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Anatase

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Formula:
TiO
 
2
System:TetragonalColour:Brown, pale yellow or ...
Lustre:Adamantine, MetallicHardness:5½ - 6
Name:Named in 1801 by Rene Just Haüy from the Greek ανάτασις ("anatasis") for "extension," in allusion to the length of the pyramidal faces being longer in relation to their bases than in many tetragonal minerals.
Polymorph of:Akaogiite, Brookite, Rutile, TiO2 II


Anatase is one of the five forms of titanium dioxide found in nature.

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Classification of Anatase

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/D.14-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.DD.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
D : With medium-sized cations; frameworks of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 7th edition ID:4.4.4.1
Dana 8th edition ID:4.4.4.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
4 : AX2
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.9.3

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti
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Type Occurrence of Anatase

Type Locality:St Christophe-en-Oisans, Bourg d'Oisans, Isère, Rhône-Alpes, France
Place of Conservation of Type Material:National History Museum, Paris, France
Year of Discovery:1801
Geological Setting of type material:Alpine veins, derived from the enclosing gneisses or schists by hydrothermal solutions.

Occurrences of Anatase

Geological Setting:Usually secondary, derived from other titanium-bearing minerals. In alpine veins, derived from the enclosing gneisses or schists by hydrothermal solutions. In igneous and
metamorphic rocks; in pegmatites; from a carbonatite. A common detrital mineral.

Physical Properties of Anatase

Lustre:Adamantine, Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Brown, pale yellow or reddish brown, indigo, black; pale green, pale lilac, grey, rarely nearly colourless; brown, yellow-brown, pale green, blue in transmitted light.
Comment:Transparent when light coloured, to nearly opaque when deeply colored. Pyramidal crystals may appear opaque because of total reflection.
Streak:White to pale yellow
Hardness (Mohs):5½ - 6
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=616 - 698 kg/mm2
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
on {001} and {011}
Fracture:Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.79 - 3.97 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.89 g/cm3

Crystallography of Anatase

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Class (H-M):4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:I41/amd
Cell Parameters:a = 3.7845Å, c = 9.5143Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.514
Unit Cell Volume:V 136.27 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals typically acute dipyramidal {011}, often highly modified; obtuse pyramidal or tabular on {001}; less commonly prismatic on [001], with {110}, {010}

Twinning:Rare, on {112}
Crystal Atlas:
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Anatase no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.11 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.33 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.36 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.50 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.51 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.53 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.63 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.127 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.52 (100)
1.892 (35)
2.378 (20)
1.6999 (20)
1.6665 (20)
1.4808 (14)
2.431 (10)
Comments:Recorded on synthetic material

Optical Data of Anatase

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 2.561 nε = 2.488
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.073

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Reflectivity:
400 nmR1=23.7%R2= 23.8%
420 nmR1=22.4%R2= 22.5%
440 nmR1=21.7%R2= 21.6%
460 nmR1=21.1%R2= 21.0%
480 nmR1=20.7%R2= 20.4%
500 nmR1=20.2%R2= 20.0%
520 nmR1=19.9%R2= 19.6%
540 nmR1=19.6%R2= 19.3%
560 nmR1=19.4%R2= 19.0%
580 nmR1=19.2%R2= 18.8%
600 nmR1=19.0%R2= 18.5%
620 nmR1=18.8%R2= 18.4%
640 nmR1=18.7%R2= 18.2%
660 nmR1=18.6%R2= 18.1%
680 nmR1=18.5%R2= 18.0%
700 nmR1=18.4%R2= 17.8%


Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Peak reflectance is 23.8%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:stronger in deeply coloured crystals
Comments:Deeply coloured crystals may be anomalously biaxial

Chemical Properties of Anatase

Formula:
TiO
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:TiO2
Essential elements:O, Ti
All elements listed in formula:O, Ti
Analytical Data:Material from Rio Cipo, Minas Gerais, Brazil
TiO2 (98.98)
Al2O3 (0.15)
Fe2O3 (0.10)
CaO (0.15)

LOI 0.77 wt.-% (loss on ignition)

Sum 100.15 wt.-%
Common Impurities:Fe,Sn,V,Nb

Relationship of Anatase to other Species

Common Associates:
TitaniteTitaniferous MagnetiteRutileQuartzIlmenite
HematiteBrookite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.DD.10Brookite
TiO
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.9.1Hongquiite
TiO
7.9.2Rutile
TiO
 
2
7.9.4Brookite
TiO
 
2
7.9.5Geikielite
MgTiO
 
3
7.9.6Perovskite
CaTiO
 
3
7.9.7Kassite
CaTi
 
2
O
 
4
(OH)
 
