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Pigeonite

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Formula:
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Ca)(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
System:MonoclinicColour:black, brown, greenish ...
Hardness:6
Member of:Clinopyroxene Subgroup > Pyroxene Group


Pyroxene Group - Clinopyroxene Subgroup. A poorly defined mineral that could be considered to be a calcium-rich clinoenstatite and/or clinoferrosilite.

Classification of Pigeonite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/F.01-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.DA.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
A : Inosilicates with 2-periodic single chains, Si2O6; pyroxene family
Dana 8th edition ID:65.1.1.4

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
1 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.23.1

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
23 : Silicates of Fe, Mg, Ca
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Type Occurrence of Pigeonite

Type Locality:Pigeon Point, Cook Co., Minnesota, USA
Year of Discovery:1900

Physical Properties of Pigeonite

Lustre:Vitreous, Dull
Colour:black, brown, greenish brown
Streak:greyish white
Hardness (Mohs):6
Cleavage:Distinct/Good

Crystallography of Pigeonite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b {P1 1 21/b} {P21/c} {P1 21/c 1} {P21/a}
Space Group Setting:P1 21/c 1
Cell Parameters:a = 9.7Å, b = 8.95Å, c = 5.24Å
β = 108.59°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.084 : 1 : 0.585
Unit Cell Volume:V 431.18 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Pigeonite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.683 - 1.722 nβ = 1.684 - 1.722 nγ = 1.704 - 1.752
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.021 - 0.030

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:weak to distinct

Chemical Properties of Pigeonite

Formula:
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Ca)(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Simplified for copy/paste:(Mg,Fe2+,Ca)(Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
Essential elements:Mg, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Ca, Fe, Mg, O, Si
Common Impurities:Ti,Al,Mn,Na,K,H2O

Relationship of Pigeonite to other Species

Member of:Clinopyroxene Subgroup > Pyroxene Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Aegirine
NaFe
3+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
Augite
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Al,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)[(Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
6
]
Clinoenstatite
MgSiO
 
3
Clinoferrosilite
Fe
2+
 
SiO
 
3
Diopside
CaMgSi
 
2
O
 
6
Esseneite
CaFe
3+
 
[AlSiO
 
6
]
Grossmanite
CaTi
3+
 
AlSiO
 
6
Hedenbergite
CaFe
2+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
Jadeite
Na(Al,Fe
3+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Jervisite
(Na,Ca,Fe
2+
 
)(Sc,Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Johannsenite
CaMn
2+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
Kanoite
Mn
2+
 
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Kosmochlor
NaCrSi
 
2
O
 
6
Kushiroite
CaAl[AlSiO
 
6
]
Namansilite
NaMn
3+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
Natalyite
Na(V
3+
 
,Cr)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Omphacite
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Petedunnite
Ca(Zn,Mn
2+
 
,Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Spodumene
LiAlSi
 
2
O
 
6
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.DA.05Donpeacorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)Mg[SiO
 
3
]
 
2
9.DA.05Enstatite
MgSiO
 
3
9.DA.05Ferrosilite
FeSiO
 
3
9.DA.10Clinoenstatite
MgSiO
 
3
9.DA.10Clinoferrosilite
Fe
2+
 
SiO
 
3
9.DA.10Kanoite
Mn
2+
 
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.15Augite
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Al,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)[(Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
6
]
9.DA.15Diopside
CaMgSi
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.15Esseneite
CaFe
3+
 
[AlSiO
 
6
]
9.DA.15Hedenbergite
CaFe
2+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.15Johannsenite
CaMn
2+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.15Petedunnite
Ca(Zn,Mn
2+
 
,Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.15Davisite
CaScAlSiO
 
6
9.DA.15Kushiroite
CaAl[AlSiO
 
6
]
9.DA.15Grossmanite
CaTi
3+
 
AlSiO
 
6
9.DA.20Aegirine-augite
(Na,Ca)(Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.20Omphacite
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Aegirine
NaFe
3+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Jadeite
Na(Al,Fe
3+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Jervisite
(Na,Ca,Fe
2+
 
