (1940) Armenite, a new mineral. Preliminary note. Norsk Geologisk Tidskrift: 19: 21-22. [http://foreninger.uio.no/ngf/ngt/pdfs/NGT_19_4_312-313.pdf]
Neumann, H. (1941) Armenite, a water-bearing barium-calcium-alumo-silicate. Norsk Geologisk Tidskrift: 21: 19-24. [http://foreninger.uio.no/ngf/ngt/pdfs/NGT_21_1_019-024.pdf]
Fleischer, M. (1941) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 26: 235-236.
Pouliot, G., Trudel, P., Valiquette, G., Samson, P.N. (1984) Armenite-thulite-albite veins at Remigny, Quebec; the second occurrence of armenite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 22: 453-464.
Armbruster, T., Czank, M. (1992) H2O ordering and superstructures in armenite, BaCa2Al6Si9O30.2H2O: A single-crystal X-ray and TEM study. American Mineralogist: 77: 422-430: 1119.
Jambor, J.L., Bladh, K.W., Ercit, T.S., Grice, J.D., Grew, E.S. (1988) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 73: 927-935.
Jambor, J.L., Puziewicz, J. (1992) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 77: 1116-1121.
Geiger, C.A., Gatta, G.D., Xue, X., McIntyre, G.J. (2012) A neutron/X-Ray diffraction, IR, and 1H/29Si NMR Spectroscopic investigation of armenite: behavior of extra framework Ca cations and H2O molecules in microporous silicates. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 227: 411-426.
Hochleitner, R., Weiß, S. (2016) Steckbrief Armenit. Lapis: 41(7-8): 9-11.

Internet Links for ArmeniteHide

Localities for ArmeniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
Mason, B. (1987). Armenite from Broken Hill, Australia, with comments on calciocelsian and barium anorthite. Mineralogical magazine, 51(2), 317-318.; Birch BH Book
Mason, B, 1987. Armenite from Broken Hill, Australia, with comments on calciocelsian and barium anorthite. Mineralogical Magazine. 51, p.317-318
Brian Mason (1987)Armenite from Broken Hill, Australia, with comments on calciocelesian and barium anorthite. Mineralogical Magazine, June 1987, Vol. 51, PP. 317-18
  • Ontario
    • Kenora District
      • Root Lake pegmatite group
        • Root Lake Area
Tindle, A. G., Selway, J. B. & Breaks, F. W. (2005): Liddicoatite and associated species from the McCombe spodumene-subtype rare-element granitic pegmatite, northwestern Ontario, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 43, 769-793.
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Bomby Township
Yuanming Pan and Michael E. Fleet (1992) Calc-silicate alteration in the Hemlo gold deposit, Ontario; mineral assemblages, P-T-X constraints, and significance. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 87:1104-1120
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Témiscamingue RCM
Pouliot, G., Trudel, P., Valiquette, G., & Samson, P. N. (1984). Armenite-thulite-albite veins at Remigny, Quebec; the second occurrence of armenite. The Canadian Mineralogist, 22(3), 453-464; Sabina, A.P. (2000) Rocks & Minerals for the collector; Cobalt - Belleterre - Timmins, Ontario and Quebec. GSC Misc. Report 57, 96 p.
  • Cienfuegos Province
Torró, L., Proenza, J. A., Melgarejo, J. C., Alfonso, P., de Pablo, J. F., Colomer, J. M., ... & Chávez, C. (2016). Mineralogy, geochemistry and sulfur isotope characterization of Cerro de Maimón (Dominican Republic), San Fernando and Antonio (Cuba) Lower Cretaceous VMS deposits: formation during subduction initiation of the Proto-Caribbean lithosphere within a fore-arc. Ore Geology Reviews, 72, 794-817.
Czech Republic
  • Olomouc Region
    • Šumperk (Mährisch Schönberg)
      • Ruda nad Moravou
Novák M. Gadas P. (2010) ZONED, ANORTHITE- AND GROSSULARITE-BEARING, LEUCOTONALITIC PEGMATITE FROM SERPENTINIZED LHERZOLITE AT RUDA NAD MORAVOU, STARÉ MĚSTO UNIT, CZECH REPUBLIC. Can Miner 48 (3): 629-650.; Gadas, P., Novák, M., Talla, D., & Galiová, M. V. (2013). Compositional evolution of grossular garnet from leucotonalitic pegmatite at Ruda nad Moravou, Czech Republic; a complex EMPA, LA-ICP-MS, IR and CL study. Mineralogy and Petrology, 107(2), 311-326.
