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Glauberite

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Johann Rudolf Glauber
Formula:
Na2Ca(SO4)2
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Grey, yellowish, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Waxy, Pearly
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Name:
Named in allusion to its content of the compound Na2SO4, formerly called Glauber's Salt, after the German alchemist Johann Rudolf Glauber (1604-1668).
This page provides mineralogical data about Glauberite.

Classification of Glauberite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.AD.25

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
28.4.2.1

28 : ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
4 : Miscellaneous
25.4.4

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba
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http://www.mindat.org/min-1706.html
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Type Occurrence of Glauberite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Natural History Museum, Paris 23.400-223,402
Year of Discovery:
1808
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Salt deposit.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Occurrences of Glauberite

Geological Setting:
Lacustrine and oceanic salt deposits; at fumarole deposits; in nitrate deposits in arid regions.

Physical Properties of Glauberite

Vitreous, Waxy, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Pearly on cleavage {001}
Colour:
Grey, yellowish, colourless; colourless in transmitted light
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {001} perfect; on {110} indistinct.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Translation gliding:
Exhibits translation gliding.
Density:
2.75 - 2.85 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.78 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Glauberite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/b
Space Group Setting:
C2/c
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.129(2) Å, b = 8.306(2) Å, c = 8.533(2) Å
β = 112.19(1)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.219 : 1 : 1.027
Unit Cell Volume:
V 664.72 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals tabular {001}, with {110} lacking at times; prismatic by extension of [101] with large {111}; dipyramidal through combinations of {111} and {110}; prismatic [001] with large {110}. {001} and {111} often striated parallel to their intersection, and {111} may be rounded or step-like near the termination.

Crystallographic forms of Glauberite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Glauberite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Glauberite no.18 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Glauberite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.507 - 1.515 nβ = 1.527 - 1.535 nγ = 1.529 - 1.536
2V:
Calculated: 24° to 34°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.022
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
strong r > v

Chemical Properties of Glauberite

Formula:
Na2Ca(SO4)2
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Glauberite to other Species

7.AD.05ArcaniteK2SO4
7.AD.05Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
7.AD.10MercalliteKHSO4
7.AD.15MiseniteK8H6(SO4)7
7.AD.20Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
7.AD.30AnhydriteCaSO4
7.AD.35AnglesitePbSO4
7.AD.35BaryteBaSO4
7.AD.35CelestineSrSO4
7.AD.35OlsacheritePb2(SeO4)(SO4)
7.AD.40KalistrontiteK2Sr(SO4)2
7.AD.40Palmierite(K,Na)2Pb(SO4)2
25.4.1AnhydriteCaSO4
25.4.2BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
25.4.3GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
25.4.5CesaniteNa3Ca2(SO4)3(OH)
25.4.6EugsteriteNa4Ca(SO4)3 · 2H2O
25.4.7HydroglauberiteNa10Ca3(SO4)8 · 6H2O
25.4.8SyngeniteK2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
25.4.9GörgeyiteK2Ca5(SO4)6 · H2O
25.4.10PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
25.4.11Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
25.4.12Ye'elimiteCa4Al6(SO4)O12
25.4.13EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
25.4.14BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
25.4.15CelestineSrSO4
25.4.16KalistrontiteK2Sr(SO4)2
25.4.17BaryteBaSO4

Other Names for Glauberite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Glauberit
Indonesian:Glauberit
Italian:Glauberite
Polish:Glauberyt
Simplified Chinese:钙芒硝
Spanish:Glauberita
Traditional Chinese:鈣芒硝

Other Information

Other Information:
Powdery surface alteration in humid environments to gypsum with leaching of sodium sulfate.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Powdery surface alteration in humid environments to gypsum with leaching of sodium sulfate
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Glauberite

Reference List:
Brongniart (1808) Journal des mines {superseded by Annales des mines}: 23: 5.

Leonhard (1825) Naturges. des Mineralreiches: 159.

Zepharovich (1874) Königliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Ber.: 69: 16.

Laspeyres (1877) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 1: 529.

Kraus (1913) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 52: 321.

Kraus and Peck (1917) Michigan Academy of Science, Annual Report: 19: 95.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 4: 46.