)(Sc,Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Kosmochlor
NaCrSi
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Namansilite
NaMn
3+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Natalyite
Na(V
3+
 
,Cr)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.30Spodumene
LiAlSi
 
2
O
 
6
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.23.2Actinolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2

Other Names for Pigeonite

Synonyms:
Calc-clinobronziteCalc-clinoenstatiteCalc-clinohypersthene
Other Languages:
German:Pigeonit
Russian:Пижонит
Simplified Chinese:易变辉石
Spanish:Pigeonita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Pigeonite

Reference List:

- +
Clark, J.R., D.E. Appleman, and J.J. Papike (1969) Crystal-chemical characterization of clinopyroxenes based on eight new structure refinements. MSA Special Paper 2: 31-50.

Robinson, P., Ross, M., Nord, G.L., Smyth, J.R., and Jaffe, H.W. (1977) Exsolution lamellae in augite and pigeonite: fossil indicators of lattice parameters at high temperature and pressure. American Mineralogist: 62: 857-873.

Canadian Mineralogist (1989): 27: 143.

Cámara, F., Carpenter, M.A., Domeneghetti, M.C., and Tazoli, V. (2002), Non-convergent ordering and displacive phase transition in pigeonite: in situ HT XRD study. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 29: 331-340.

Cámara, F., Carpenter, M.A., Domeneghetti, M.C., and Tazoli, V. (2003), Coupling between non-convergent ordering and transition temperature in the C2/c ↔ P2 1/c phase transition in pigeonite. American Mineralogist: 88: 1115-1128.

Internet Links for Pigeonite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Pigeonite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Pigeonite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Algeria
     
    www.meteoriticalsociety.org/bulletin/mb89preview.pdf.
    • Sahara Desert
      • Lakhbi
    www.meteoriticalsociety.org/bulletin/mb88.pdf.
    • Tamanghasset Province
    Krot, A. N., Fagan, T. J., Keil, K., McKeegan, K. D., Sahijpal, S., Hutcheon, I. D., Petaev, M. I. & Yurimoto, H. (2004). Ca,Al-rich inclusions, amoeboid olivine aggregates, and Al-rich chondrules from the unique carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094: I. mineralogy and petrology. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68 (9), 2167-2184. (May 2004).
    Antarctica
     
