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Glauberite

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Formula:
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
System:MonoclinicColour:Grey, yellowish, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, Waxy, PearlyHardness:2½ - 3
Name:
Named in allusion to its content of the compound Na2SO4, formerly called Glauber's Salt, after the German alchemist Johann Rudolf Glauber (1604-1668).
This page provides mineralogical data about Glauberite.

Classification of Glauberite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/A.08-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.AD.25

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:28.4.2.1

28 : ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
4 : Miscellaneous
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.4.4

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba
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Type Occurrence of Glauberite

Type Locality:El Castellar Mine, Villarrubia de Santiago, Ocaña, Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Natural History Museum, Paris 23.400-223,402
Year of Discovery:1808
Geological Setting of type material:Salt deposit.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
Halite

Occurrences of Glauberite

Geological Setting:Lacustrine and oceanic salt deposits; at fumarole deposits; in nitrate deposits in arid regions.

Physical Properties of Glauberite

Lustre:Vitreous, Waxy, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:Pearly on cleavage {001}
Colour:Grey, yellowish, colourless; colourless in transmitted light
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {001} perfect; on {110} indistinct.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Translation gliding:Exhibits translation gliding.
Density (measured):2.75 - 2.85 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.78 g/cm3

Crystallography of Glauberite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/b
Space Group Setting:C2/c
Cell Parameters:a = 10.129(2) Å, b = 8.306(2) Å, c = 8.533(2) Å
β = 112.19(1)°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.219 : 1 : 1.027
Unit Cell Volume:V 664.72 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals tabular {001}, with {110} lacking at times; prismatic by extension of [101] with large {111}; dipyramidal through combinations of {111} and {110}; prismatic [001] with large {110}. {001} and {111} often striated parallel to their intersection, and {111} may be rounded or step-like near the termination.
Crystal Atlas:
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Glauberite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Glauberite no.18 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Glauberite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.507 - 1.515 nβ = 1.527 - 1.535 nγ = 1.529 - 1.536
2V:Calculated: 24° to 34°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.022

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:strong r > v

Chemical Properties of Glauberite

Formula:
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:Na2Ca(SO4)2
Essential elements:Ca, Na, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Ca, Na, O, S

Relationship of Glauberite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.AD.05Arcanite
K
 
2
SO
 
4
7.AD.05Mascagnite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
SO
 
4
7.AD.10Mercallite
KHSO
 
4
7.AD.15Misenite
K
 
8
H
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
7
7.AD.20Letovicite
(NH
 
4
)
 
3
H(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AD.30Anhydrite
CaSO
 
4
7.AD.35Anglesite
PbSO
 
4
7.AD.35Baryte
BaSO
 
4
7.AD.35Celestine
SrSO
 
4
7.AD.35Olsacherite
Pb
 
2
(SeO
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)
7.AD.40Kalistrontite
K
 
2
Sr(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AD.40Palmierite
(K,Na)
 
2
Pb(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.4.1Anhydrite
CaSO
 
4
25.4.2Bassanite
CaSO
 
4
· 0.5H
 
2
O
25.4.3Gypsum
CaSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.5Cesanite
Na
 
3
Ca
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
25.4.6Eugsterite
Na
 
4
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.7Hydroglauberite
Na
 
10
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
8
· 6H
 
2
O
25.4.8Syngenite
K
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.4.9Görgeyite
K
 
2
Ca
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
25.4.10Polyhalite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.11Koktaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.4.12Ye'elimite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
6
(SO
 
4
)O
 
12
25.4.13Ettringite
Ca
 
6
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
25.4.14Bentorite
Ca
 
6
(Cr
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
25.4.15Celestine
SrSO
 
4
25.4.16Kalistrontite
K
 
2
Sr(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.4.17Baryte
BaSO
 
4

Other Names for Glauberite

Other Languages:
German:Glauberit
Indonesian:Glauberit
Italian:Glauberite
Polish:Glauberyt
Russian:Глауберит
Simplified Chinese:钙芒硝
Spanish:Glauberita
Ukrainian:Глауберит

Other Information

Other Information:Powdery surface alteration in humid environments to gypsum with leaching of sodium sulfate.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Powdery surface alteration in humid environments to gypsum with leaching of sodium sulfate
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Glauberite

Reference List:

- +
Brongniart (1808) Journal des mines {superseded by Annales des mines}: 23: 5.