Wetzel (1924) Zeitschrift für praktische Geologie, Berlin, hale a.S.: 32: 119.

Hawkins (1928) American Journal of Science: (5): 16: 361.

Schaller (1932) USGS Bulletin 832: 55.

Schaller and Henderson (1932) USGS Bull. 833: 27.

Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 156.

Pardillo (1934) Ac. cienc. arts, Barcelona, Mem.: 25: 1.

Pardillo (1935) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 344.

Hill and Wills (1938) American Chemical Society Journal: 60: 1647.

Godlevsky (1939) Mineralogicheskoe Obshchestvo, Leningrad, Zapiski: 68: 576.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 431-433.

Araki, T. & T. Zoltai (1967), Refinement of the crystal structure of a glauberite: American Mineralogist: 52: 1272-1275.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 122: 175-184.

Internet Links for Glauberite

Specimens:
The following Glauberite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Glauberite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Argentina
 
  • Catamarca
    • Antofagasta de la Sierra Department
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
Brodtkorb, A., 1999. Salinas Grande y Chica de la Península de Valdés. En: Recursos Minerales de la República Argentina (Ed. E.O. Zappettini), Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales. SEGEMAR, Anales 35: 1971-1976.
Brodtkorb, A., 1999. Salinas Grande y Chica de la Península de Valdés. En: Recursos Minerales de la República Argentina (Ed. E.O. Zappettini), Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales. SEGEMAR, Anales 35: 1971-1976.
      • Península Valdés
Brodtkorb, A., 1999. Salinas Grande y Chica de la Península de Valdés. En: Recursos Minerales de la República Argentina (Ed. E.O. Zappettini), Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales. SEGEMAR, Anales 35: 1971-1976.
Brodtkorb, A., 1999. Salinas Grande y Chica de la Península de Valdés. En: Recursos Minerales de la República Argentina (Ed. E.O. Zappettini), Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales. SEGEMAR, Anales 35: 1971-1976.
  • Salta
    • Los Andes Department
Alonso, R.N., 1999. Los salares de la Puna y sus recursos evaporíticos, Jujuy, Salta y Catamarca. En: Recursos Minerales de la República Argentina (Ed. E.O. Zappettini), Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales SEGEMAR, Anales 35:1907-1921.
Ovejero Toledo, A., Alonso, R. N., Ruiz, T. D. V., & Quiroga, A. G. (2009). Evapofacieshalítica en el Salar del Rincón, departamento Los Andes, Salta. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 64(3), 493-500.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • North Mt Lofty Ranges
        • Lochiel
Uwe Kolitsch collection
  • Tasmania
    • Rossarden district
http://www.crocoite.com/locationbulletins/part1/avocaarea.pdf
  • Victoria
    • Rural City of Mildura
      • Hattah
P. Sutton, Minerals from evaporitve basins in the Mallee District, Murray Basin, north-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 10:1, 13-28; P. Sutton (2004)
      • Mildura
        • Ouyen
          • Linga
Natural History Museum Vienna collection. P. Sutton, 1979: Glauberite from Linga Lakes, Victoria, Australian Mineralogist, 29,137-139. P. Sutton, 2004: Minerals from evaporative basins in the Mallee District, Murray Basin, south-eastern Australia, Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 10:1, 13-28.
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Golling
      • Grubach
        • Moosegg
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    • Hallein
      • Dürrnberg
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
  • Styria
    • Bad Aussee
      • Wienern
E.Ch.Kirchner (1974)
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Innsbruck
          • Hall
            • Hall valley
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Upper Austria
    • Gmunden
      • Bad Ischl
        • Perneck
No reference listed
      • Hallstatt
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432; R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Bolivia
 