    • Eastern Antarctica
      • American Highland
        • Grove Mts
    Meyer, C. (2001) Mars Meteorite Compendium: XXIV-1-2.
      • Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land)
        • Queen Fabiola Mts (Yamato Mts)
    Ikeda Yukio (1988): Petrochemical study of the Yamato-691 enstatite chondrite (EH3) II: Descriptions and mineral compositions of unusual silicate-inclusions. Proceedings of the NIPR Symposium on Antarctic Meteorites 1, 14-37. [http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110000029852/en/]
      • Victoria Land
        • Allan Hills
    A. J. Brearley (1990). Constraints on the Shock and Thermal Histories of some Components from the Unique Chondrite, Allan Hills 85085, and Their Implications. Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, vol. 21, p. 123.
    Meteoritical Bulletin, 84 (Aug. 2000)
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Durham Co.
    American Mineralogist 64 (1979) 131-135.
    • Queensland
      • Scenic Rim Region
    • South Australia
      • Murray Basin
        • Murray Mallee
          • Karoonda
    Brian Mason (1962). Meteorites. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.: New York and London. 274 pages.
    • Tasmania
      • Huon district
    No reference listed
    McDougall, I. (1961): Optical and chemical studies of pyroxenes in a differentiated Tasmanian dolerite. American Mineralogist. 46, 661-687
        • Weld river
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    R Bottrill 2010, unpublished report
    • Western Australia
      • Dundas Shire
        • Cocklebiddy Roadhouse
    New Stony Meteorite Finds Inlcuding Two Ureilites from the Nullabor Plain; G McCall and W Cleverly, Mar 1968, pp691-716.
        • North Haig
          • Sleeper Camp
    New Stony Meteorite Finds Including Two Ureilites from The Nullabor Plain, Western Australia; G. McCall and W. Cleverly; Mineralogical Magazine, Mar 1968, Vol 36, pp691-7168
    New Stony Meteorite Finds Including Two Ureilites from The Nullabor Plain, Western Australia; G. McCall and W. Cleverly; Mineralogical Magazine, Mar 1968, pp691-716.
    Am Min 67:126-131
      • Mount Magnet Shire
        • Dalgaranga Station
    New Material From, and a Reconsideration of the Dalgaranga Meteorite and Crater, Western Australia; G McCall, Mineralogical Magazine, Sept 1965 pp476-487
      • Roebourne Shire
        • Karratha
    Formation of Platiniferous Sulfide Horizons by Crystal Fractionation and Magma Mixing in the Munni Munni Layered Intrusion, West Pilbara Block, Western Australia; D Hoatson and R Keays, Ecomonic Geology Vol 84 #7 pp1775-1804 Nov 1989
      • Wiluna Shire
        • Wiluna
    www.meteorites.com.au
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Martinho Campos
        • Ibitira
    • Santa Catarina
    Comin-Chiaramonti, P., de Barros Gomes, C., Castorina, F., di Censi, P., Antonini, P., Furtado, S., ... & Scheibe, L. F. (2008). Geochemistry and geodynamic implications of the Anitápolis and Lages alkaline-carbonatite complexes, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 32(1), 43-58.
    Bulgaria
     
    • Sofiya Town Oblast (Grad Sofia Oblast)
      • Sofiya Obshtina (Sofia Obshtina)
    I. Kostov, V. Breskovska, J. Mincheva-Stefanova, G. Kirov (1964): Minerals of Bulgaria. Sofia, Bulgaria, 540 pp. (in Bulgarian).
    Canada
     
    • Ontario
      • Thunder Bay District
        • Lac des Iles Area
    D. H. Watkinson and G. Dunning v(1979) Geology and platinum-group mineralization, Lac-des-Iles Complex, northwestern Ontario. Can Mineral 17:453-462
    Central African Republic
     
    • Lobaye Prefecture
      • Lobaye River (Bali River)
    Hoinkes, G. & Kurat, G. (1975). Preliminary report on the Bali carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics 10 (4): 416-417. (Dec 1975)
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
        • Taltal
    Rull, F., Martinez‐Frias, J., Sansano, A., Medina, J., & Edwards, H. G. M. (2004). Comparative micro‐Raman study of the Nakhla and Vaca Muerta meteorites. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 35(6), 497-503.; Kimura, M., Ikeda, Y., Ebihara, M., & Prinz, M. (1991). New enclaves in the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite: Petrogenesis and comparison with HED meteorites. Antarctic Meteorite Research, 4, 263.
    China
     
    • Anhui Province
      • Bozhou Prefecture
        • Qiaocheng District
          • Xiaoyanzhuang
    Kuiren Wang and Junxin Wang (1987): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 7(3), 238-244
    • Hebei Province
      • Zhangjiakou Prefecture
        • Wanquan Co.
          • Hannuoba basalt field
    Brizi, E., Nazzareni, S., Princivalle, F., and Zanazzi, P.F. (2003): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 145, 578-584.
    • Jilin Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Jilin Prefecture
        • Chuanying District
    Wankang Huang, Yingwen Xie, and Jingming Pan (1978): Geochimica 7(1), 25-34
    • Shaanxi Province
      • Hanzhong Prefecture
        • Ningqiang Co.
    Wang, Y. & Hsu, W. (2009). Petrology and Mineralogy of the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Vol. 44, #5, 763-780. (May 2009).
    Czech Republic
     
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Vysočina Region
        • Jihlava (Iglau)
          • Stonařov (Stannern)
    von Engelhardt, W. (1963): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 9, 65-94.
    Egypt
     
