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Aikinite

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Formula:
PbCuBiS
 
3
System:OrthorhombicColour:Blackish lead-grey
Lustre:MetallicHardness:2 - 2½
Name:
Named after Dr. Arthur Aikin (1773-1854), a founder, and for many years Secretary, of the Geological Society of London.

Classification of Aikinite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/E.30-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.HB.05a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
H : Sulfosalts of SnS archetype
B : With Cu, Ag, Fe, Sn and Pb
Dana 7th edition ID:3.4.5.1
Dana 8th edition ID:3.4.5.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
4 : ø = 3
Hey's CIM Ref.:5.7.9

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
7 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Pb and other metals
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Type Occurrence of Aikinite

Type Locality:Berezovskoe Au Deposit (Berezovsk Mines), Berezovskii (Berezovskii Zavod), Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk), Sverdlovskaya Oblast', Middle Urals, Urals Region, Russia
Year of Discovery:1843

Occurrences of Aikinite

Geological Setting:In hydrothermal veins.

Physical Properties of Aikinite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Blackish lead-grey
Comment:Tarnishes brown or copper red; sometimes has yellowish green coating. Cream-white in polished section.
Streak:grey-black
Hardness (Mohs):2 - 2½
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
on {010}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):7.06 - 7.08 g/cm3
Density (calculated):7.255 g/cm3

Crystallography of Aikinite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pnma {P21/n 21/m 21/a}
Cell Parameters:a = 11.638(3) Å, b = 4.039(1) Å, c = 11.319(2) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 2.881 : 1 : 2.802
Unit Cell Volume:V 532.06 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Prismatic to acicular and striated [001] to 1 m, striated parallel [001] , rarely radiating; also massive.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.671 (100)
3.615 (69)
3.592 (96)
3.183 (84)
3.166 (80)
2.863 (83)
2.589 (50)
Comments:Beresovsk, Russia (ICDD 47-1736).

Optical Data of Aikinite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Distinct
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=39.1%R2= 43.5%
420nmR1=39.2%R2= 44.0%
440nmR1=39.3%R2= 44.5%
460nmR1=39.4%R2= 44.9%
480nmR1=39.4%R2= 45.3%
500nmR1=39.5%R2= 45.7%
520nmR1=39.4%R2= 46.0%
540nmR1=39.3%R2= 46.2%
560nmR1=39.2%R2= 46.4%
580nmR1=39.0%R2= 46.3%
600nmR1=38.9%R2= 46.1%
620nmR1=38.9%R2= 45.8%
640nmR1=38.6%R2= 45.4%
660nmR1=38.3%R2= 44.9%
680nmR1=38.1%R2= 44.4%
700nmR1=37.9%R2= 43.9%


Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Peak reflectance is 46.4%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:Cream-white
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:Parallel [001] cream-white perpendicular [001] either pure white or light brown.

Chemical Properties of Aikinite

Formula:
PbCuBiS
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:PbCuBiS3
Essential elements:Bi, Cu, Pb, S
All elements listed in formula:Bi, Cu, Pb, S

Relationship of Aikinite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Bismuthinite (see here)
Common Associates:
TennantiteQuartzPyriteGoldGalena
EnargiteChalcopyriteBismuthinite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.HB.05aFriedrichite
Pb
 
5
Cu
 
5
Bi
 
7
S
 
18
2.HB.05aGladite
PbCuBi
 
5
S
 
9
2.HB.05aHammarite
Pb
 
2
Cu
 
2
Bi
 
4
S
 
9
2.HB.05cJaskólskiite
Pb
 
2+x
Cu
 
x
(Sb,Bi)
 
2-x
S
 
6
(x = 0.2)
2.HB.05aKrupkaite
PbCuBi
 
3
S
 
6
2.HB.05aLindströmite
Pb
 
3
Cu
 
3
Bi
 
7
S
 
15
2.HB.05bMeneghinite
Pb
 
13
CuSb
 
7
S
 
24
2.HB.05aPekoite
PbCuBi
 
11
(S,Se)
 
18
2.HB.05aEmilite
Pb
 
2.7
Cu
 
2.7
Bi
 
5.3
S
 
12
2.HB.05UM2000-46-S:BiCuPb
Cu
 
0.33
Pb
 
0.33
Bi
 
7.67
S
 
12
2.HB.05aSalzburgite
Pb
 
1.6
Cu
 
1.6
Bi
 
6.4
S
 
12
2.HB.05UM1990-54-Se:BiCuPb
CuPb(Ni,Co)
 