  • La Paz Department
    • Loayza Province
Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 433.
    • north of Brandon
      • Harcus
Richard Gunter Collection
  • Nova Scotia
    • Cumberland Co.
      • Pugwash
R.C. Boehner, "Salt and Potash Resources in Nova Scotia", N.S. Dept. Mines and Energy, Bulletin 5, 1986.
  • Saskatchewan
    • Swift Current
CIM Bulletin January 1967, pg 20-
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Tocopilla Province
      • Pedro de Valdivia
Pueyo, J. J., Chong, G. & Vega, M. (1998): Mineralogy and parental brine evolution in the Pedro de Valdivia nitrate deposit, Antofagasta, Chile. Revista Geologica de Chile 25, 3-15. (in Spanish)
      • Sierra Gorda district
        • Caracoles
Natural History Museum Vienna collection (U. Kolitsch SXRD analysis)
      • Tocopilla District
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Challacollo
maurizio dini collection - analysed material
      • Oficina Victoria
Am. Min.1989, V74, 1207-1214.
      • Pampa del Tamarugal
Luigi Chiappino specimen
sample analysed by Tony Kampf, senior curator of NHM of LAC, California
China
 
  • Henan Province
    • Puyang Prefecture
Renwei Li and Maoan Xin (1989): Acta Sedimentologica Sinica 7(4), 141-148
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Alxa League (Alashan Prefecture)
      • Alxa Left Banner (Alashan Zuoqi)
Zhenmi Liu (2000): Journal of Salt Lake Research 29(3), 21-26
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Da Qaidam Co. (Dachaidan Co.)
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
      • Lenghu Co.
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
  • Shandong Province
    • Tai'an Prefecture
      • Daiyue District
        • Dawenkou depression
Zhongde Zhu (1988): Mineral Deposits 7(1), 87-96
  • Sichuan Province
    • Meishan Prefecture
      • Pengshan Co.
Acta Geologica Sichuan 2004(2).
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55; Chenglin Liu, Yongzhi Chen, Weishi Chen, Pengcheng Jiao, Mili Wang, and Shude Li (2006): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 26(1), 93-98; Chenglin Liu, Pengcheng Jiao, Mili Wang, and Yongzhi Chen (2007): Mineral Deposits 26(3), 322-32
Chenglin Liu, Mili Wang, Pengcheng Jiao, Weidong Fan, Yongzhi Chen, Zhichen Yang, and Jingguo Wang (2008): Mineral Deposits 27(6)
    • Changji Autonomous Prefecture (Sanji Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Mori Co. (Mulei Co.)
National Geological Archives of China database, record no. X00074627
    • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
      • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Tulufan Co. (Turfan Co.; Turpan Co.)
        • Turfan basin (Turpan basin)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55; Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 100-103
    • Wulumuqi Prefecture (Ürümqi Prefecture; Ürümchi Prefecture)
      • Dabancheng District
        • Dabancheng salt lakes
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
  • Yunnan Province
    • Kunming Prefecture
      • Anning Co.
        • Anning basin
Wei Dongyan, Deng Xiaolin, Liu Zhenmin, and Yang Gengsheng (2000): On Biochemical Formation of Salt Deposits. Acta Geologica Sinica 74(3), 613-617.
France
 
  • Lorraine
    • Meurthe-et-Moselle
      • Nancy
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432.
  • Midi-Pyrénées
    • Ariège
      • Tarascon-sur-Ariège
        • Bedeilhac et Aynat
Inventaire mineralogique de l'Ariege (Ed. BRGM) 1983
  • Nord-Pas-de-Calais
    • Pas-de-Calais
Naze-Nancy Masalehdani, M., Mees, F., Dubois, M., Coquinot, Y., Potdevin, J.-L., Fialin, M. & Blanc-Valleron, M.-M. (2009): Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France. Can. Mineral. 47, 573-591.
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Bavaria
      • Bad Reichenhall
        • Berchtesgaden
          • Berchtesgadener Salzberg
  • Hesse
    • Werra valley
      • Heringen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Phillippsthal
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Celle
      • Hänigsen
Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9
      • Wathlingen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Harz
      • Goslar
        • Rammelsberg
No reference listed
    • Nordhorn
      • Frenswegen
von Engelhardt, W., Füchtbauer, H., and Zemann, J. (1956): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 5(3), 177-186.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Stassfurt Potash deposit
      • Egeln
Naumann, Zirkel: "Elemente der Mineralogie", 13th Ed., 1898
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432.
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Aggteleki Mts
Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
    • Rudabányai Mts
      • Alsótelekes
Szakáll & Gatter: Hungarian Mineral Species, 1993
Iceland
 
  • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
    • Heimaey island
      • Heimaey
Mitolo, D., Garavelli, A., Pedersen, L., Balić-Žunić, T., Jakobsson, S.P., Vurro, F. (2008): Mineralogy of actually forming sublimates at Eldfell Volcano, Heimaey (Vestmannaeyjar archipelago), Iceland. Plinius, 34, 322.
    • Surtsey Island
Jacobsson et al (1992) Encrustations from Lava Caves in Surtsey, Iceland. A Preliminary Report: Surtsey Research Progress Report X: 73-78 Reykjevik, Iceland.
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
    • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
      • Naples Province
        • Phlegrean Fields
          • Pozzuoli
Pichler, H., (1970): Italienische Vulkangebiete II, Bornträger Berlin Stuttgart
  • Sicily
    • Messina Province
      • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
        • Lipari
          • Vulcano Island
COSSA A. (1878): Ricerche chimiche su minerali e rocce dell’Isola di Vulcano - Memorie R. Acc. Naz. Lincei - serie 3 - 2, 14 pp.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
    • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
Pavel M. Kartashov data; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30; Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
Netherlands
 
  • Gelderland
    • Twente
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
Pakistan
 
  • Punjab
    • Salt Range
Dana 6: 899; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432 & 449.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Aldan Shield
        • Aldan
          • Inagli Massif
Naumov, VB and Kamenetsky, VS and Thomas, R and Kononkova, NN and Ryzhenko, BN (2008): Inclusions of silicate and sulfate melts in chrome diopside from the Inagli deposit, Yakutia, Russia. Geochemistry International, 46, 554-564. [http://eprints.utas.edu.au/7673/1/GeochemInt2008-Inagli.pdf]
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Orenburgskaya Oblast'
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432.
Spain
 
  • Aragón
    • Zaragoza
      • Remolinos
- Calvo, M. (2008). Minerales de Aragón. Prames, Zaragoza, 463 pags.
-Calvo, M. (2008). Minerales de Aragón. Prames, Zaragoza, 463 pags.
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Toledo
      • Ocaña
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432.
Journ. Mines (1808) 23, 5.; Journ.Mines (1808) 23, 5
  • La Rioja
Society for Sedimentary Geology. 203-215 (1994).
Society for Sedimentary Geology. 203-215 (1994).
FMF Forum
  • Madrid
    • Aranjuez
      • El Regajal
Jiménez Martínez, R., González Laguna, R., Lozano Fernández, R.P., Paradas Herrero, Á., Baeza Chico, E., Torres Matilla, M.J. y Cabrera Andonaegui, B. 2013. Colección de Minerales de las Comunidades y Ciudades Autónomas del Museo Geominero: Catálogo de la Comunidad de Madrid. Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 16, publicación en CD-ROM.
      • Espartinas Saltworks
Dammer, Tietze: "Die nutzbaren Mineralien", 1914
    • Chinchón
    • Ciempozuelos
- González del Tánago, Ch. and González del Tánago, J. (2002). Minerales y minas de Madrid
John K. Warren, Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits, Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 98, Issues 3–4, February 2010, Pages 217-268,
Switzerland
 
  • Aargau
    • Leuggern
      • Felsenau
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 186.
Turkey
 
  • Aegean Region
    • Kütahya Province
      • Emet
        • Doğanlar village
J. García-Veigas, L. Rosell, X. Alcobé, I. Subias, F. Ortí, I. Gündogan and C. Helvaci (2010) Fontarnauite, a New Sulphate-Borate Mineral from the Emet Borate District (Turkey). Macla 13, 97-98.
  • Central Anatolia Region
    • Ankara Province
Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
Ortı́, F., Gündogan, I., & Helvaci, C. (2002). Sodium sulphate deposits of Neogene age: the Kirmir formation, Beypazari basin, Turkey. Sedimentary Geology, 146(3), 305-333.
    • Konya Province
      • Great Konya Basin
Am Min 66:632-635
Lideke Vergouwen (1981) Eugsterite, a new salt mineral. American Mineralogist 66:632-636
    • Niğde Province
Altay, T., Karakaya, M.Ç., and Murat, A. (2010): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2010.
Turkmenistan
 