    • Al Iskandanyah Governorate (Alexandria Governorate)
      • Abu Hommos
        • Nakhla
    Rull, F., Martinez‐Frias, J., Sansano, A., Medina, J., & Edwards, H. G. M. (2004). Comparative micro‐Raman study of the Nakhla and Vaca Muerta meteorites. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 35(6), 497-503.
    Finland
     
    • Northern Finland Region
      • Suomussalmi
    Matist, A. 1958. Kivilajikartan selitys, lehti D 5 Suomussalmi. Suomen geologinen yleiskartta, Espoo: Geologinen tutkimuskeskus. 115 s.
    • Southwestern Finland Region
      • Pargas (Parainen)
        • Nauvo
    Gennady P. Vdovykin (1972). Forms of Carbon in the new Haverö urelite of Finland. Meteoritics 7, #4, 547-552. (Dec 1972).
    France
     
    • Aquitaine
      • Landes
    B. Azambre and P. Monchoux, Bull. Minéral. , 1988, 111, pp. 39-47.
    • Auvergne
      • Puy-de-Dôme
        • Châtelguyon
          • Charbonnières-les-Varennes
    C. Lemanski, Jr. (re-entry of lost Mindat data).
    • Champagne-Ardenne
      • Haute-Marne
        • Chassigny
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Drôme
        • Romans-sur-Isère
          • Saint-Jean-en-Royans
    M. Christophe Michel-Lévy, Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 449-458.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Lower Bavaria
        • Bavarian Forest
          • Waldkirchen
            • Röhrnbach
    Habel, M. (2009): Der Granodioritbruch der Fa. Josef Uhrmann OHG, Steinerleinbach bei Röhrnbach. Mineralien-Welt 20 (2), 66-86.
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Bad Harzburg
          • Radau valley
    No reference listed
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Gerolstein
          • Rockeskyll
            • Rockeskyll volcanic complex
    El-Kaluoby, B., Mineralbestand und Gefüge vulkanischer Glimmerschiefer-Auswürflinge des Kyller Kopfes, Westeifel, Diss., Rhein. Fried.-Wilh.-Universität, Bonn, 1981
    Greenland
     
    • Kitaa Province (West Greenland)
    Contrib.Mineral Petrol (1981) 77:307-324
    • Tunu Province (East Greenland)
      • Kangerlussuaq Firth
        • Kangerlussuaq complex
    Thomassen, B., and Nielsen, T.F.D. (2006): Geology and Ore No. 6, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), February 2006.
    Hungary
     
    • Heves Co.
      • Mátra Mtns
        • Sirok
    Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
    • Veszprém Co.
      • Balaton Uplands
        • Bazsi
          • Prága Hill
    Szakáll & Gatter, 1993
        • Tapolcai Basin
          • Uzsa (Uzsabánya)
    Szakáll & Gatter, 1993
    Iceland
     
    • Eastern Region
      • Suður-Múlasýsla
    Carmichael, Ian S. E., (1967) The Mineralogy of Thingmuli, a Tertiary Volcano in Eastern Iceland. American Mineralogist, 52:1815-1841
    India
     
    • Assam
    Gennady P. Vdovykin (1970). Ureilites. Space Science Reviews 10, #4, 483-510.
    • Bihar
      • Gaya District
    Malavergne, V., Guyot, F., Benzerara, K., & Martinez, I. (2001). Description of new shock‐induced phases in the Shergotty, Zagami, Nakhla and Chassigny meteorites. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 36(10), 1297-1305.; Treiman, A. H. (1985). Amphibole and hercynite spinel in Shergotty and Zagami: Magmatic water, depth of crystallization, and metasomatism. Meteoritics, 20(2), 229-243.; Lundberg, L. L., Crozaz, G., McKay, G., & Zinner, E. (1988). Rare earth element carriers in the Shergotty meteorite and implications for its chronology. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 52(8), 2147-2163.
    • Maharashtra
      • Buldhana District
    Meteoritics & Planetary Science 40, Nr 9/10, 1473–1492 (2005)
    • Uttar Pradesh
      • Basti Division
        • Basti District
    N. Bhandari, V. G. Shah & A. Graham (1981). The Lahrauli ureilite. Meteoritics, vol. 16, #2, 185-191. (June 30, 1981).
    Gennady P. Vdovykin (1970). Ureilites. Space Science Reviews 10, #4, 483-510.
    Italy
     