0.3
Bi
 
3
Se
 
6
2.HB.05aPaarite
Pb
 
1.7
Cu
 
1.7
Bi
 
6.3
S
 
12
2.HB.10cEclarite
(Cu,Fe)Pb
 
9
Bi
 
12
S
 
28
2.HB.10bGiessenite
Pb
 
27
Cu
 
2
(Bi,Sb)
 
19
S
 
57
2.HB.10bIzoklakeite
Pb
 
27
(Cu,Fe,Ag)
 
2
(Sb,Bi)
 
19
S
 
57
2.HB.10aKobellite
Pb
 
22
Cu
 
4
(Bi,Sb)
 
30
S
 
69
2.HB.10aTintinaite
Pb
 
22
Cu
 
4
(Sb,Bi)
 
30
S
 
69
2.HB.15Benavidesite
Pb
 
4
(Mn,Fe)Sb
 
6
S
 
14
2.HB.15Jamesonite
Pb
 
4
FeSb
 
6
S
 
14
2.HB.20dBerryite
Cu
 
3
Ag
 
2
Pb
 
3
Bi
 
7
S
 
16
2.HB.20bBuckhornite
AuPb
 
2
BiTe
 
2
S
 
3
2.HB.20aNagyágite
Pb
 
5
Au(Te,Sb)
 
4
S
 
5-8
2.HB.20eWatkinsonite
Cu
 
2
PbBi
 
4
(Se,S,Te)
 
8
2.HB.20cMuseumite
[Pb
 
2
(Pb,Sb)
 
2
S
 
8
][(Te,Au)
 
2
]
2.HB.20eLitochlebite
Ag
 
2
PbBi
 
4
Se
 
8
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
5.7.1Seligmannite
PbCuAsS
 
3
5.7.2Bournonite
PbCuSbS
 
3
5.7.3Meneghinite
Pb
 
13
CuSb
 
7
S
 
24
5.7.4Gladite
PbCuBi
 
5
S
 
9
5.7.5Lindströmite
Pb
 
3
Cu
 
3
Bi
 
7
S
 
15
5.7.6Krupkaite
PbCuBi
 
3
S
 
6
5.7.7Hammarite
Pb
 
2
Cu
 
2
Bi
 
4
S
 
9
5.7.8Friedrichite
Pb
 
5
Cu
 
5
Bi
 
7
S
 
18
5.7.10Nuffieldite
Cu
 
1.4
Pb
 
2.4
Bi
 
2.4
Sb
 
0.2
S
 
7
5.7.11Jaskólskiite
Pb
 
2+x
Cu
 
x
(Sb,Bi)
 
2-x
S
 
6
(x = 0.2)
5.7.12Tintinaite
Pb
 
22
Cu
 
4
(Sb,Bi)
 
30
S
 
69
5.7.13Kobellite
Pb
 
22
Cu
 
4
(Bi,Sb)
 
30
S
 
69
5.7.14Proudite
CuPb
 
7.5
Bi
 
9.33
(S,Se)
 
22
5.7.15Nordströmite
CuPb
 
3
Bi
 
7
(Se
 
4
S
 
10
)
5.7.16Watkinsonite
Cu
 
2
PbBi
 
4
(Se,S,Te)
 
8
5.7.17Pekoite
PbCuBi
 
11
(S,Se)
 
18
5.7.18Petrovicite
Cu
 
3
HgPbBiSe
 
5
5.7.19Eclarite
(Cu,Fe)Pb
 
9
Bi
 
12
S
 
28
5.7.20Marrite
AgPbAsS
 
3
5.7.21Baumhauerite-2a
Pb
 
11
Ag(As,Sb)
 
18
S
 
36
5.7.22Andorite
PbAgSb
 
3
S
 
6
5.7.23Ramdohrite
(Cd,Mn,Fe)Ag
 
5.5
Pb
 
12
Sb
 
21.5
S
 
48
5.7.24Roshchinite
Ag
 
19
Pb
 
10
Sb
 
51
S
 
96
5.7.25Ourayite
Ag
 
3
Pb
 
4
Bi
 
5
S
 
13
5.7.26Eskimoite
Ag
 
7
Pb
 
10
Bi
 
15
S
 
36
5.7.27Fizélyite
Ag
 
5
Pb
 
14
Sb
 
21
S
 
48
5.7.28Owyheeite
Ag
 
3+x
Pb
 
10-2x
Sb
 
11+x
S
 
28
, -0.13 < x > +0.20
5.7.29Freieslebenite
AgPbSbS
 
3
5.7.30Diaphorite
Ag
 
3
Pb
 
2
Sb
 
3
S
 
8
5.7.31Sterryite
Ag
 
2
Pb
 
10
(Sb,As)
 
