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Zincochromite

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About ZincochromiteHide

Formula:
ZnCr2O4
Colour:
Brown, brownish-grey in reflected light
Lustre:
Sub-Metallic
Hardness:
5½ - 6
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
Named as the zinc analogue of Chromite.
Spinel Group. The zinc analogue of Chromite.


Classification of ZincochromiteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
1986
4.BB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
B : With only medium-sized cations
7.2.3.6

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
2 : AB2X4
7.14.10

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
14 : Oxides of Cr

Physical Properties of ZincochromiteHide

Sub-Metallic
Colour:
Brown, brownish-grey in reflected light
Hardness:
5½ - 6 on Mohs scale

Optical Data of ZincochromiteHide

Type:
Isotropic

Chemical Properties of ZincochromiteHide

Formula:
ZnCr2O4

Crystallography of ZincochromiteHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.32 Å
Unit Cell V:
575.93 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0003801ZincochromiteLevy D, Diella V, Pavese A, Dapiaggi M, Sani A (2005) P-V equation of state, thermal expansion, and P-T stability of synthetic zincochromite (ZnCr2O4 spinel) American Mineralogist 90 1157-116220050293
0003802ZincochromiteLevy D, Diella V, Pavese A, Dapiaggi M, Sani A (2005) P-V equation of state, thermal expansion, and P-T stability of synthetic zincochromite (ZnCr2O4 spinel) American Mineralogist 90 1157-116220050293
0003803ZincochromiteLevy D, Diella V, Pavese A, Dapiaggi M, Sani A (2005) P-V equation of state, thermal expansion, and P-T stability of synthetic zincochromite (ZnCr2O4 spinel) American Mineralogist 90 1157-116220050293
0003804ZincochromiteLevy D, Diella V, Pavese A, Dapiaggi M, Sani A (2005) P-V equation of state, thermal expansion, and P-T stability of synthetic zincochromite (ZnCr2O4 spinel) American Mineralogist 90 1157-116220050293
0003805ZincochromiteLevy D, Diella V, Pavese A, Dapiaggi M, Sani A (2005) P-V equation of state, thermal expansion, and P-T stability of synthetic zincochromite (ZnCr2O4 spinel) American Mineralogist 90 1157-116220050293
0003806ZincochromiteLevy D, Diella V, Pavese A, Dapiaggi M, Sani A (2005) P-V equation of state, thermal expansion, and P-T stability of synthetic zincochromite (ZnCr2O4 spinel) American Mineralogist 90 1157-116220050293
0003807ZincochromiteLevy D, Diella V, Pavese A, Dapiaggi M, Sani A (2005) P-V equation of state, thermal expansion, and P-T stability of synthetic zincochromite (ZnCr2O4 spinel) American Mineralogist 90 1157-116220050293
0003808ZincochromiteLevy D, Diella V, Pavese A, Dapiaggi M, Sani A (2005) P-V equation of state, thermal expansion, and P-T stability of synthetic zincochromite (ZnCr2O4 spinel) American Mineralogist 90 1157-116220050293
0003809ZincochromiteLevy D, Diella V, Pavese A, Dapiaggi M, Sani A (2005) P-V equation of state, thermal expansion, and P-T stability of synthetic zincochromite (ZnCr2O4 spinel) American Mineralogist 90 1157-116220050293
0003810ZincochromiteLevy D, Diella V, Pavese A, Dapiaggi M, Sani A (2005) P-V equation of state, thermal expansion, and P-T stability of synthetic zincochromite (ZnCr2O4 spinel) American Mineralogist 90 1157-116220050293
0003811ZincochromiteLevy D, Diella V, Pavese A, Dapiaggi M, Sani A (2005) P-V equation of state, thermal expansion, and P-T stability of synthetic zincochromite (ZnCr2O4 spinel) American Mineralogist 90 1157-116220050293
0007765ZincochromiteO'Neill H St C, Dollase W A (1994) Crystal structures and cation distributions in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4 and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4 Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 20 541-55519940293
0007770ZincochromiteO'Neill H St C, Dollase W A (1994) Crystal structures and cation distributions in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4 and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4 Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 20 541-55519940293
0007775ZincochromiteO'Neill H St C, Dollase W A (1994) Crystal structures and cation distributions in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4 and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4 Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 20 541-55519940293
0007780ZincochromiteO'Neill H St C, Dollase W A (1994) Crystal structures and cation distributions in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4 and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4 Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 20 541-55519940293
0007802ZincochromiteO'Neill H St C, Dollase W A (1994) Crystal structures and cation distributions in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4 and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4 Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 20 541-55519940293
0007816ZincochromiteO'Neill H St C, Dollase W A (1994) Crystal structures and cation distributions in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4 and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4 Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 20 541-55519940293
0007823ZincochromiteO'Neill H St C, Dollase W A (1994) Crystal structures and cation distributions in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4 and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4 Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 20 541-55519940293
0007828ZincochromiteO'Neill H St C, Dollase W A (1994) Crystal structures and cation distributions in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4 and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4 Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 20 541-55519940293
0007833ZincochromiteO'Neill H St C, Dollase W A (1994) Crystal structures and cation distributions in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4 and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4 Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 20 541-55519940293
0007846ZincochromiteO'Neill H St C, Dollase W A (1994) Crystal structures and cation distributions in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4 and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4 Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 20 541-55519940293
0018130ZincochromitePasserini L (1930) Ricerche sugli Spinelle.- II. I composti. Cu Al2 O4, Mg Al2 O4, Mg Fe2 O4, Zn Al2 O4, Zn Cr2 O4, Zn Fe2 O4, Mn Fe2 O4 _cod_database_code 1011278 Gazzetta Chimica Italiana 60 389-39919300293
0012909ZincochromiteRaccah P M, Bouchard R J, Wold A (1966) Locality: synthetic Crystallographic study of chromium spinels Journal of Applied Physics 37 1436-143719660293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of ZincochromiteHide