    • Aosta Valley
      • Cogne Valley
        • Cogne
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    • Emilia-Romagna
      • Ferrara Province
    Brian Mason (1962). Meteorites. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.: New York & London. 274 pages.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chugoku Region
        • Okayama Prefecture
          • Niimi City
    Masaru Yamaguchi (1964) Petrogenic Significance of Ultrabasic Inclusions in Basaltic Rocks from Southwest Japan. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 163-219.
      • Kanto Region
        • Kanagawa Prefecture
          • Yugawara
    Alfredo Petrov collection
    • Kyushu Region
      • Fukuoka Prefecture
        • Fukuoka City
    Masaru Yamaguchi (1964) Petrogenic Significance of Ultrabasic Inclusions in Basaltic Rocks from Southwest Japan. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 163-219.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Pavlodar Province (Pavlodar Oblysy; Pavlodarskaya Oblast')
    Krot, A. N., Hutcheon, I. D. & Keil, K. (2002). Plagioclase-rich chondrules in the reduced CV chondrites: Evidence for complex formation history and genetic links between calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and ferromagnesian chondrules. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 37, #2, 155-182. (Feb 2002)
    Libya
     
    • Al Jufrah District
      • Dar al Gani
    Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 67, No. 18, pp. 3519–3536, 2003
    Meteoritical Bulletin 84 (Aug.2000)
    Mars
     
    • Aeolis quadrangle
      • Gale Crater
        • Aeolis Palus
    Several papers on: Science Express, www.sciencemag.org , 9 December 2013, summarized by Dr Vivien Gornitz, Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, February 2014.
    Mexico
     
    • Chihuahua
      • Pueblito de Allende
    Brearley, A. J. & Jones, R. H. (1998). Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, J. J., Editor): Chapter 3, 398 pages. Mineralogical Society of America: Washington, DC, USA. (1998)
    Mongolia
     
    • Bayan Ölgiy Aimag
    I. Weber & Adolf Bischoff (1999). Microstructures in Pyroxenes from the Martian Meteorites Zagami and the Achondrites Bishopville (Aubrite), Hammadah Al Hamra 064, and Jalanash (Ureilites). Meteoritics & Planetary Science, vol. 34, Supplement, pp. A120-A121. (July1999).
    Montserrat
     
    Montserrat Volcano Observatory
    Morocco
     
    • Guelmim-Es Semara Region
      • Tata Province
    Irving, A.J. et. al, 2012 The Tissint DepeltedPermafic Olivine-Phyric Shergottite: Petrologic, Elemental, and Isotopic Characterization of a Recent Martian Fall in Morocco. 43rd LPSC #2510
    • Meknès-Tafilalet Region
      • Er Rachidia Province
        • Erfoud (Erfud)
    The Meteoritical Bulletin, n.94 - http://www.meteoriticalsociety.org/simple_template.cfm?code=pub_bulletin
    Goodrich, C. A. (2002). Olivine‐phyric martian basalts: A new type of shergottite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 37(S12), B31-B34.; WALTON, E. L., & SHAW, C. S. (2009). Understanding the textures and origin of shock melt pockets in Martian meteorites from petrographic studies, comparisons with terrestrial mantle xenoliths, and experimental studies. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 44(1), 55-76.
    Irving, A. J., & Kuehner, S. M. (2003, March). Petrology of NWA 1460: A Baddeleyite-bearing Shergottite Paired with NWA 480. In Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts (Vol. 34, p. 1503).
    www2.jpl.nasa.gov/snc/news51.html
    T. Bunch and J. Wittke, NAU
    Dr. Vivian Gornitz (2013) A "wet" Mars meteorite from the desert. Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, 127, #4, 3.
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Northland
    http://ganko.eps.nagoya-u.ac.jp/~enami/abstract/pme0201.pdf.
    Nigeria
     