Leonhard (1825) Naturges. des Mineralreiches: 159.

Zepharovich (1874) Königliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Ber.: 69: 16.

Laspeyres (1877) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 1: 529.

Kraus (1913) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 52: 321.

Kraus and Peck (1917) Michigan Academy of Science, Annual Report: 19: 95.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 4: 46.

Wetzel (1924) Zeitschrift für praktische Geologie, Berlin, hale a.S.: 32: 119.

Hawkins (1928) American Journal of Science: (5): 16: 361.

Schaller (1932) USGS Bulletin 832: 55.

Schaller and Henderson (1932) USGS Bull. 833: 27.

Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 156.

Pardillo (1934) Ac. cienc. arts, Barcelona, Mem.: 25: 1.

Pardillo (1935) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 344.

Hill and Wills (1938) American Chemical Society Journal: 60: 1647.

Godlevsky (1939) Mineralogicheskoe Obshchestvo, Leningrad, Zapiski: 68: 576.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 431-433.

Araki, T. & T. Zoltai (1967), Refinement of the crystal structure of a glauberite: American Mineralogist: 52: 1272-1275.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 122: 175-184.

Internet Links for Glauberite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Glauberite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Specimens:The following Glauberite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Glauberite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Catamarca
      • Antofagasta de la Sierra Department
    Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
    Brodtkorb, A., 1999. Salinas Grande y Chica de la Península de Valdés. En: Recursos Minerales de la República Argentina (Ed. E.O. Zappettini), Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales. SEGEMAR, Anales 35: 1971-1976.
    Brodtkorb, A., 1999. Salinas Grande y Chica de la Península de Valdés. En: Recursos Minerales de la República Argentina (Ed. E.O. Zappettini), Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales. SEGEMAR, Anales 35: 1971-1976.
        • Península Valdés
    Brodtkorb, A., 1999. Salinas Grande y Chica de la Península de Valdés. En: Recursos Minerales de la República Argentina (Ed. E.O. Zappettini), Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales. SEGEMAR, Anales 35: 1971-1976.
    Brodtkorb, A., 1999. Salinas Grande y Chica de la Península de Valdés. En: Recursos Minerales de la República Argentina (Ed. E.O. Zappettini), Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales. SEGEMAR, Anales 35: 1971-1976.
    • Salta
      • Los Andes Department
    Alonso, R.N., 1999. Los salares de la Puna y sus recursos evaporíticos, Jujuy, Salta y Catamarca. En: Recursos Minerales de la República Argentina (Ed. E.O. Zappettini), Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales SEGEMAR, Anales 35:1907-1921.
    Australia
     
    • South Australia
      • Lochiel
    Uwe Kolitsch collection
    • Tasmania
      • Rossarden district
    http://www.crocoite.com/locationbulletins/part1/avocaarea.pdf
    • Victoria
      • Rural City of Mildura
        • Hattah
    P. Sutton, Minerals from evaporitve basins in the Mallee District, Murray Basin, north-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 10:1, 13-28; P. Sutton (2004)
        • Mildura
          • Ouyen
            • Linga
    Natural History Museum Vienna collection. P. Sutton, 1979: Glauberite from Linga Lakes, Victoria, Australian Mineralogist, 29,137-139. P. Sutton, 2004: Minerals from evaporative basins in the Mallee District, Murray Basin, south-eastern Australia, Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 10:1, 13-28.
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Golling
        • Grubach
          • Moosegg
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
      • Hallein
        • Dürrnberg
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
    • Styria
      • Bad Aussee
        • Wienern
    E.Ch.Kirchner (1974)
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Innsbruck
            • Hall
              • Hall valley
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Upper Austria
      • Gmunden
        • Bad Ischl
          • Perneck
    No reference listed
        • Hallstatt
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432; R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    Bolivia
     
    • La Paz Department
      • Loayza Province
    Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
    Canada
     
