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Crandallite

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Formula:
CaAl3(PO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Yellow, white, gray; ...
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Waxy, Greasy, Silky, Dull, Earthy
Hardness:
5
Name:
Named in 1917 by Gerald Francis Loughlin and Waldemar T. Schaller in honor of mining engineer, Milan Lucian Crandall, Jr. [August 9, 1880 Springville, Utah, USA - April 19, 1959 Napa County, California, USA], previously of the Knight Mining Company, Provo, Utah, USA. (Schaller redefined goyazite as a Ba phosphate rather than a calcium phosphate in order to name crandallite.)
The calcium analogue of plumbogummite and the phosphate analogue of arsenocrandallite.

See also the similar minerals perhamite and iangreyite.

Classification of Crandallite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.BL.10

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
L : With medium-sized and large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 3:1
42.7.3.1

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
7 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
19.8.16

19 : Phosphates
8 : Phosphates of Al and other metals
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First Recorded Occurrence of Crandallite

Year of Discovery:
1917
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
Cavities in a quartz-baryte aggregate
Associated Minerals at First Recorded Locality:

Occurrences of Crandallite

Geological Setting:
Late-stage phosphate mineralization in granite pegmatite; sedimentary phosphate nodules; phosphate-bearing rock fractures or in sedimentary layers.

Physical Properties of Crandallite

Sub-Vitreous, Waxy, Greasy, Silky, Dull, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Comment:
Massive material grades from vitreous to dull and chalky.
Colour:
Yellow, white, gray; colorless in transmitted light.
Comment:
Theoretically white; iron may make the mineral yellow to brown; also frequently stained when fine-grained.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
5
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {0001}, perfect.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
2.78 - 3.04 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.00 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Crandallite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
R3m
Space Group Setting:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.005Å, c = 16.192Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.311
Unit Cell Volume:
V 688.09 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
3
Morphology:
Commonly massive, nodular aggregates having concentric layering with layers comprised of sub-parallel or matted fibers. May be fine-granular and grading to a dense, agate-like or chalcedonic forms; also as banded spherules with a radial-fibrous structure. Found as well-formed pseudomorphs after wavellite crystals, minyulite crystals, and other phosphates. Original crystals are rare, minute, as pseudo-cubic rhombohedrons or trigonal prisms terminated by {0001}; as rosettes of fibers elongated perpendicular to [0001]. Note: Many fibrous crandallite "crystals" are pseudomorphs.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.503 (25)
2.983 (40)
2.938 (100)
2.163 (60)
1.8946 (45)
1.7520 (35)
1.4285 (25)
Comments:
ICDD 33-0257

Optical Data of Crandallite

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.613 - 1.618 nε = 1.622 - 1.632
Birefringence:
0.011
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.009
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Optical Extinction:
Parallel
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Crandallite