    • Katsina State
    T.J. McCoy, M. Wadhwa, K. Keil, New lithologies in the Zagami meteorite: evidence for fractional crystallization of a single magma unit on Mars, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 63, Issues 7–8, April 1999, Pages 1249-1262,
    Oman
     
    • Dhofar Province (Al Janubiyah Province)
    Taylor, L. A., Nazarov, M. A., Ivanova, M. A., Patchen, A., Clayton, R. N., & Mayeda, T. K. (2000). Petrology of the Dhofar 019 shergottite. Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement, 35, 155.
    Greshake, A., Schmitt, R. T., Stöffler, D., Pätsch, M., & Schultz, L. (2001). Dhofar 081: A new lunar highland meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 36(3), 459-470.
    Yukio, I., Makoto, K., Hiroshi, T., Gen, S., Kita, N., Yuichi, M., ... & Gerlind, D. (2006). Petrology of a new basaltic shergottite: Dhofar 378. Antarctic Meteorite Research, 19, 20-44.
    • Sayh al Uhaymir
    Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 5, 11492, 2003
    Pakistan
     
    • Sindh
    Klaus Keil & Christian A. Andersen (1965). Electron microprobe study of the Jajh deh Kot Lalu enstatite chondrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 29, #6, p. 621.
    Papua New Guinea
     
    • West New Britain Province
    Lowder, G.G. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 26, 324-340.
    Romania
     
    • Alba Co.
    http://www.gl.rhbnc.ac.uk/geode/ABCD/Apuseni.html
    • Harghita Co.
      • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
        • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
    Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
    Russia
     
    • Mordova Republic
    Gennady P. Vdovykin (1970). Ureilites. Space Science Reviews 10, #4, 483-510.
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
    • Povolzhsky Region
      • Tatarstan Republic
    David A. Kring (1987). Fe, Ca-Rich Rims Around Magnesian Chondrules in the Kainsaz (CO3) Chondrite. Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, vol. 18, p. 517. (Mar 1987).
    Saint Lucia
     
    • Grande Rivière Village
      • Morne Serpent hill
    M. Le Guen de Kerneizon et al. , Bull. Minéral. , 1982, 105, pp. 203-211.
    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
     
    • Saint Vincent
    Journal of Petrology 10:1721-1764
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Rimavská Sobota Co.
    Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
    • Prešov Region
      • Prešov Co.
    Duda et. all.,1981:Minerály severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovca,Monografia 2,Bratislava, 98 p
    South Africa
     
    • Limpopo Province
      • Eastern Bushveld Complex
    Econ Geol (1986) 81:1096-1104
    Minerals of South Africa
    South Korea
     
    • Gyeongsangbuk-do (Kyongsang-bukto; Gyeongsangbugdo)
      • Ulleung-gun
    Atsuo Harumoto (1970) Volcanic Rocks and Associated Rocks of Utsuryoto Island, (Japan Sea). (39pp + geological map)
    Spain
     
    • Aragón
      • Huesca
        • Camporrells
    B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
        • Estopiñán del Castillo
    B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
        • Sopeira
    B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
    • Cantabria
      • Santander
    B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
    B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
    • Extremadura
      • Cáceres
        • Garrovillas de Alconétar
    Weibel, M. (1955): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 4, 379-411.
    Sudan
     
    • Nar an Nil
    Michael K. Weisberg, Caroline Smith, Gretchen Benedix, Cristopher K. D. Herd, Kevin Righter, Henning Hack, Akira Yamaguchi, Hasnaa Chennaoui & Jeffrey N. Grossman (2009). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 96, September 2009, Meteoritics & Planetary Science 44, (#9), 1355-1397.
    Sweden
     
