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Aikinite

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Arthur Aikin
Formula:
PbCuBiS3
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Blackish lead-grey
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2 - 2½
Name:
Named after Dr. Arthur Aikin (1773-1854), a founder, and for many years Secretary, of the Geological Society of London.

Classification of Aikinite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
2.HB.05a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
H : Sulfosalts of SnS archetype
B : With Cu, Ag, Fe, Sn and Pb
Dana 7th ed.:
3.4.5.1
3.4.5.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
4 : ø = 3
5.7.9

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
7 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Pb and other metals
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First Recorded Occurrence of Aikinite

Year of Discovery:
1843

Occurrences of Aikinite

Geological Setting:
In hydrothermal veins.

Physical Properties of Aikinite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Blackish lead-grey
Comment:
Tarnishes brown or copper red; sometimes has yellowish green coating. Cream-white in polished section.
Streak:
grey-black
Hardness (Mohs):
2 - 2½
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
on {010}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
7.06 - 7.08 g/cm3 (Measured)    7.255 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Aikinite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.638(3) Å, b = 4.039(1) Å, c = 11.319(2) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.881 : 1 : 2.802
Unit Cell Volume:
V 532.06 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Prismatic to acicular and striated [001] to 1 m, striated parallel [001] , rarely radiating; also massive.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.671 (100)
3.615 (69)
3.592 (96)
3.183 (84)
3.166 (80)
2.863 (83)
2.589 (50)
Comments:
Beresovsk, Russia (ICDD 47-1736).

Optical Data of Aikinite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Distinct
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=39.1%R2= 43.5%
420nmR1=39.2%R2= 44.0%
440nmR1=39.3%R2= 44.5%
460nmR1=39.4%R2= 44.9%
480nmR1=39.4%R2= 45.3%
500nmR1=39.5%R2= 45.7%
520nmR1=39.4%R2= 46.0%
540nmR1=39.3%R2= 46.2%
560nmR1=39.2%R2= 46.4%
580nmR1=39.0%R2= 46.3%
600nmR1=38.9%R2= 46.1%
620nmR1=38.9%R2= 45.8%
640nmR1=38.6%R2= 45.4%
660nmR1=38.3%R2= 44.9%
680nmR1=38.1%R2= 44.4%
700nmR1=37.9%R2= 43.9%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 46.4%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:
Cream-white
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
Parallel [001] cream-white perpendicular [001] either pure white or light brown.