Synonyms of ZincochromiteHide

Other Language Names for ZincochromiteHide

Relationship of Zincochromite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
ChromiteFe2+Cr3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Cochromite(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
CoulsoniteFe2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
CuprospinelCu2+Fe3+2O4Iso.
DellagiustaiteV2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Deltalumite(Al0.670.33)Al2O4Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
FrankliniteZn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
GahniteZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
GalaxiteMn2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
GuiteCo2+Co3+2O4Iso.
HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
HetaeroliteZnMn2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
JacobsiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Maghemite(Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
MagnesiocoulsoniteMgV2O4Iso.
MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
ManganochromiteMn2+Cr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Nichromite(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
SpinelMgAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
ThermaerogeniteCuAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Titanomaghemite(Ti4+0.50.5)Fe2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P43 3 2
TrevoriteNi2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
VuorelaineniteMn2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Zincochromite associated with ClausthalitePbSe
1 photo of Zincochromite associated with RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
1 photo of Zincochromite associated with ChromceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)(Cr,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.BB.ChenmingiteFeCr2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.BB.DellagiustaiteV2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.ThermaerogeniteCuAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05ChromiteFe2+Cr3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05Cochromite(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05CoulsoniteFe2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05CuprospinelCu2+Fe3+2O4Iso.
4.BB.05Filipstadite(Fe3+0.5Sb5+0.5)Mn2O4Iso.
4.BB.05FrankliniteZn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05GahniteZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05GalaxiteMn2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05JacobsiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05ManganochromiteMn2+Cr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnesiocoulsoniteMgV2O4Iso.
4.BB.05MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05Nichromite(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05Qandilite(Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05SpinelMgAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05TrevoriteNi2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05UlvöspinelTiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05VuorelaineniteMn2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.10HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10HetaeroliteZnMn2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10HydrohetaeroliteZnMn2O4 · H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10Jacobsite-QMn2+(Fe3+,Mn3+)2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.15Maghemite(Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
4.BB.15Titanomaghemite(Ti4+0.50.5)Fe2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P43 3 2
4.BB.20Tegengrenite(Mn3+0.5Sb5+0.5)Mg2O4Trig.
4.BB.25XieiteFe2+Cr2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

