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Meridianiite

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Formula:
MgSO4 · 11H2O
System:
Triclinic
Name:
Named to reflect the locality on Mars where the MER rover Opportunity observed crystal molds in sedimentary rock that are thought to be caused by minerals that have since dehydrated or dissolved.
A phase that is stable with a saturated brine or with ice and which melts above 2°C into a slurry of Epsomite and water. It has now been found occurring naturally on Earth (on the surface of a frozen pond, and in ice cores) and is suspected of existing on Mars.

Classification of Meridianiite

Approved 2007
7.CB.90

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
29.6.6.8

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
6 : AXO4·xH2O
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First Recorded Occurrence of Meridianiite

Crystallography of Meridianiite

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.7459Å, b = 6.8173Å, c = 17.299Å
α = 88.137°, β = 89.481°, γ = 62.719°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.99 : 1 : 2.538
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.73 (35)
5.62 (56)
5.41 (54)
4.91 (84)
4.85 (90)
2.988 (58)
2.958 (100)
2.940 (67)

Chemical Properties of Meridianiite

Formula:
MgSO4 · 11H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Meridianiite to other Species

7.CB.05Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2O
7.CB.05GunningiteZnSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05KieseriteMgSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2O
7.CB.05SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05CobaltkieseriteCoSO4 · H2O
7.CB.07SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2O
7.CB.10BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2O
7.CB.15Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15Boyleite(Zn,Mg)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15DrobeciteCdSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15CranswickiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.20ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.25Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Moorhouseite(Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.30RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.35BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35MelanteriteFeSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35Alpersite(Mg,Cu)[SO4] · 7H2O
7.CB.40EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.40GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.40MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.45AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
7.CB.45Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
7.CB.50AluminocoquimbiteFeAl(SO4)3 · 9H2O
7.CB.55CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
7.CB.55ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2O
7.CB.55Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
7.CB.60KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2O
7.CB.65QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 10H2O
7.CB.70LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2O
7.CB.75LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
7.CB.75RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
7.CB.80RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2O
7.CB.85ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85BíliniteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85Redingtonite(Fe2+,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)2(SO4)4·22H2O
7.CB.85Wupatkiite(Co,Mg,Ni)Al2(SO4)4·22H2O

Other Names for Meridianiite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Stable only below 2° C. Above that temperature it melts incongruently to a slurry of Epsomite and water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Meridianiite

Reference List:
Peterson, R.C. & Wang, R. (2006): Crystal Molds on Mars: Melting of a
possible new mineral species to create Martian chaotic terrain. Geology, 34, 957-960.

Peterson, R.C., Nelson, W., Madu, B., Shurvell, H.F. (2007): Meridianiite (MgSO4·11H2O): a new mineral species observed on Earth and predicted to exist on Mars. Seventh International Conference on Mars, 3124. (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/7thmars2007/pdf/3124.pdf)

Peterson, R.C., W. Nelson, B. Madu, and H.F. Shurvell (2007): Meridianiite: A new mineral species observed on Earth and predicted to exist on Mars. American Mineralogist, 92, 1756-1759.

F. Elif Genceli, Martin Lutz, Anthony L. Spek, Geert-Jan Witkamp (2007):
Crystallization and Characterization of a New Magnesium Sulfate Hydrate MgSO4 · 11H2O. Crystal Growth & Design 2007, 7, 2460-2466.

Fortes, A.D., Wood, I.G., Knight, K.S. (2008): The crystal structure and thermal expansion tensor of MgSO4–11D2O (meridianiite) determined by neutron powder diffraction. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 35, 207-221.

Genceli, F.E., Horikawa, S., Iizuka, Y., Toshimitsu, S., Hondoh, T., Kawamura, T., Witkamp, G.-J. (2009): Meridianiite detected in ice. Journal of Glaciology, 189, 117-122.

Fortes, A. D., Browning, F., Wood, I. G. (2012): Cation substitution in synthetic meridianiite (MgSO4•11H2O) I: X-ray powder diffraction analysis of quenched polycrystalline aggregates. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 39, 419-441.

Fortes, A. D., Browning, F., Wood, I. G. (2012): Cation substitution in synthetic meridianiite (MgSO4•11H2O) II: variation in unit-cell parameters determined from X-ray powder diffraction data. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 39, 443-454.

Internet Links for Meridianiite

Localities for Meridianiite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
Genceli, F.E., Horikawa, S., Iizuka, Y., Toshimitsu, S., Hondoh, T., Kawamura, T., Witkamp, G.-J. (2009): Meridianiite detected in ice. Journal of Glaciology, 189, 117-122.
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Kamloops Mining Division
      • Ashcroft
        • Venables Valley
Peterson, R.C., Nelson, W., Madu, B., Shurvell, H.F. (2007): Meridianiite (MgSO4·11H2O): a new mineral species observed on Earth and predicted to exist on Mars. Seventh International Conference on Mars, 3124.
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Okhotsk Subprefecture (Abashiri Province)
Genceli, F.E., Horikawa, S., Iizuka, Y., Toshimitsu, S., Hondoh, T., Kawamura, T., Witkamp, G.-J. (2009): Meridianiite detected in ice. Journal of Glaciology, 189, 117-122.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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