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Brookite

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Formula:
TiO
 
2
System:OrthorhombicColour:Brown, yellowish brown, ...
Lustre:Adamantine, Sub-MetallicHardness:5½ - 6
Name:Named in 1825 by Serve-Dieu Abailard "Armand" Lévy in honor of Henry James Brooke [May 25, 1771 Exeter, England, UK - 1857 London, England, UK], wealthy textile manufacturer and actuary, amateur English crystallographer and mineralogist.
Polymorph of:Akaogiite, Anatase, Rutile, TiO2 II


Brookite is one of the five forms of titanium dioxide found in nature.

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Classification of Brookite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/D.15-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.DD.10

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
D : With medium-sized cations; frameworks of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 8th edition ID:4.4.5.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
4 : AX2
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.9.4

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti
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Type Occurrence of Brookite

Type Locality:Twll Maen Grisial, Fron Olau, Prenteg, Gwynedd (Caernarvonshire), Wales, UK
Year of Discovery:1825

Occurrences of Brookite

Geological Setting:An accessory mineral in alpine veins in gneiss and schist; in contact metamorphic zones and hydrothermal veinlets; a common detrital mineral.

Physical Properties of Brookite

Lustre:Adamantine, Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent, Opaque
Colour:Brown, yellowish brown, reddish brown; dar brown to iron-black; yellowish brown to dark brown in transmitted light
Streak:White to greyish white or yellowish white
Hardness (Mohs):5½ - 6
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
on {120}, in traces on {001}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):4.08 - 4.18 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.133 g/cm3

Crystallography of Brookite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:a = 5.4558Å, b = 9.1819Å, c = 5.1429Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.594 : 1 : 0.56
Unit Cell Volume:V 257.63 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:8
Morphology:Crystals typically tabular on {010}, striated parallel to [001] and elongated; pyramidal {111} or pseudohexagonal with {120} and {111} equally developed; also prismatic on [001] with {120} prominent; rarely tabular on {001}.
Twinning:On {120}, uncertain
Crystal Atlas:
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Brookite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Brookite no.45 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Brookite no.78 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Brookite no.86 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

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Epitaxial Relationships of Brookite

Epitaxial Minerals:
Rutile
TiO
 
2
Epitaxi Comments:Rutile {110} [001] parallel to brookite {120} [001].
Rutile {110} [001] parallel to brookite {111} [001].
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.51 (100)
2.900 (90)
3.47 (80)
1.893 (30)
1.662 (30)
2.476 (25)
1.691 (20)
Comments:Recorded on material from Magnet Cove, Arkansas, USA

Optical Data of Brookite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 2.583 nβ = 2.584 nγ = 2.700
2V:Calculated: 12° to 20°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.117

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:r > v, very strong, with crossed axial dispersion
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:Yellowish, reddish, orange to brown

Chemical Properties of Brookite

Formula:
TiO
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:TiO2
Essential elements:O, Ti
All elements listed in formula:O, Ti
Analytical Data:Chemical analysis of material from near Mount Snowdon, Wales
TiO2   (98.59)
Fe2O3   (1.41)

sum    100.00 wt.-%
Empirical Formula:
(Ti
 
0.99
Fe
 
0.01
)
 
=1.00
O
 
2
Common Impurities:Fe,Ta,Nb

Relationship of Brookite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.DD.05Anatase
TiO
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.9.1Hongquiite
TiO
7.9.2Rutile
TiO
 
2
7.9.3Anatase
TiO
 
2
7.9.5Geikielite
MgTiO
 
3
7.9.6Perovskite
CaTiO
 
3
7.9.7Kassite
CaTi
 
2
O
 
4
(OH)
 
2
7.9.8Tausonite
SrTiO
 
3
7.9.9Crichtonite
(Sr,La,Ce,Y)(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Mn)
 
21
O
 
38
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)
CeTi
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
7.9.11Hibonite
(Ca,Ce)Al
 
12
O
 
19
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)
(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
7.9.13Pyrophanite
Mn
2+
 
TiO
 
3
7.9.14Iwakiite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
7.9.15Ilmenite
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
3
7.9.16Pseudobrookite
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
5
7.9.17Ulvöspinel
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
4
7.9.18Pseudorutile
Fe
 
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
7.9.19Freudenbergite
Na
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
8
O
 
16
7.9.20Kennedyite
MgFe
3+
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
10
7.9.21Armalcolite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Ti
 
2
O
 
5
7.9.22Högbomite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Al,Ti)
 
5
O
 
10
7.9.23Qandilite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Al)O
 
4
7.9.24Cafetite
(Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)
 
2
Ti
 
4
O
 
12
· 4H
 
2
O
7.9.25Loveringite
(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)
 
18
O
 
38
7.9.26Lindsleyite
(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)
 
2
(Ti,Cr,Fe)
 
18
O
 
38
7.9.27Priderite
K(Ti
4+
7
Fe
3+
 
)O
 
16
7.9.28Jeppeite
(K,Ba)
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
O
 
13
7.9.29Ankangite
Ba(Ti,V
3+
 
,Cr)
 
8
O
 
16
7.9.30Ecandrewsite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)TiO
 
3
7.9.31Landauite
NaMnZn
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38

Other Names for Brookite

Synonyms:
JurinitePyromelane
Other Languages:
Czech:Brookit
Dutch:Brookiet
German:Brookit
Arkansit
Jurinit
Italian:Brookite
Polish:Brukit
Portuguese:Brookita
Russian:Брукит
Simplified Chinese:板钛矿
Slovak:Brookit
Spanish:Brookita
Arkansita
Jurinita
Ukrainian:Брукіт
Varieties:
Arkansite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Brookite

Reference List:

- +
Haidinger (1825), Annalen der Physik 5, 162.

Des Cloizeaux (1858), Annales minéralogiques 14, 361.

Pauling and Sturdivant (1928), Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 68, 239-256.

Schröder (1928), Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 67, 485.

Arnold (1929), Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 71, 344.

Holzgang (1930), Schweizer mineralogische Mitteilungen 10, 374.

Berek and Strieder (1933), Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 86, 212.

Palache, C., Berman, H. and Frondel, C. (1944): The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (New York), 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 588-593.

Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A. and Zussman, J. (1962): Rock-forming minerals, Vol. 4, Non-Silicates, 44-47.

Meagher, E. P. and Lager, G. A. (1979): Polyhedral thermal expansion in the TiO2 polymorphs: refinement of the crystal structures of rutile and brookite at high temperature. Canadian Mineralogist 17, 77-85.

Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 80.

Internet Links for Brookite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Brookite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Specimens:The following Brookite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Brookite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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