    • Småland
      • Jönköping
        • Månsarp
    S.Hjelmqvist: The titaniferous iron-ore deposit of Taberg in the southern part of Sweden. SGU C 512, 1950
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
        • Persberg district
    Sandström, F., Lorin, T. & Strand, U. (2009): Geologi och mineralogi i Gåsgruvefältet, Filipstad. Litofilen. 26 (2): 16-38
    Kjell Gatedal
    • Västmanland
    No reference listed
    The Moon
     
    • Descartes Highlands
    Walker, D., J. Longhi, T.L. Grove, E.M. Stolper, and J.F. Hays (1973) Experimental petrology and origin of rocks from the Descartes Highlands. Proc. Fourth Lunar Sci. Conf., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta Suppl. 4, p. 1013-1032.; Dowty, E., Keil, K., & Prinz, M. (1974) Igneous rocks from Apollo 16 rake samples. In: Lunar Science Conference, 5th, Houston, Tex., March 18-22, 1974, Proceedings. Volume 2. (A75-39540 19-91) New York, Pergamon Press, Inc., 1974, p. 431-445.
    • Mare Fecunditatis
    Lunar and Planetary Science XXX
    • Oceanus Procellarum (Ocean of Storms)
    Baldridge, W. S.; Beaty, D. W.; Hill, S. M. R.; Albee, A. L. (1979). In: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 10th, Houston, Tex., March 19-23, 1979, Proceedings. Volume 1. (A80-23557 08-91) New York, Pergamon Press, Inc., 1979, p. 141-179.
    • Taurus-Littrow Valley
    Longhi, J., Walker, D., Grove, T. L., Stolper, E. M., & Hays, J. F. (1974) The petrology of the Apollo 17 mare basalts. In: Lunar Science Conference, 5th, Houston, Tex., March 18-22, 1974, Proceedings. Volume 1. (A75-39540 19-91) New York, Pergamon Press, Inc., 1974, p. 447-469.
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • Wadebridge District
          • St Merryn
    No reference listed
    • Scotland
      • North West Highlands (Argyllshire)
    www.abdn.ac.uk/geology/profiles/auming/pitchstone/pitchstones.htm.
      • Strathclyde (Argyllshire)
    www.abdn.ac.uk/geology/profiles/auming/pitchstone/pitchstones.htm.; Am Min (1970)55:1195-1209
    B.G.J. Upton et al. , Journal of the Geological Society, 1998, V 155, N° 5, pp 813-828.
    Ukraine
     
    • Mykolayiv Oblast' (Nikolajev; Nikolayev; Nikolaev)
    Ian D. Mackinnon & Peter R. Buseck (1980). Structural and Textural Variations in Carbonaceous Chondrite Matrices (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XI, pp. 658-659.
    USA
     