Formula:
CaAl3(PO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Sr,Ba,Fe

Relationship of Crandallite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Goyazite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
BenauiteSrFe33+(HPO4,PO4)2(OH)6
EylettersiteTh0.75Al3(PO4)2(OH)6
Florencite-(Ce)CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Florencite-(La)LaAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Florencite-(Nd)(Nd,La,Ce)Al3(PO4)2(OH)6
Florencite-(Sm)(Sm,Nd)Al3(PO4)2(OH)6
GalloplumbogummitePb(Ga,Al)3-xGexH1-x(PO4)2(OH)6 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
GoyaziteSrAl3(PO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
KintoreitePbFe3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Kintoreite-2cPbFe33+(PO4)2(OH,H2O)6
PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
SpringcreekiteBaV33+(PO4)2(OH,H2O)6
WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
ZaïriteBiFe33+(PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.05BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.05CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.05HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.05HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.05KemmlitziteSrAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.05SvanbergiteSrAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.05WoodhouseiteCaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.05GallobeudantitePbGa3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.10ArsenogoyaziteSrAl3(AsO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
8.BL.10ArsenogorceixiteBaAl3(AsO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
8.BL.10ArsenocrandalliteCaAl3(AsO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
8.BL.10BenauiteSrFe33+(HPO4,PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.10DussertiteBaFe33+(AsO4)2(OH)5
8.BL.10EylettersiteTh0.75Al3(PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.10GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
8.BL.10GoyaziteSrAl3(PO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
8.BL.10KintoreitePbFe3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
8.BL.10PhilipsbornitePbAl3(AsO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
8.BL.10PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
8.BL.10SegnititePbFe33+(AsO4)2(OH,H2O)6
8.BL.10SpringcreekiteBaV33+(PO4)2(OH,H2O)6
8.BL.13Arsenoflorencite-(La)LaAl3(AsO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13Arsenoflorencite-(Nd)NdAl3(AsO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13Arsenoflorencite-(Ce)CeAl3(AsO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13Florencite-(Ce)CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13Florencite-(La)LaAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13Florencite-(Nd)(Nd,La,Ce)Al3(PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13ZaïriteBiFe33+(PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13ArsenowaylanditeBiAl3(AsO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13Graulichite-(Ce)CeFe33+(AsO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13Florencite-(Sm)(Sm,Nd)Al3(PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.15ViitaniemiiteNa(Ca,Mn2+)Al(PO4)(F,OH)3
8.BL.25PattersonitePbFe33+(PO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
19.8.1MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
19.8.2BrazilianiteNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4
19.8.3WarditeNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
19.8.4TancoiteLiNa2Al(PO4)(HPO4)(OH)
19.8.5Bertossaite(Li,Na)2(Ca,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al4(PO4)4(OH,F)4
19.8.6TinsleyiteKAl2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
19.8.7Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
19.8.8FrancoanelliteK3Al5(PO4)2(HPO4)3 · 12H2O
19.8.9GordoniteMgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
19.8.10AldermaniteMg5Al12(PO4)8(OH)22 · 32H2O
19.8.11OveriteCaMgAl(PO4)2(OH) · 4H2O
19.8.12MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
19.8.14FoggiteCaAl(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
19.8.15GatumbaiteCaAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · H2O
19.8.17Matulaite(Fe3+,Al)Al7(PO4)4(PO3OH)2(OH)8(H2O)8 · 8H2O
19.8.19Lehiite
19.8.20Millisite(Na,K)CaAl6(PO4)4(OH)9 · 3H2O
19.8.21EnglishiteK3Na2Ca10Al15(PO4)21(OH)7 · 26H2O
19.8.22KleemaniteZnAl2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2O
19.8.23MantienneiteKMg2Al2Ti(PO4)4(OH)3 · 15H2O
19.8.24PaulkerriteK(Mg,Mn2+)2(Fe3+,Al,Ti,Mg)2Ti(PO4)4(OH)3 · 15H2O

Other Names for Crandallite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:纤磷钙铝石
Spanish:Crandallita
Traditional Chinese:纖磷鈣鋁石

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble with difficulty in acids.

May be pseudomorphic after Gordonite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Crandallite

Reference List:
Kosmann (1869) Zeitschrift der Deutsche geologische Gesellschaft, Berlin: 21: 799 (as Kalkwavellit).

Loughlin and Schaller (1917) American Journal of Science: 43: 69.

Laubmann (1922) Berichte deutsche chemische Gesellschaft: 55B: 3016 (as Pseudowavellite).

Laubmann (1922) Geognost. Jahrehefte, München: 35: 203.

Larsen and Shannon (1930a) American Mineralogist: 15: 303.

Larsen and Shannon (1930b) American Mineralogist: 15: 307.

Larsen (1942) American Mineralogist: 27: 288.

Gordon (1944) Proceedings of the Academy of Science, Philadelphia: 96: 336.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 835.

American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 41-47.

Internet Links for Crandallite

Localities for Crandallite

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