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Crandallite

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Formula:
CaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
System:TrigonalColour:Yellow, white, gray; ...
Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Waxy, Greasy, Silky, Dull, EarthyHardness:5
Member of:Plumbogummite Group > Alunite Supergroup
Name:Named in 1917 by Gerald Francis Loughlin and Waldemar T. Schaller in honor of mining engineer, Milan Lucian Crandall, Jr. [August 9, 1880 Springville, Utah, USA - April 19, 1959 Napa County, California, USA], previously of the Knight Mining Company, Provo, Utah, USA. (Schaller redefined goyazite as a Ba phosphate rather than a calcium phosphate in order to name crandallite.)


The calcium analogue of plumbogummite and the phosphate analogue of arsenocrandallite.

See also the similar minerals perhamite and iangreyite.

Classification of Crandallite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/B.36-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.BL.10

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
L : With medium-sized and large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 3:1
Dana 8th edition ID:42.7.3.1

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
7 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.8.16

19 : Phosphates
8 : Phosphates of Al and other metals
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Type Occurrence of Crandallite

Type Locality:Brooklyn Mine, Silver City, Tintic District, East Tintic Mts, Juab Co., Utah, USA
Year of Discovery:1917
Geological Setting of type material:Cavities in a quartz-baryte aggregate
Associated Minerals at type locality:
QuartzBaryte

Occurrences of Crandallite

Geological Setting:Late-stage phosphate mineralization in granite pegmatite; sedimentary phosphate nodules; phosphate-bearing rock fractures or in sedimentary layers.

Physical Properties of Crandallite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Waxy, Greasy, Silky, Dull, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent, Opaque
Comment:Massive material grades from vitreous to dull and chalky.
Colour:Yellow, white, gray; colorless in transmitted light.
Comment:Theoretically white; iron may make the mineral yellow to brown; also frequently stained when fine-grained.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):5
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {0001}, perfect.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):2.78 - 3.04 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.00 g/cm3

Crystallography of Crandallite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:R3m
Space Group Setting:R3m
Cell Parameters:a = 7.005Å, c = 16.192Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.311
Unit Cell Volume:V 688.09 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:3
Morphology: Commonly massive, nodular aggregates having concentric layering with layers comprised of sub-parallel or matted fibers. May be fine-granular and grading to a dense, agate-like or chalcedonic forms; also as banded spherules with a radial-fibrous structure. Found as well-formed pseudomorphs after wavellite crystals, minyulite crystals, and other phosphates. Original crystals are rare, minute, as pseudo-cubic rhombohedrons or trigonal prisms terminated by {0001}; as rosettes of fibers elongated perpendicular to [0001]. Note: Many fibrous crandallite "crystals" are pseudomorphs.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.503 (25)
2.983 (40)
2.938 (100)
2.163 (60)
1.8946 (45)
1.7520 (35)
1.4285 (25)
Comments:ICDD 33-0257

Optical Data of Crandallite

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.613 - 1.618 nε = 1.622 - 1.632
Birefringence:0.011
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.009

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Optical Extinction:Parallel
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Crandallite

Formula:
CaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:CaAl3(PO4)2(OH)5·H2O
Essential elements:Al, Ca, H, O, P
All elements listed in formula:Al, Ca, H, O, P
Common Impurities:Sr,Ba,Fe

Relationship of Crandallite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Goyazite (see here)
Member of:Plumbogummite Group > Alunite Supergroup
Other Members of Group:

- +
Benauite
SrFe
3+
3
(HPO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Eylettersite
Th
 
0.75
Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Florencite-(Ce)
CeAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Florencite-(La)
LaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Florencite-(Nd)
(Nd,La,Ce)Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Florencite-(Sm)
(Sm,Nd)Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Galloplumbogummite
Pb(Ga,Al)
 
3-x
GeH
 
1-x
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
Gorceixite
BaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
Goyazite
SrAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
Kintoreite
PbFe
 
3
(PO
 
4
)(PO
 
3
OH)(OH)
 
6
Kintoreite-2c
PbFe
3+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,H
 
2
O)
 
6
Plumbogummite
PbAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
Springcreekite
BaV
3+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,H
 
2
O)
 
6
Waylandite
BiAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Zaïrite
Bi(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Common Associates:
WavelliteWarditeVarisciteTopazSiderite
SenegaliteQuartzMontebrasiteMicroclineMagnesite
LimoniteFluelliteBrazilianiteBrazilianiteAlbite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.BL.05Beudantite
PbFe
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
8.BL.05Corkite
PbFe
 
