Mindat Logo

Apjohnite

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.



Formula:
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless, white, light ...
Hardness:1½ - 2
Member of:Halotrichite Group
Name:For James Apjohn (1796-1886), Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.


Halotrichite Group

At least a partial (and probably a complete ?) series toward Apjohnite exists from Pickeringite and Halotrichite.

Classification of Apjohnite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/C.12-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.CB.85

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
Dana 8th edition ID:29.7.3.3

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
7 : AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.9.7

25 : Sulphates
9 : Sulphates of Mn
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-281.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Apjohnite

Type Locality:Bahía de Maputo (Maputo Bay; Delagoa Bay; Lourenco Marques Bay), Maputo Province, Mozambique
Year of Discovery:1847

Physical Properties of Apjohnite

Lustre:Silky
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless, white, light pink, light yellow, light green.
Hardness (Mohs):1½ - 2
Density (measured):1.78 g/cm3

Crystallography of Apjohnite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:a = 6.19Å, b = 24.34Å, c = 21.26Å
β = 100.28°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.254 : 1 : 0.873
Unit Cell Volume:V 3,151.71 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals acicular aggregated into masses and crusts; also asbestiform.

Optical Data of Apjohnite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.478 nβ = 1.482 nγ = 1.482
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.004

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:none

Chemical Properties of Apjohnite

Formula:
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Mn2+Al2(SO4)4·22H2O
Essential elements:Al, H, Mn, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Al, H, Mn, O, S
Analytical Data:
Soluble in water.

Relationship of Apjohnite to other Species

Member of:Halotrichite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Bílinite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
Dietrichite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
Halotrichite
FeAl
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
Pickeringite
MgAl
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
Redingtonite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
·22H
 
2
O
Wupatkiite
(Co,Mg,Ni)Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
·22H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.CB.05Dwornikite
(Ni,Fe)SO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Gunningite
ZnSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Kieserite
MgSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Poitevinite
(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Szmikite
MnSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Szomolnokite
FeSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Cobaltkieserite
CoSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.07Sanderite
MgSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CB.10Bonattite
CuSO
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Aplowite
(Co,Mn,Ni)SO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Boyleite
(Zn,Mg)SO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Ilesite
(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Rozenite
FeSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Starkeyite
MgSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Drobecite
CdSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Cranswickite
MgSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.20Chalcanthite
CuSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CB.20Jôkokuite
MnSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CB.20Pentahydrite
MgSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CB.20Siderotil
FeSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Bianchite
(Zn,Fe)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite
(Mn,Mg)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Ferrohexahydrite
FeSO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Hexahydrite
MgSO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Moorhouseite
(Co,Ni,Mn)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite
(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.30Retgersite
NiSO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Bieberite
CoSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Boothite
CuSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Mallardite
MnSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Melanterite
FeSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite
(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Alpersite
(Mg,Cu)[SO
 
4
] · 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.40Epsomite
MgSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.40Goslarite
ZnSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.40Morenosite
NiSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.45Alunogen
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 17H
 
2
O
7.CB.45Meta-alunogen
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CB.50Aluminocoquimbite
FeAl(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
7.CB.55Coquimbite
Fe
 
2-x
Al
 
x
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O, x ~0.5
7.CB.55Paracoquimbite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
7.CB.55Rhomboclase
(H
 
5
O
 
2
)Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CB.60Kornelite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.65Quenstedtite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 10H
 
2
O
7.CB.70Lausenite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
·6H
 
2
O
7.CB.75Lishizhenite
ZnFe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 14H
 
2
O
7.CB.75Römerite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 14H
 
2
O
7.CB.80Ransomite
CuFe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Bílinite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Dietrichite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Halotrichite
FeAl
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Pickeringite
MgAl
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Redingtonite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
·22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Wupatkiite
(Co,Mg,Ni)Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
·22H
 
2
O
7.CB.90Meridianiite
MgSO
 
4
· 11H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.9.1Szmikite
MnSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
25.9.2Jôkokuite
MnSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
25.9.3Mallardite
MnSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
25.9.4Manganolangbeinite
K
 
2
Mn
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
25.9.5Chvaleticeite
(Mn,Mg)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
25.9.6Despujolsite
Ca
 
3
Mn
4+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
25.9.8Shigaite
Mn
 
6
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
18
[Na(H
 
2
O)
 
6
][SO
 
4
]
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
25.9.9Ilesite
(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
25.9.10Mooreite
Mg
 
9
 
2
Mn
 
2
Zn
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
26
· 8H
 
2
O
25.9.11Torreyite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
7
 
2
Mn
2+
2
Zn
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
22
· 8H
 
2
O
25.9.12Lawsonbauerite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
9
Zn
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
22
· 8H
 
2
O
25.9.13Dietrichite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O

Other Names for Apjohnite

Other Languages:
German:Apjohnit
Manganalaun
Russian:Апджонит
Spanish:Apjohnita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Apjohnite

Reference List:

- +
Apjohn (1838) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 12: 103 (as Manganese Alum).