7.2.3.1MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.2.3.2ManganochromiteMn2+Cr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.2.3.3ChromiteFe2+Cr3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.2.3.4Nichromite(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.2.3.5Cochromite(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.14.1EskolaiteCr2O3Trig.
7.14.2BracewelliteCrO(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.14.3GrimaldiiteCrO(OH)Trig.
7.14.4GuyanaiteCrO(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.14.5YimengiteK(Cr,Ti,Fe,Mg)12O19Hex.
7.14.6Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.
7.14.7McconnelliteCuCrO2Trig.
7.14.8RedledgeiteBa(Ti4+6Cr3+2)O16Tet.
7.14.9HawthorneiteBaMgTi3Cr4Fe2+2Fe3+2O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
7.14.11Wattersite[Hg2]2+2Hg2+[CrO4]O2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
7.14.12ChromiteFe2+Cr3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.14.13MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ZincochromiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Nesterov, A.R., Rumyantseva, Y.V. (1987): Zincochromite ZnCr2O4 - a new mineral from Karelia. Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva 116, 367-371.
American Mineralogist (1988): 73: 931-932. (Abs.)
O'Neill, H.S.C., Dollase, W.A. (1994): Crystal structures and cation distributions in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4 and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4. Phys. Chem. Minerals 20, 541–555.
Levy, D., Diella, V., Pavese, A., Dapiaggi, M., Sani, A. (2005): P-V equation of state, thermal expansion, and P-T stability of synthetic zincochromite (ZnCr2O4 spinel). American Mineralogist 90, 1157-1162.
Johan, Z., Ohnenstetter, D. (2010): Zincochromite from the Guaniamo River diamondiferous placers, Venezuela: Evidence of its metasomatic origin. Canadian Mineralogist 48, 361-374.

Internet Links for ZincochromiteHide

Localities for ZincochromiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Córdoba Province
    • Punilla Department
      • Pampa de Olaen
Espeche, M. J., Lira, R., & Guereschi, A. B. () Zincocromita En Un Skarn Del Grupo Minero Los Guindos, Córdoba: Primer Registro En Argentina.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Young Co.
Johan, Z., Ohnenstetter, D. (2010): Zincochromite from the Guaniamo River diamondiferous placers, Venezuela: Evidence of its metasomatic origin. Canadian Mineralogist 48, 361-374 (p. 363); www.minerals.nsw.gov.au/minfo/62_elinforc.html.
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Zell am See District
      • Fusch an der Grossglocknerstrasse
Kolitsch, U. & Auer, C. (2018): 2080) Annabergit, Aragonit, Arseniosiderit(?), Chalkopyrit, Galenit, Hörnesit, ein Mineral der Kaolinitgruppe, Limonit, Polybasit, Polydymit, Pyrrhotin, Scheelit, Zn-Tetraedrit, Vaesit, Violarit und Zincochromit von der Brennkogel-Nordflanke, Fuschertal, Hohe Tauern, Salzburg. Pp. 216-218 in Walter, F. et al. (2018): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXVII. Carinthia II, 208./128., 185-254.
  • Tyrol
    • Innsbruck-Land District
      • Wattens
        • Wattener Lizum (Wattentaler Lizum)
          • Geier
            • Staffelsee
Kolitsch, U., Schachinger, T., Auer, C. (2019): 2114) Andradit, Bementit, Calcit, Cobaltit, Fluorapatit, Galenit, Grossular, Hämatit, Jacobsit, Klinochlor, Linnéit-Siegenit, Magnesiochromit, Magnetit, Manganberzeliit, Manganoxide, Phlogopit, Rhodonit, Spessartin, Sphalerit, Tephroit, Tremolit und Zincochromit von einer metamorphen Manganerzlinse nahe der Innsbruckit-Typlokalität, Staffelsee, Wattener Lizum bei Wattens, Inntal, Nordtirol. Pp. 261-264 in Walter, F. et al. (2019): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXVIII. Carinthia II, 209./129., 237-362.
Finland
 