    • Manitoba
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 433.
      • north of Bandon
        • Harcus
    Richard Gunter Collection
    • Nova Scotia
      • Cumberland Co.
        • Pugwash
    R.C. Boehner, "Salt and Potash Resources in Nova Scotia", N.S. Dept. Mines and Energy, Bulletin 5, 1986.
    • Saskatchewan
      • Swift Current
    CIM Bulletin January 1967, pg 20-
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Tocopilla Province
        • Pedro de Valdivia
    Pueyo, J. J., Chong, G. & Vega, M. (1998): Mineralogy and parental brine evolution in the Pedro de Valdivia nitrate deposit, Antofagasta, Chile. Revista Geologica de Chile 25, 3-15. (in Spanish)
        • Sierra Gorda district
          • Caracoles
    Natural History Museum Vienna collection (U. Kolitsch SXRD analysis)
        • Tocopilla District
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
    • Tarapacá Region
      • El Tamarugal Province
        • Challacollo
    maurizio dini collection - analysed material
        • Oficina Victoria
    Am. Min.1989, V74, 1207-1214.
        • Pampa del Tamarugal
    Luigi Chiappino specimen
    China
     
    • Henan Province
      • Puyang Prefecture
    Renwei Li and Maoan Xin (1989): Acta Sedimentologica Sinica 7(4), 141-148
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Alxa League (Alashan Prefecture)
        • Alxa Left Banner (Alashan Zuoqi)
    Zhenmi Liu (2000): Journal of Salt Lake Research 29(3), 21-26
    • Shandong Province
      • Tai'an Prefecture
        • Daiyue District
          • Dawenkou depression
    Zhongde Zhu (1988): Mineral Deposits 7(1), 87-96
    • Sichuan Province
      • Meishan Prefecture
        • Pengshan Co.
    Acta Geologica Sichuan 2004(2).
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
          • Lop Nur (Lop Nuur; Lop lake; Luobu lake; Luobubo)
    Chenglin Liu, Mili Wang, Pengcheng Jiao, Weidong Fan, Yongzhi Chen, Zhichen Yang, and Jingguo Wang (2008): Mineral Deposits 27(6)
      • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
        • Tulufan Co. (Turfan Co.; Turpan Co.)
          • Turfan basin (Turpan basin)
    Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 100-103.
    • Yunnan Province
      • Kunming Prefecture
        • Anning Co.
          • Anning basin
    Wei Dongyan, Deng Xiaolin, Liu Zhenmin, and Yang Gengsheng (2000): On Biochemical Formation of Salt Deposits. Acta Geologica Sinica 74(3), 613-617.
    France
     
    • Lorraine
      • Meurthe-et-Moselle
        • Nancy
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432.
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Ariège
        • Tarascon-sur-Ariège
          • Bedeilhac et Aynat
    Inventaire mineralogique de l'Ariege (Ed. BRGM) 1983
    • Nord-Pas-de-Calais
      • Pas-de-Calais
    Naze-Nancy Masalehdani, M., Mees, F., Dubois, M., Coquinot, Y., Potdevin, J.-L., Fialin, M. & Blanc-Valleron, M.-M. (2009): Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France. Can. Mineral. 47, 573-591.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Upper Bavaria
        • Bad Reichenhall
          • Berchtesgaden
            • Berchtesgadener Salzberg
    • Hesse
      • Werra valley
        • Heringen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Phillippsthal
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Celle
        • Hänigsen
    Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9
        • Wathlingen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Harz
        • Goslar
          • Rammelsberg
    No reference listed
      • Nordhorn
        • Frenswegen
    von Engelhardt, W., Füchtbauer, H., and Zemann, J. (1956): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 5(3), 177-186.
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Stassfurt Potash deposit
        • Egeln
    Naumann, Zirkel: "Elemente der Mineralogie", 13th Ed., 1898
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432.
    Hungary
     
    • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
      • Aggteleki Mtns
    Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
      • Rudabányai Mtns
        • Alsótelekes
    Szakáll & Gatter: Hungarian Mineral Species, 1993
    Iceland
     
    • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
      • Heimaey island
        • Heimaey
    Mitolo, D., Garavelli, A., Pedersen, L., Balić-Žunić, T., Jakobsson, S.P., Vurro, F. (2008): Mineralogy of actually forming sublimates at Eldfell Volcano, Heimaey (Vestmannaeyjar archipelago), Iceland. Plinius, 34, 322.
      • Surtsey Island
    Jacobsson et al (1992) Encrustations from Lava Caves in Surtsey, Iceland. A Preliminary Report: Surtsey Research Progress Report X: 73-78 Reykjevik, Iceland.
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
      • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
        • Naples Province
          • Phlegrean Fields
            • Pozzuoli
    Pichler, H., (1970): Italienische Vulkangebiete II, Bornträger Berlin Stuttgart
    • Sicily
      • Messina Province
        • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
          • Lipari
            • Vulcano Island
    COSSA A. (1878): Ricerche chimiche su minerali e rocce dell’Isola di Vulcano - Memorie R. Acc. Naz. Lincei - serie 3 - 2, 14 pp.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
      • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
    Pavel M. Kartashov data; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30; Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
    Netherlands
     
    • Gelderland
      • Twente
    T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
    Pakistan
     
    • Punjab
      • Salt Range
    Dana 6: 899; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432 & 449.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
        • Aldan Shield
          • Aldan
            • Inagli Massif
    Naumov, VB and Kamenetsky, VS and Thomas, R and Kononkova, NN and Ryzhenko, BN (2008): Inclusions of silicate and sulfate melts in chrome diopside from the Inagli deposit, Yakutia, Russia. Geochemistry International, 46, 554-564. [http://eprints.utas.edu.au/7673/1/GeochemInt2008-Inagli.pdf]
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Orenburgskaya Oblast'
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432.
    Spain
     
    • Aragón
      • Zaragoza
        • Remolinos
    -Calvo, M. (2008). Minerales de Aragón. Prames, Zaragoza, 463 pags.
    • Castile-La Mancha
      • Toledo
        • Ocaña
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432.
    Journ. Mines (1808) 23, 5.; Journ.Mines (1808) 23, 5
    • La Rioja
    Society for Sedimentary Geology. 203-215 (1994).
    Society for Sedimentary Geology. 203-215 (1994).
    FMF Forum
    • Madrid
      • Aranjuez
        • El Regajal
    Jiménez Martínez, R., González Laguna, R., Lozano Fernández, R.P., Paradas Herrero, Á., Baeza Chico, E., Torres Matilla, M.J. y Cabrera Andonaegui, B. 2013. Colección de Minerales de las Comunidades y Ciudades Autónomas del Museo Geominero: Catálogo de la Comunidad de Madrid. Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 16, publicación en CD-ROM.
        • Espartinas Saltworks
    Dammer, Tietze: "Die nutzbaren Mineralien", 1914
      • Chinchón
      • Ciempozuelos
    - González del Tánago, Ch. and González del Tánago, J. (2002). Minerales y minas de Madrid
    John K. Warren, Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits, Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 98, Issues 3–4, February 2010, Pages 217-268,
    Switzerland
     
    • Aargau
      • Leuggern
        • Felsenau
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 186.
    Turkey
     
    • Aegean Region
      • Kütahya Province
        • Emet
          • Doğanlar village
    J. García-Veigas, L. Rosell, X. Alcobé, I. Subias, F. Ortí, I. Gündogan and C. Helvaci (2010) Fontarnauite, a New Sulphate-Borate Mineral from the Emet Borate District (Turkey). Macla 13, 97-98.
    • Central Anatolia Region
      • Ankara Province
    Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
    Ortı́, F., Gündogan, I., & Helvaci, C. (2002). Sodium sulphate deposits of Neogene age: the Kirmir formation, Beypazari basin, Turkey. Sedimentary Geology, 146(3), 305-333.
      • Konya Province
        • Great Konya Basin
    Am Min 66:632-635
    Lideke Vergouwen (1981) Eugsterite, a new salt mineral. American Mineralogist 66:632-636
      • Niğde Province
    Altay, T., Karakaya, M.Ç., and Murat, A. (2010): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2010.
    Turkmenistan
     
    • Balkan Province
    John K. Warren, Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits, Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 98, Issues 3–4, February 2010, Pages 217-268, ; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
    UK
     