3
(PO
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
8.BL.05Hidalgoite
PbAl
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
8.BL.05Hinsdalite
PbAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
8.BL.05Kemmlitzite
SrAl
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
8.BL.05Svanbergite
SrAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
8.BL.05Woodhouseite
CaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
8.BL.05Gallobeudantite
PbGa
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
8.BL.10Arsenogoyazite
SrAl
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
8.BL.10Arsenogorceixite
BaAl
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
8.BL.10Arsenocrandallite
CaAl
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
8.BL.10Benauite
SrFe
3+
3
(HPO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
8.BL.10Dussertite
BaFe
3+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
8.BL.10Eylettersite
Th
 
0.75
Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
8.BL.10Gorceixite
BaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
8.BL.10Goyazite
SrAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
8.BL.10Kintoreite
PbFe
 
3
(PO
 
4
)(PO
 
3
OH)(OH)
 
6
8.BL.10Philipsbornite
PbAl
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
8.BL.10Plumbogummite
PbAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
8.BL.10Segnitite
PbFe
3+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,H
 
2
O)
 
6
8.BL.10Springcreekite
BaV
3+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,H
 
2
O)
 
6
8.BL.13Arsenoflorencite-(La)
LaAl
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
8.BL.13Arsenoflorencite-(Nd)
NdAl
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
8.BL.13Arsenoflorencite-(Ce)
CeAl
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
8.BL.13Florencite-(Ce)
CeAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
8.BL.13Florencite-(La)
LaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
8.BL.13Florencite-(Nd)
(Nd,La,Ce)Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
8.BL.13Waylandite
BiAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
8.BL.13Zaïrite
Bi(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
8.BL.13Arsenowaylandite
BiAl
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
8.BL.13Graulichite-(Ce)
CeFe
3+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
8.BL.13Florencite-(Sm)
(Sm,Nd)Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
8.BL.15Viitaniemiite
Na(Ca,Mn
2+
 
)Al(PO
 
4
)(F,OH)
 
3
8.BL.25Pattersonite
PbFe
3+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.8.1Montebrasite
LiAl(PO
 
4
)(OH)
19.8.2Brazilianite
NaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
19.8.3Wardite
NaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
19.8.4Tancoite
LiNa
 
2
Al(PO
 
4
)(HPO
 
4
)(OH)
19.8.5Bertossaite
(Li,Na)
 
2
(Ca,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH,F)
 
4
19.8.6Tinsleyite
KAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
19.8.7Taranakite
(K,NH
 
4
)Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH) · 9H
 
2
O
19.8.8Francoanellite
K
 
3
Al
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
 
3
· 12H
 
2
O
19.8.9Gordonite
MgAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.8.10Aldermanite
Mg
 
5
Al
 
12
(PO
 
4
)
 
8
(OH)
 
22
· 32H
 
2
O
19.8.11Overite
CaMgAl(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
19.8.12Montgomeryite
Ca
 
4
MgAl
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
4
· 12H
 
2
O
19.8.14Foggite
CaAl(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.8.15Gatumbaite
CaAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.8.17Matulaite
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)Al
 
7
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(PO
 
3
OH)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
(H
 
2
O)
 
8
· 8H
 
2
O
19.8.19Lehiite
19.8.20Millisite
(Na,K)CaAl
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
9
· 3H
 
2
O
19.8.21Englishite
K
 
3
Na
 
2
Ca
 
10
Al
 
15
(PO
 
4
)
 
21
(OH)
 
7
· 26H
 
2
O
19.8.22Kleemanite
ZnAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.8.23Mantienneite
KMg
 
2
Al
 
2
Ti(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
· 15H
 
2
O
19.8.24Paulkerrite
K(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Al,Ti,Mg)
 
2
Ti(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
· 15H
 
2
O

Other Names for Crandallite

Synonyms:
Calcio-wavelliteLehiiteLime-wavellitePseudowavellite
Other Languages:
German:Crandallit
Kalkwavellit
Russian:Крандаллит
Simplified Chinese:纤磷钙铝石
Spanish:Crandallita
Traditional Chinese:纖磷鈣鋁石
Varieties:
Strontian Crandallite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent
Other Information:Soluble with difficulty in acids.

May be pseudomorphic after Gordonite.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Crandallite

Reference List:

- +
Kosmann (1869) Zeitschrift der Deutsche geologische Gesellschaft, Berlin: 21: 799 (as Kalkwavellit).

Loughlin and Schaller (1917) American Journal of Science: 43: 69.

Laubmann (1922) Berichte deutsche chemische Gesellschaft: 55B: 3016 (as Pseudowavellite).

Laubmann (1922) Geognost. Jahrehefte, München: 35: 203.

Larsen and Shannon (1930a) American Mineralogist: 15: 303.

Larsen and Shannon (1930b) American Mineralogist: 15: 307.

Larsen (1942) American Mineralogist: 27: 288.

Gordon (1944) Proceedings of the Academy of Science, Philadelphia: 96: 336.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 835.

American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 41-47.

Internet Links for Crandallite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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    Localities for Crandallite

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