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Pigeonite

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Formula:
(Mg,Fe2+,Ca)(Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
black, brown, greenish ...
Hardness:
6
Pyroxene Group - Clinopyroxene Subgroup. A poorly defined mineral that could be considered to be a calcium-rich clinoenstatite and/or clinoferrosilite.

Classification of Pigeonite

Approved
9.DA.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
A : Inosilicates with 2-periodic single chains, Si2O6; pyroxene family
65.1.1.4

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
1 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
14.23.1

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
23 : Silicates of Fe, Mg, Ca
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First Recorded Occurrence of Pigeonite

Year of Discovery:
1900

Physical Properties of Pigeonite

Vitreous, Dull
Colour:
black, brown, greenish brown
Streak:
greyish white
Hardness (Mohs):
6
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good

Crystallography of Pigeonite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Space Group Setting:
P1 21/c 1
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.7Å, b = 8.95Å, c = 5.24Å
β = 108.59°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.084 : 1 : 0.585
Unit Cell Volume:
V 431.18 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Pigeonite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.683 - 1.722 nβ = 1.684 - 1.722 nγ = 1.704 - 1.752
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.021 - 0.030
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
weak to distinct

Chemical Properties of Pigeonite

Formula:
(Mg,Fe2+,Ca)(Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ti,Al,Mn,Na,K,H2O

Relationship of Pigeonite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Aegirine-augite(Na,Ca)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg,Al)Si2O6
Augite(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3
ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3
DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
EsseneiteCaFe3+[AlSiO6]
GrossmaniteCaTi3+ AlSiO6
HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Jervisite(Na,Ca,Fe2+)(Sc,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
KanoiteMn2+(Mg,Mn2+)Si2O6
KosmochlorNaCrSi2O6
KushiroiteCaAl[AlSiO6]
NamansiliteNaMn3+Si2O6
NatalyiteNa(V3+,Cr)Si2O6
Omphacite(Ca,Na)(Mg,Al)Si2O6
PetedunniteCa(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
9.DA.05Donpeacorite(Mn2+,Mg)Mg[SiO3]2
9.DA.05EnstatiteMgSiO3
9.DA.05FerrosiliteFeSiO3
9.DA.10ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3
9.DA.10ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3
9.DA.10KanoiteMn2+(Mg,Mn2+)Si2O6
9.DA.15Augite(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
9.DA.15DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
9.DA.15EsseneiteCaFe3+[AlSiO6]
9.DA.15HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
9.DA.15JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
9.DA.15PetedunniteCa(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
9.DA.15DavisiteCaScAlSiO6
9.DA.15KushiroiteCaAl[AlSiO6]
9.DA.15GrossmaniteCaTi3+ AlSiO6
9.DA.20Aegirine-augite(Na,Ca)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg,Al)Si2O6
9.DA.20Omphacite(Ca,Na)(Mg,Al)Si2O6
9.DA.25AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
9.DA.25JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
9.DA.25Jervisite(Na,Ca,Fe2+)(Sc,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
9.DA.25KosmochlorNaCrSi2O6
9.DA.25NamansiliteNaMn3+Si2O6
9.DA.25NatalyiteNa(V3+,Cr)Si2O6
9.DA.30SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
14.23.2Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2

Other Names for Pigeonite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Pigeonit
Simplified Chinese:易变辉石
Spanish:Pigeonita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Pigeonite

Reference List:
Clark, J.R., D.E. Appleman, and J.J. Papike (1969) Crystal-chemical characterization of clinopyroxenes based on eight new structure refinements. MSA Special Paper 2: 31-50.

Robinson, P., Ross, M., Nord, G.L., Smyth, J.R., and Jaffe, H.W. (1977) Exsolution lamellae in augite and pigeonite: fossil indicators of lattice parameters at high temperature and pressure. American Mineralogist: 62: 857-873.

Canadian Mineralogist (1989): 27: 143.

Cámara, F., Carpenter, M.A., Domeneghetti, M.C., and Tazoli, V. (2002), Non-convergent ordering and displacive phase transition in pigeonite: in situ HT XRD study. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 29: 331-340.

Cámara, F., Carpenter, M.A., Domeneghetti, M.C., and Tazoli, V. (2003), Coupling between non-convergent ordering and transition temperature in the C2/c ↔ P2 1/c phase transition in pigeonite. American Mineralogist: 88: 1115-1128.

Internet Links for Pigeonite

Localities for Pigeonite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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