Chemical Properties of Aikinite

Formula:
PbCuBiS3
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Aikinite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Bismuthinite (see here)
2.HB.05aFriedrichitePb5Cu5Bi7S18
2.HB.05aGladitePbCuBi5S9
2.HB.05aHammaritePb2Cu2Bi4S9
2.HB.05cJaskólskiitePb2+xCux(Sb,Bi)2-xS6 (x = 0.2)
2.HB.05aKrupkaitePbCuBi3S6
2.HB.05aLindströmitePb3Cu3Bi7S15
2.HB.05bMeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24
2.HB.05aPekoitePbCuBi11(S,Se)18
2.HB.05aEmilitePb2.7Cu2.7Bi5.3S12
2.HB.05UM2000-46-S:BiCuPbCu0.33Pb0.33Bi7.67S12
2.HB.05aSalzburgitePb1.6Cu1.6Bi6.4S12
2.HB.05UM1990-54-Se:BiCuPbCuPb(Ni,Co)0.3Bi3Se6
2.HB.05aPaaritePb1.7Cu1.7Bi6.3S12
2.HB.10cEclarite(Cu,Fe)Pb9Bi12S28
2.HB.10bGiessenitePb27Cu2(Bi,Sb)19S57
2.HB.10bIzoklakeitePb27(Cu,Fe,Ag)2(Sb,Bi)19S57
2.HB.10aKobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
2.HB.10aTintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
2.HB.15BenavidesitePb4MnSb6S14
2.HB.15JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
2.HB.20dBerryiteCu3Ag2Pb3Bi7S16
2.HB.20bBuckhorniteAuPb2BiTe2S3
2.HB.20aNagyágite[Pb3(Pb,Sb)3S6](Au,Te)3
2.HB.20eWatkinsoniteCu2PbBi4(Se,S,Te)8
2.HB.20cMuseumite[Pb2(Pb,Sb)2S8][(Te,Au)2]
2.HB.20eLitochlebiteAg2PbBi4Se8
5.7.1SeligmannitePbCuAsS3
5.7.2BournonitePbCuSbS3
5.7.3MeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24
5.7.4GladitePbCuBi5S9
5.7.5LindströmitePb3Cu3Bi7S15
5.7.6KrupkaitePbCuBi3S6
5.7.7HammaritePb2Cu2Bi4S9
5.7.8FriedrichitePb5Cu5Bi7S18
5.7.10NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
5.7.11JaskólskiitePb2+xCux(Sb,Bi)2-xS6 (x = 0.2)
5.7.12TintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
5.7.13KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
5.7.14ProuditeCuPb7.5Bi9.33(S,Se)22
5.7.15NordströmiteCuPb3Bi7(Se4S10)
5.7.16WatkinsoniteCu2PbBi4(Se,S,Te)8
5.7.17PekoitePbCuBi11(S,Se)18
5.7.18PetroviciteCu3HgPbBiSe5
5.7.19Eclarite(Cu,Fe)Pb9Bi12S28
5.7.20MarriteAgPbAsS3
5.7.21Baumhauerite-2aPb11Ag(As,Sb)18S36
5.7.22AndoritePbAgSb3S6
5.7.23Ramdohrite(Cd,Mn,Fe)Ag5.5Pb12Sb21.5S48
5.7.24RoshchiniteAg19Pb10Sb51S96
5.7.25OurayiteAg3Pb4Bi5S13
5.7.26EskimoiteAg7Pb10Bi15S36
5.7.27FizélyiteAg5Pb14Sb21S48
5.7.28OwyheeiteAg3+xPb10-2xSb11+xS28, -0.13 < x > +0.20
5.7.29FreieslebeniteAgPbSbS3
5.7.30DiaphoriteAg3Pb2Sb3S8
5.7.31SterryiteAg2Pb10(Sb,As)12S29
5.7.32VikingiteAg5Pb8Bi13S30
5.7.33ZoubekiteAgPb4Sb4S10
5.7.34SchirmeritePbAgBi3S6 - Pb3Ag1.5Bi3.5S9
5.7.36GustaviteAg3Pb5Bi11S24
5.7.37KitaibeliteAg10PbBi30S51
5.7.38TreasuriteAg7Pb6Bi15S32
5.7.39Benjaminite(Ag,Cu)3(Bi,Pb)7S12
5.7.40Lengenbachite Ag4Cu2Pb18As12S39 ·
5.7.41BerryiteCu3Ag2Pb3Bi7S16
5.7.42NeyiteAg2Cu6Pb25Bi26S68
5.7.43Larosite(Cu,Ag)21(Pb,Bi)2S13
5.7.44CupropavoniteAgCu2PbBi5S10
5.7.45PadĕraiteCu5.9Ag1.3Pb1.6Bi11.2S22
5.7.46RayitePb8(Ag,Tl)2Sb8S21
5.7.47RathitePb8Pb4-x(Tl2As2)x(Ag2As2)As16S40
5.7.48HatchiteAgTlPbAs2S5

Other Names for Aikinite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Aikinite

Reference List:
Mohs (1804): 3: 726.

Hauy (1809): 105.

Chapman (1843): 127.

Haidinger (1845): 568.

Glocker (1847): 27.

Nicol (1849) 487.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 412-413.

Ohmasa, M. and Nowacki, W. (1970a) Note on the space group and on the structure of aikinite derivatives. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1970: 158-162.

Ohmasa, M. and Nowacki, W. (1970b) A redetermination of the crystal structure of aikinite [BiS2|S|Cu IV Pb VII]. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 132: 71-86.

Kohatsu, I. and Wuensch, B.J. (1971) The crystal structure of aikinite, PbCuBiS3. Acta Crystallographica: B27: 1245-1252.

American Mineralogist (1976): 61: 15.

Pring, A. (1989) Structural disorder in aikinite and krupkaite. American Mineralogist: 74: 250-255.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 132: 71-86.

D. Topa, E. Makovicky, and W.H. Paar (2002): Composition ranges and exsolution pairs for the members of the Bismuthinite-Aikinite series from Felbertal, Salzburg. Can. Mineral. 40, 849-869.

Petrícek, Vaclav and Emil Makovicky (2006), Interpretation of selected structures of the bismuthinite – aikinite series as commensurately modulated structures: Canadian Mineralogist: 44(1): 189-206.

Internet Links for Aikinite

Specimens:
The following Aikinite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Aikinite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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