12
S
 
29
5.7.32Vikingite
Ag
 
5
Pb
 
8
Bi
 
13
S
 
30
5.7.33Zoubekite
AgPb
 
4
Sb
 
4
S
 
10
5.7.34Schirmerite
PbAgBi
 
3
S
 
6
- Pb
 
3
Ag
 
1.5
Bi
 
3.5
S
 
9
5.7.36Gustavite
Ag
 
3
Pb
 
5
Bi
 
11
S
 
24
5.7.37Kitaibelite
Ag
 
10
PbBi
 
30
S
 
51
5.7.38Treasurite
Ag
 
7
Pb
 
6
Bi
 
15
S
 
32
5.7.39Benjaminite
(Ag,Cu)
 
3
(Bi,Pb)
 
7
S
 
12
5.7.40Lengenbachite
Ag
 
4
Cu
 
2
Pb
 
18
As
 
12
S
 
39
·
5.7.41Berryite
Cu
 
3
Ag
 
2
Pb
 
3
Bi
 
7
S
 
16
5.7.42Neyite
Ag
 
2
Cu
 
6
Pb
 
25
Bi
 
26
S
 
68
5.7.43Larosite
(Cu,Ag)
 
21
(Pb,Bi)
 
2
S
 
13
5.7.44Cupropavonite
AgCu
 
2
PbBi
 
5
S
 
10
5.7.45Padĕraite
Cu
 
5.9
Ag
 
1.3
Pb
 
1.6
Bi
 
11.2
S
 
22
5.7.46Rayite
Pb
 
8
(Ag,Tl)
 
2
Sb
 
8
S
 
21
5.7.47Rathite
Pb
 
8
Pb
 
4-x
(Tl
 
2
As
 
2
)
 
x
(Ag
 
2
As
 
2
)As
 
16
S
 
40
5.7.48Hatchite
AgTlPbAs
 
2
S
 
5

Other Names for Aikinite

Synonyms:
Acicular BismuthAcicular bismuth glanceAcicular-oreAciculite (of Nicol)Aikenite
Aikinite (of Chapman)Belonite (of Glocker)Cupreous BismuthNadelerzPatrinite
Other Languages:
Czech:Aikinit
Dutch:Aikiniet
French:Bismuth sulfuré plumbo-cuprifère
German:Aikinit
Aciculit
Aikenit
Patrinit
Italian:Aikinite
Latvian:Aikinīts
Russian:Айкинит
Simplified Chinese:针硫铋铅矿
Spanish:Aciculita
Aikenita
Aikinita
Patrinita
Ukrainian:Айкініт
Varieties:
Argentoaikinite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Aikinite

Reference List:

- +
Mohs (1804): 3: 726.

Hauy (1809): 105.

Chapman (1843): 127.

Haidinger (1845): 568.

Glocker (1847): 27.

Nicol (1849) 487.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 412-413.

Ohmasa, M. and Nowacki, W. (1970a) Note on the space group and on the structure of aikinite derivatives. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1970: 158-162.

Ohmasa, M. and Nowacki, W. (1970b) A redetermination of the crystal structure of aikinite [BiS2|S|Cu IV Pb VII]. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 132: 71-86.

Kohatsu, I. and Wuensch, B.J. (1971) The crystal structure of aikinite, PbCuBiS3. Acta Crystallographica: B27: 1245-1252.

American Mineralogist (1976): 61: 15.

Pring, A. (1989) Structural disorder in aikinite and krupkaite. American Mineralogist: 74: 250-255.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 132: 71-86.

D. Topa, E. Makovicky, and W.H. Paar (2002): Composition ranges and exsolution pairs for the members of the Bismuthinite-Aikinite series from Felbertal, Salzburg. Can. Mineral. 40, 849-869.

Petrícek, Vaclav and Emil Makovicky (2006), Interpretation of selected structures of the bismuthinite – aikinite series as commensurately modulated structures: Canadian Mineralogist: 44(1): 189-206.

Internet Links for Aikinite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Aikinite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Aikinite

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