    • Alabama
    Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
    Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Tombstone Hills
          • Tombstone District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 328-329; Butler, B.S., et al (1938b), Geology and ore deposits of the Tombstone district, AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 143.
      • Mohave Co.
        • Cerbat Mts (Cerbat Range)
          • White Hills
    Meteoritics & Planetary Science 36, A315 (2001)
    • Colorado
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    AmMin 11:317
    • Georgia
      • Fulton Co.
        • Red Oak
    Minerals of Georgia: Their properties and occurrences. Robert Cook GGWRD Bull 92
    • Indiana
      • Tippecanoe Co.
        • Lafayette
    www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/mmc/Lafay.pdf.
    • Kansas
      • Gray Co.
    www.meteoriticalsociety.org/bulletin/mb87.pdf.
    • Maine
      • Aroostook Co.
        • TD R2 WELS
    Pavlides, Louis and Milton, Charles, 1962, Geology and Manganese Deposits of the Maple and Hovey Mountains Area, Aroostook County, Maine, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 362, pp. 116 + plates.
    Pavlides, Louis and Milton, Charles, 1962, Geology and Manganese Deposits of the Maple and Hovey Mountains Area, Aroostook County, Maine, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 362, pp. 116 + plates.
    Pavlides, Louis and Milton, Charles, 1962, Geology and Manganese Deposits of the Maple and Hovey Mountains Area, Aroostook County, Maine, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 362, pp. 116 + plates.
    Pavlides, Louis and Milton, Charles, 1962, Geology and Manganese Deposits of the Maple and Hovey Mountains Area, Aroostook County, Maine, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 362, pp. 116 + plates.
      • Hancock Co.
    King & Foord, 1994: Mineralogy of Maine, V.1
      • Oxford Co.
        • Grafton
    King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V.1
    • Massachusetts
      • Essex Co.
    Dennen, W. H. 1992, Bedrock geologic map of the Gloucester and Rockport Quadrangles, Essex County, Massachusetts
      • Hampden Co.
        • Westfield
    Gillson, Joseph L. (1926): Pigeonite from the Triassic traps of the Connecticut Valley (American Mineralogist 11:317)
    • Michigan
      • Dickinson Co.
        • Felch
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-glm-rcim-geology-Minerals_Found_In_Michigan.Pdf.
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-glm-rcim-geology-Minerals_Found_In_Michigan.Pdf.
      • Ontonagon Co.
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • Minnesota
      • Cook Co.
    A. N. Winchell ,Am. Geol.,26, 1900 p. 203.; Am Min 16:195-208
      • Lake Co.
    Harvard Museum of Natural History
        • Ely-Hoyt Lakes Area
    Lee, I., Ripley, E.M. (1995) Canadian Mineralogist, 33, 723-743.
    • Montana
      • Stillwater Co.
    USGS Open-File Report 89-76
    USGS Miscellaneous Field Studies Map 2038
    • Nevada
      • Humboldt Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Lincoln Co.
        • Kanes Spring Wash
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Mexico
      • Colfax Co.
    http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1984LPICo.537E..67D
      • Grant Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Roosevelt Co.
    Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 40, Dec. 1976, p. 1429-1437.
      • Sierra Co.
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
    Morimoto,Nobuo and Tokonami,Maseyasu.,(1969)Oriented Exsolution Of Augite In Pigeonite:The American Mineralogist,Vol.54,July-August 1969
    • Pennsylvania
      • Chester Co.
        • Warwick Township
          • St. Peters
    Mineralogical Record, 25(2),pp:105-120.
      • Lebanon Co.
        • Cornwall Borough (Cornwall)
    Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
    • Vermont
      • Rutland Co.
        • Shrewsbury
    Woolley (1987), Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World.
    • Virginia
      • Loudoun Co.
        • Leesburg
    www.excaliburmineral.com
      • Pittsylvania Co.
        • Danville Basin
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Rockbridge Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
        • Northern Section-Blue Ridge Province
          • Montebello
    Rocks&Min. 47:596 (1972)
    • Washington
      • Clark Co.
        • Washougal
    http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1972Metic...7..449J&data_type=PDF_HIGH&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf
    • Wisconsin
    www.uwrf.edu/~wc01
    Klewin, Kenneth, James Olmsted and Karl Seifert; 1989, "Rock types and relationships of the Mellen Igneous Complex - a one day field trip to the Keweenawan of the Mellen, Wisconsin Area" Proceedings, 35th Meeting, Institute on Lake Superior Geology, Vol. 2, p. C1 - C-15.
    Uzbekistan
     
    • Buxoro Viloyati (Bukhara)
    www.meteoriticalsociety.org/bulletin/mb89preview.pdf.
    Western Sahara
     
    • Dchira
    Meteoritical Society Abstracts (2001)
    Yemen
     
    • Hadramawt Governorate
    Zolensky, M. & A.Ivanov, Chemie der Erde 63,185-246(2003)
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