Kane, R.(1838): Ueber der Wirkung von Arsenikwasserstoff auf schwefelsaures Kupferoxyd und über den vom Dr. Apjohn zerlegten Mangan-alaun. Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig. 44: 471-472

Glocker, E.F. (1847) Generum et specierum mineralium secundum ordines naturales digestorum synopsis. Halle: 298.

Ludwig (1870) Arch. Pharm.: 143: 97.

Brown (1884) American Chemical Journal: 6: 97.

Kokta (1939) Sborník Klubu Příroda.: 19: 75 (Min. Abs.: 7: 316 [1939]).

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 527-528.

Menchetti, S. and Sabelli, C. (1976): The halotrichite group: the crystal structure of apjohnite. Mineralogical Magazine. 40: 599-608.

Internet Links for Apjohnite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Apjohnite on Google
  • Look for Apjohnite images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Apjohnite on Webmineral
  • Look for Apjohnite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Apjohnite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Apjohnite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Search for Apjohnite on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • rare and unusual minerals mainly crystallized
  • Buy RARE Minerals from Rocks of Africa
  • The Arkenstone - Fine Minerals
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Apjohnite specimens
  • Find Apjohnite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • Lapis Mineral Magazin
  • Fine and rare minerals from mintreasure.com
  • Buy from David K Joyce minerals
  • Jobs:
  • Mining & Geology Jobs
  • Localities for Apjohnite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Bulgaria
     
    • Plovdiv Oblast
      • Plovdiv
    Atanassova, R. & Kerestedjian, T. (2009): Efflorescent minerals from the metallurgical waste heaps of the KCM non-ferrous metal smelter, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology, 47, 51-63.
    Chile
     
    • Tarapacá Region
      • El Tamarugal Province
        • Pampa del Tamarugal
    Peter G. Seroka collection
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Krušné Hory Mtns (Erzgebirge)
          • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
    Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
      • Pardubice Region
    No reference listed
    Italy
     
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Bolzano Province (South Tyrol)
        • Adige Valley (Etsch Valley)
    Frost, Raymond L. and Locke, Ashley J. and Martens, Wayde N. (2007) Thermal analysis of halotrichites. Thermochimica Acta 459(1-2):pp. 64-72.
    Exel, R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Athesia, Bolzano, 204 pp.
    Mozambique
     
    • Maputo Province
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 528; Mineralogical Magazine (1976): 40: 599.
    Portugal
     
    • Aveiro District
      • Albergaria-a-Velha
        • Branca
    Marques de Sá, J. & Leal Gomes, C. (2010): Les mines de cuivre et nickel de Palhal et Telhadela, Albergaria-a-Velha, Aveiro, Portugal. Le Règne Minéral, 92, 36-47.
    Romania
     
    • Alba Co.
    Onac, B. P. et al. (2003): STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, GEOLOGIA, XLVIII, 1, 29-44. [http://bioge.ubbcluj.ro/studia/pdf/2003/Onac.pdf]
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Cerna valley
    Onac, B. P. (2009): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 38/1, 27-39
    Slovakia
     
    • Košice Region
      • Gelnica Co.
    Kokta (1939) Sborník Klubu Příroda.: 19: 75 (Min. Abs.: 7: 316 [1939]); Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 528; Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
    • Prešov Region
      • Prešov Co.
        • Červenica
          • Dubník
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
    Spain
     
    • Murcia
      • Mazarrón-Águilas
    Lefteris Rantos specimen (Antonio Miguel Lozano Lopez confirmation)
    USA
     
    • Colorado
      • Mineral Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Nevada
      • Nye Co.
        • Cactus Springs District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Washoe Co.
        • Wedekind District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Mexico
      • Santa Fe Co.
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
          • Golden
            • Ortiz mine
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Pennsylvania
      • Columbia Co.
    Scientific study done by Matt Livingood, Jason Winicaties, and Jared Stein, located at:http://www.offroaders.com/album/centralia/study/ESL201Paper.htm
    • Tennessee
      • Monroe Co.
        • Tellico Plains
    Travis A. Paris (2011) Tennessee mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 86, #4, 300-328.
      • Sevier Co.
        • Great Smoky Mts
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 528l; American Mineralogist (2000): 85: 1561.; Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:235
    • Utah
      • Salt Lake Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    Mineral and/or Locality  
    Search Google  
    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
    Current server date and time: March 3, 2014 23:30:53
    Mineral and Locality Search
    Mineral:
    and/or Locality:
    Options
    Fade toolbar when not in focusFix toolbar to bottom of page
    Hide Social Media Links
    Slideshow frame delay seconds