2
7.9.8Tausonite
SrTiO
 
3
7.9.9Crichtonite
(Sr,La,Ce,Y)(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Mn)
 
21
O
 
38
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)
CeTi
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
7.9.11Hibonite
(Ca,Ce)Al
 
12
O
 
19
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)
(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
7.9.13Pyrophanite
Mn
2+
 
TiO
 
3
7.9.14Iwakiite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
7.9.15Ilmenite
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
3
7.9.16Pseudobrookite
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
5
7.9.17Ulvöspinel
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
4
7.9.18Pseudorutile
Fe
 
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
7.9.19Freudenbergite
Na
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
8
O
 
16
7.9.20Kennedyite
MgFe
3+
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
10
7.9.21Armalcolite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Ti
 
2
O
 
5
7.9.22Högbomite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Al,Ti)
 
5
O
 
10
7.9.23Qandilite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Al)O
 
4
7.9.24Cafetite
(Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)
 
2
Ti
 
4
O
 
12
· 4H
 
2
O
7.9.25Loveringite
(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)
 
18
O
 
38
7.9.26Lindsleyite
(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)
 
2
(Ti,Cr,Fe)
 
18
O
 
38
7.9.27Priderite
K(Ti
4+
7
Fe
3+
 
)O
 
16
7.9.28Jeppeite
(K,Ba)
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
O
 
13
7.9.29Ankangite
Ba(Ti,V
3+
 
,Cr)
 
8
O
 
16
7.9.30Ecandrewsite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)TiO
 
3
7.9.31Landauite
NaMnZn
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38

Other Names for Anatase

Synonyms:
DauphiniteHydrotitaniteOctaèdriteOctahedriteOisanite
Schorl bleu indigoSchorl octaedre rectanglaireWiserineXanthotitane
Other Languages:
Bosnian (Latin Script):Anatas
Czech:Anatas
Dutch:Anataas
German:Anatas
Octaèdrit
Octahedrit
Oktaedrit
Xanthotitanit
Hungarian:Anatáz
Italian:Anatasio
Japanese:鋭錐石
Lithuanian:Anatazas
Polish:Anataz
Russian:Анатаз
Simplified Chinese:锐铁矿
Spanish:Octaèdrita
Octahedrita
Swedish:Anatas
Ukrainian:Анатаз
Varieties:
Gel-AnataseNiobian Anatase

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Anatase

Reference List:

- +
Brooke and Miller (1852): 229.

Brezina (1872), Min. Mitt.: 2: 7.

Palache, C. (1906), Rosenbusch Festschr.: 311.

Palache, C. (1911), American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Proceedings: 47: 125.

Vegard (1916), Phil. Mag.: 32: 65.

Parker (1923), Zs Kr.: 58: 522.

Parker (1923), Zs. Kr.: 59: 1.

Vegard (1926), Phil. Mag.: 1: 1151.

Schröder (1928), Zs. Kr.: 67: 485.

Bader (1934), Schweiz. min. Mitt.: 14: 336.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 583-588.

Journal of the American Chemical Society 77, 4708-4709.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 136, 273-281.

Deer, W. A, Howie, R. A. and Zussman, J. (1962): Rock-forming minerals, Vol. 5, Non-Silicates, 40-43.

Gou, B. Z., Liu, Q., Cui, H., Yang, Zhao Y. and Zou, G. (1989): Raman study of anatase (TiO2) at high pressure. High pressure research 1: 185-191.

Howard, C. J., Sabine, T. M. and Dickson, F. (1992): Structural and thermal parameters for rutile and anatase. Acta Crystallographica 47, 462-468.

Anthony, J. W., et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 14.

Hearne, G. R., Zhao, J., Dawe, A. M., Pischedda, V., Maaza, M., Nieuwoudt, M. K., Kibasomba, P., Nemraoui, O. and Comins, J. D. (2004): Effect of grain size on structural transitions in anatase TiO2: A Raman spectroscopy study at high pressure. Physical Reviews B, 70, 134102.

Sekiya, Takao, Takatoshi Yagisawa, Nozomi Kamiya, Deependra Das Mulmi, Susumu Kurita, Yutaka Murakami1 and Tetsuya Kodairal (2004) Defects in Anatase TiO2 Single Crystal Controlled by Heat Treatments. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan: 73, 703-710.

Mindat.org articles about Anatase

Article entries:
Anatase from Gorb (Binntal)Edward Antonysen

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Best of Species:Anatase

Internet Links for Anatase

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    Localities for Anatase

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