  • Kainuu
    • Suomussalmi
Geological Survey of Finland (2017) Mineral deposit Report 10/20/2017
Ghana
 
  • Western Region
    • Ashanti gold belt
      • Tarkwa
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 35,p p.587-595(1997)
India
 
  • Odisha
    • Anugul District
Mallick, B., Rautray, T. R., Nayak, P. K., Vijayan, V., Singh, P., Behera, R. C., ... & Choudhury, R. K. (2005, March). Characterisation of hot material erupted from Mahanadi riverbank using EDXRF and XRD techniques. In INDIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE INDIAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE CULTIVATION OF SCIENCE-NEW SERIES- (Vol. 79, No. 3, p. 293). NOT KNOWN.
North Macedonia
 
  • Veles Municipality
    • Nežilovo
      • Jakupica Mountains
        • Babuna Valley
Ermolaeva, V. N., Chukanov, N. V., Jančev, S., & Van, K. V. (2017). Parageneses of Oxygen-bearing Minerals with Chalcophile Elements in Metasomatites of the Pelagonian Massif, Macedonia. In Magmatism of the Earth and related strategic metal deposits (pp. 62-66).; Jančev, S., Karamachoska, B., & Boev, B. (2017). Phase relations between Baryte–BaSO4, cymrite–BaAl2Si2O8· H2O and Hyalophane–(K, Ba) Al Si3 O8 from the ore occurrence no. 2 at Kalugjeri micro-locality near Nezhilovo village, Macedonia. Journal of Natural Sciences and Mathematics of UT, 2(3), 100-106.
Chukanov, N.V., Krzhizhanovskaya, M.G., Jančev, S., Pekov, I.V., Varlamov, D.A., Göttlicher, J., Rusakov, V.S., Polekhovsky, Y.S., Chervonnyi, A.D., Ermolaeva, V.N. (2018): Zincovelesite-6N6S, Zn3(Fe3+,Mn3+,Al,Ti)8O15(OH), a new högbomite-supergroup mineral from Jacupica mountains, Republic of Macedonia. Mineralogy and Petrology, 112, 733–742.
Russia
 
  • Kamchatka Krai
    • Tolbachik volcano
      • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
        • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
          • Second scoria cone
Pekov, I.V., Sandalov, F.D., Koshlyakova, N.N., Vigasina, M.F., Polekhovsky, Y.S., Britvin, S.N., Sidorov, E.G., Turchkova, A.G. (2018): Copper in Natural Oxide Spinels: The New Mineral Thermaerogenite CuAl2O4, Cuprospinel and Cu-Enriched Varieties of Other Spinel-Group Members from Fumaroles of the Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia[i]. Minerals: 8: 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8110498; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=14995
  • Komi Republic
    • Kozhim River Basin
      • Maldynyrd range (Maldy-nyrd range)
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Republic of Karelia
    • Zaonezhie peninsula
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Zapiski Vses. Mineralog. Obshch., 116(3),367-371; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 40, pp. 1001-1020 (2002)
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Malyshevo
Popov, M. P., Sorokina, E. S., Kononkova, N. N., Nikolaev, A. G., & Karampelas, S. (2019, June). New Data on the Genetic Linkage of the Beryl and Chrysoberyl Chromophores of the Ural’s Emerald Mines with Chromium-Bearing Spinels of the Bazhenov Ophiolite Complex. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 486, No. 2, pp. 630-633). Pleiades Publishing.
Venezuela
 
  • Bolívar
    • Guaniamo
      • Quebrada Grande River
Zdenek, J., Ohnenstetter, D. (2010) Zincochromite from the Guaniamo River diamondiferous placers, Venezuela: evidence of its metasomatic origin. The Canadian Mineralogist, 48:2, 361-374.
 
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