  • Pardubice Region
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Ossola Valley
        • Mergozzo
          • Candoglia
Peyronel Pagliani, G. (1958): I silicati di bario del marmo di Candoglia (Ossola). Rendiconti della Società Mineralogica Italiana, 14, 280-300; Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.; Gentile, P., Cavallo, A., Zorzi, F. (2017): Armenite della Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo, Candoglia di Mergozzo (VB). Novità di mineralogia sistematica italiana. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 51, 3 (3-2017), 188.
  • Sardinia
    • South Sardinia Province
      • Fluminimaggiore
• Stara, P. Rizzo, R., Tanca, G., Vinci A. (1994): Su Zurfuru. 1° parte. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1993, 215-236.
Norway (TL)
  • Buskerud
    • Kongsberg
      • Kongsberg silver mining district
        • Overberget Mining Field
Neumann, H. (1941): Armenite, a water-bearing barium-calcium-alumo-silicate. Norsk Geologisk Tidskrift 21, 19-24
Bancroft, P., Nordrum, F.S. & Lyckberg, P.(2001): Kongsberg revisited. Mineralogical Record 32: 181-205
  • Bragança
    • Freixo de Espada à Cinta
      • Poiares
L. Miguel Gaspar and Carlos M. C. Inverno (2000). Mineralogy and Metasomatic Evolution of Distal Strata-Bound Scheelite Skarns in the Riba de Alva Mine, Northeastern Portugal Economic Geology, v. 95, p. 1259-1275,
  • Guarda
    • Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo
      • Escalhão
Gaspar, L.M. and Inverno, C.M. (2000): Mineralogy and metasomatic evolution of distal strata-bound scheelite skarns in the Riba de Alva mine, northeastern Portugal. Econ. Geol. 95, 1259-1275.
  • Murmansk Oblast
South Korea
  • Daejeon
    • Daejeon-gun
Gi Young Jeong (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 469-481.
  • Gyeonggi-do (Kyonggi-do)
Cheong, C. S., Jeong, G. Y., Kim, H., Choi, M. S., Lee, S. H., & Cho, M. (2003). Early Permian peak metamorphism recorded in U–Pb system of black slates from the Ogcheon metamorphic belt, South Korea, and its tectonic implication. Chemical Geology, 193(1), 81-92.
  • Catalonia
    • Tarragona
      • Conca de Barberà
        • Vimbodí
          • Poblet Monastery
C.. Canet et al. , The Canadian Mineralogist, 2003, V41, pp. 581-595
C.. Canet et al. , The Canadian Mineralogist, 2003, V41, pp. 581-595
C.. Canet et al. , The Canadian Mineralogist, 2003, V41, pp. 581-595
  • Hhohho District
Roerdink, D. L., Mason, P. R., Whitehouse, M. J., & Brouwer, F. M. (2016). Reworking of atmospheric sulfur in a Paleoarchean hydrothermal system at Londozi, Barberton Greenstone Belt, Swaziland. Precambrian Research, 280, 195-204.
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Brig
      • Simplon pass area
        • Ganter valley
          • Wasen Alp
Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:252; Graeser S., Hetherington C.J., Gieré R. (2003): Ganterite, a new barium-dominant analogue of muscovite from the Berisal Complex, Simplon Region, Switzerland. Canadian Mineralogist 41, 1271-1280.
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
    • Aberdeenshire
      • Braemar
BMS Database Fortey N.J., Nancarrow P.H.A. and Gallagher M.J. "Armenite from the Middle Dalradian of Scotland" Mineralogical Magazine vol. 55 [1991] http://www.minersoc.org/pages/Archive-MM/Volume_55/55-378-135.pdf
  • Washington
    • King Co.
Handbook of Mineralogy; Mineralogical Record. crystals 19:333n; micro 21:492n
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