  • Balkan Province
John K. Warren, Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits, Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 98, Issues 3–4, February 2010, Pages 217-268, ; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
UK
 
  • England
    • North Yorkshire
      • Scarborough
Peter G. Embrey (1978) Fourth Supplementary List of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine 42:169-177
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Mohave Co.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 232, 243.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 243.
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Camp Verde District
Twenter, F. R. (1962). Rocks and water in Verde Valley, Arizona. In New Mexico Geological Society Thirteenth Field Conference Procedings (pp. 135-139).
Tenny, J.B. (1928), The Mineral Industries of AZ, AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 125: 115.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 232.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 232.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 232.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 300, 395; Guild, F.N. (1910), Mineralogy of Arizona; Univ. of AZ Bull. 41 (1916-17), Mineralogy of Useful Minerals in AZ: 37; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 59.
  • California
    • Imperial Co.
      • Bertram
        • Bertram siding
[Murch, J & Webb, R (1966) Minerals of California, California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 189]; Berkholz, Mary Frances (1958), Salton Sea glauberite: Gems and Minerals, No. 245 (Feb 1958): 17-19; Araki, T. & T. Zoltai (1967), Refinement of the crystal structure of a glauberite: Am. Min: 52: 1272; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 199-200; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 284.
Reiner Mielke
    • Inyo Co.
      • Death Valley
Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 303; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 200, 212; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 284, 285.
      • Deep Springs Valley
Jones, Blair Francis (1961), Zoning of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 83: B200; Jones, Blair Francis (1965), The hydrology and mineralogy of Deep Spring Lake, Inyo County, California. USGS Professional Paper 502-A, 56 pp.: 44; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 285.
Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 303; Hardie, L.A. and Eugster, H.P. (1970) The evolution of closed-basin brines. Mineralogical Society of America Special Paper 3: 273; Hardie, L.A. (1968) The origin of the Recent nonmarine evaporate deposit of Saline Valley, Inyo County, California. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 32: 1287; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 284; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 433.
    • Lake Co.
      • Sulphur Creek District (Sulfur Creek District; Wilbur Springs District)
        • Clear Lake Oaks
Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 4, 410 pp.: 182; Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1868b), On the occurrence of glauberite at Borax Lake, California: California Academy of Natural Sciences Proceedings: 3: 399; Vonsen, Magnus (1935), The discovery of borates in California: Mineralogist: 3(12): 22; Vonsen, Magnus & G.D. Hanna (1936), Borax Lake, California: California Division Mines Report 32: 103; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 197, 200; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 285.
    • San Bernardino Co.
Rath, Gerhart vom (1887),Ueber Glauberit und Hanksit von San Bernardino County: Niederrheinische Gesell. Sitzungsber., Band 44: 233; De Groot, Henry (1890), The Searles borax marsh: California Mining Bureau. Report 10: 535; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 303; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 200; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 433.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
  • Hawaii
    • Hawaii Co. (Hawaii Island)
Hon, K., Bove, D.J., Lee, L., and Thornber, C., 2009, The origin and zonation of sublimates and precipitates in active Hawaiian lava tubes: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 41, no. 7, p.193.
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Muddy Mts
        • Muddy Mountains District
          • White Basin
NBMG Bull 62 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Clark County, Nevada
      • St. Thomas District
NBMG Bull 62 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Clark County, Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
NBMG Bull 58 Geology and Mineral Resources of Mineral County, Nevada
  • New Jersey
    • Passaic Co.
      • Paterson
Hawkins (1933); MinRecord 9:157-179, Peters, T.A. & Peters, J.J. (1978).
  • New Mexico
    • Doña Ana Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • White Sands National Monument
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Eddy and Lea Counties
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
    • Torrance Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
USGS Prof Paper 68 The Ore Deposits of New Mexico
  • North Dakota
Jay Ellis Ransom,1974,Gems and Minerals of America
  • Texas
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432.
  • Utah
    • Box Elder Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Davis Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Salt Lake Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Tooele Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Uzbekistan
 
  • Karakalpakstan Respublikasi (Qaraqalpog'iston)
    • Lower Amu Darya River (Amydar'ya)
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Mineral and/or Locality  
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