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Pigeonite

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Formula:
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Ca)(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
System:MonoclinicColour:black, brown, greenish ...
Hardness:6
Member of:Clinopyroxene Subgroup > Pyroxene Group


Pyroxene Group - Clinopyroxene Subgroup. A poorly defined mineral that could be considered to be a calcium-rich clinoenstatite and/or clinoferrosilite.

Classification of Pigeonite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/F.01-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.DA.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
A : Inosilicates with 2-periodic single chains, Si2O6; pyroxene family
Dana 8th edition ID:65.1.1.4

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
1 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.23.1

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
23 : Silicates of Fe, Mg, Ca
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Type Occurrence of Pigeonite

Type Locality:Pigeon Point, Cook Co., Minnesota, USA
Year of Discovery:1900

Physical Properties of Pigeonite

Lustre:Vitreous, Dull
Colour:black, brown, greenish brown
Streak:greyish white
Hardness (Mohs):6
Cleavage:Distinct/Good

Crystallography of Pigeonite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b
Space Group Setting:P1 21/c 1
Cell Parameters:a = 9.7Å, b = 8.95Å, c = 5.24Å
β = 108.59°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.084 : 1 : 0.585
Unit Cell Volume:V 431.18 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Pigeonite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.683 - 1.722 nβ = 1.684 - 1.722 nγ = 1.704 - 1.752
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.021 - 0.030

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:weak to distinct

Chemical Properties of Pigeonite

Formula:
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Ca)(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Simplified for copy/paste:(Mg,Fe2+,Ca)(Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
Essential elements:Mg, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Ca, Fe, Mg, O, Si
Common Impurities:Ti,Al,Mn,Na,K,H2O

Relationship of Pigeonite to other Species

Member of:Clinopyroxene Subgroup > Pyroxene Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Aegirine
NaFe
3+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
Aegirine-augite
(Na,Ca)(Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Augite
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Al,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)[(Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
6
]
Clinoenstatite
MgSiO
 
3
Clinoferrosilite
Fe
2+
 
SiO
 
3
Diopside
CaMgSi
 
2
O
 
6
Esseneite
CaFe
3+
 
[AlSiO
 
6
]
Grossmanite
CaTi
3+
 
AlSiO
 
6
Hedenbergite
CaFe
2+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
Jadeite
Na(Al,Fe
3+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Jervisite
(Na,Ca,Fe
2+
 
)(Sc,Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Johannsenite
CaMn
2+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
Kanoite
Mn
2+
 
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Kosmochlor
NaCrSi
 
2
O
 
6
Kushiroite
CaAl[AlSiO
 
6
]
Namansilite
NaMn
3+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
Natalyite
Na(V
3+
 
,Cr)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Omphacite
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Petedunnite
Ca(Zn,Mn
2+
 
,Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Spodumene
LiAlSi
 
2
O
 
6
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.DA.05Donpeacorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)Mg[SiO
 
3
]
 
2
9.DA.05Enstatite
MgSiO
 
3
9.DA.05Ferrosilite
FeSiO
 
3
9.DA.10Clinoenstatite
MgSiO
 
3
9.DA.10Clinoferrosilite
Fe
2+
 
SiO
 
3
9.DA.10Kanoite
Mn
2+
 
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.15Augite
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Al,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)[(Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
6
]
9.DA.15Diopside
CaMgSi
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.15Esseneite
CaFe
3+
 
[AlSiO
 
6
]
9.DA.15Hedenbergite
CaFe
2+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.15Johannsenite
CaMn
2+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.15Petedunnite
Ca(Zn,Mn
2+
 
,Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.15Davisite
CaScAlSiO
 
6
9.DA.15Kushiroite
CaAl[AlSiO
 
6
]
9.DA.15Grossmanite
CaTi
3+
 
AlSiO
 
6
9.DA.20Aegirine-augite
(Na,Ca)(Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.20Omphacite
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Aegirine
NaFe
3+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Jadeite
Na(Al,Fe
3+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Jervisite
(Na,Ca,Fe
2+
 
)(Sc,Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Kosmochlor
NaCrSi
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Namansilite
NaMn
3+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Natalyite
Na(V
3+
 
,Cr)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.30Spodumene
LiAlSi
 
2
O
 
6
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.23.2Actinolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2

Other Names for Pigeonite

Synonyms:
Calc-clinobronziteCalc-clinoenstatiteCalc-clinohypersthene
Other Languages:
German:Pigeonit
Russian:Пижонит
Simplified Chinese:易变辉石
Spanish:Pigeonita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Pigeonite

Reference List:

- +
Clark, J.R., D.E. Appleman, and J.J. Papike (1969) Crystal-chemical characterization of clinopyroxenes based on eight new structure refinements. MSA Special Paper 2: 31-50.

Robinson, P., Ross, M., Nord, G.L., Smyth, J.R., and Jaffe, H.W. (1977) Exsolution lamellae in augite and pigeonite: fossil indicators of lattice parameters at high temperature and pressure. American Mineralogist: 62: 857-873.

Canadian Mineralogist (1989): 27: 143.

Cámara, F., Carpenter, M.A., Domeneghetti, M.C., and Tazoli, V. (2002), Non-convergent ordering and displacive phase transition in pigeonite: in situ HT XRD study. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 29: 331-340.

Cámara, F., Carpenter, M.A., Domeneghetti, M.C., and Tazoli, V. (2003), Coupling between non-convergent ordering and transition temperature in the C2/c ↔ P2 1/c phase transition in pigeonite. American Mineralogist: 88: 1115-1128.

Internet Links for Pigeonite

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • Pigeonite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Pigeonite

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