    • England
      • North Yorkshire
        • Scarborough
    Peter G. Embrey (1978) Fourth Supplementary List of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine 42:169-177
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Mohave Co.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 232, 243.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 243.
      • Yavapai Co.
        • Camp Verde District
    Twenter, F. R. (1962). Rocks and water in Verde Valley, Arizona. In New Mexico Geological Society Thirteenth Field Conference Procedings (pp. 135-139).
    Tenny, J.B. (1928), The Mineral Industries of AZ, AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 125: 115.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 232.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 232.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 232.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 300, 395; Guild, F.N. (1910), Mineralogy of Arizona; Univ. of AZ Bull. 41 (1916-17), Mineralogy of Useful Minerals in AZ: 37; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 59.
    • California
      • Imperial Co.
        • Bertram
          • Bertram siding
    [Murch, J & Webb, R (1966) Minerals of California, California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 189]; Berkholz, Mary Frances (1958), Salton Sea glauberite: Gems and Minerals, No. 245 (Feb 1958): 17-19; Araki, T. & T. Zoltai (1967), Refinement of the crystal structure of a glauberite: Am. Min: 52: 1272; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 199-200; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 284.
    Reiner Mielke
      • Inyo Co.
        • Death Valley
    Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 303; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 200, 212; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 284, 285.
        • Deep Springs Valley
    Jones, Blair Francis (1961), Zoning of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 83: B200; Jones, Blair Francis (1965), The hydrology and mineralogy of Deep Spring Lake, Inyo County, California. USGS Professional Paper 502-A, 56 pp.: 44; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 285.
    Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 303; Hardie, L.A. and Eugster, H.P. (1970) The evolution of closed-basin brines. Mineralogical Society of America Special Paper 3: 273; Hardie, L.A. (1968) The origin of the Recent nonmarine evaporate deposit of Saline Valley, Inyo County, California. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 32: 1287; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 284; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 433.
      • Lake Co.
        • Sulphur Creek District (Sulfur Creek District; Wilbur Springs District)
          • Clear Lake Oaks
    Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 4, 410 pp.: 182; Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1868b), On the occurrence of glauberite at Borax Lake, California: California Academy of Natural Sciences Proceedings: 3: 399; Vonsen, Magnus (1935), The discovery of borates in California: Mineralogist: 3(12): 22; Vonsen, Magnus & G.D. Hanna (1936), Borax Lake, California: California Division Mines Report 32: 103; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 197, 200; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 285.
      • San Bernardino Co.
    Rath, Gerhart vom (1887),Ueber Glauberit und Hanksit von San Bernardino County: Niederrheinische Gesell. Sitzungsber., Band 44: 233; De Groot, Henry (1890), The Searles borax marsh: California Mining Bureau. Report 10: 535; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 303; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 200; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 433.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
    • Hawaii
      • Hawaii Co. (Hawaii Island)
    Hon, K., Bove, D.J., Lee, L., and Thornber, C., 2009, The origin and zonation of sublimates and precipitates in active Hawaiian lava tubes: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 41, no. 7, p.193.
    • Nevada
      • Clark Co.
        • Muddy Mts
          • Muddy Mountains District
            • White Basin
    NBMG Bull 62 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Clark County, Nevada
        • St. Thomas District
    NBMG Bull 62 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Clark County, Nevada
      • Mineral Co.
    NBMG Bull 58 Geology and Mineral Resources of Mineral County, Nevada
    • New Jersey
      • Passaic Co.
        • Paterson
    Hawkins (1933); MinRecord 9:157-179, Peters, T.A. & Peters, J.J. (1978).
    • New Mexico
      • Doña Ana Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
        • White Sands National Monument
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Eddy and Lea Counties
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
      • Torrance Co.
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
    USGS Prof Paper 68 The Ore Deposits of New Mexico
    • North Dakota
    Jay Ellis Ransom,1974,Gems and Minerals of America
    • Texas
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432.
    • Utah
      • Box Elder Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Davis Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Salt Lake Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Tooele Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    Uzbekistan
     
    • Karakalpakstan Respublikasi (Qaraqalpog'iston)
      • Lower Amu Darya River (Amydar'ya)
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
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