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Madan ore field, Rhodope Mts, Smolyan Oblast, Bulgaria

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Name(s) in local language(s): Маданско рудно поле, Родопи планина, Смолянска област, България
 
Large Pb-Zn(-Ag) mining district.
Known since ancient times, exploited in the Middle Ages and extensively mined during the last 50 years, producing over 95 Mt ores (∼2.5 Mt Pb, ∼2 Mt Zn; 2.54% Pb, 2.10% Zn) in more than 40 underground mines.

The main quartz-sulphide mineralization (associated with Mn-skarns) was deposited at 350-280°C. Major ore minerals are: sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite and pyrite. Galena prevails in the veins, sphalerite is more abundant in the skarn-ore bodies. Subordinate and minor ore minerals are arsenopyrite, tennantite-tetrahedrite, pyrrhotite, marcasite, cobaltite, scarce sulphosalts of Ag, Bi.


The deposits are closely related to six subparallel NNW-SSE (320-340°) mineralised faults, acting as ore-controlling channel-ways for the fluids. Tertiary (∼30Ma) Pb-Zn hydrothermal mineralization, embedded in a metamorphic gneiss-amphibolite core complex with certain marble horizons, is most extensive in the intersections with WNW-trending faults. Economic ore bodies are presented by sulphide veins (1-3 m wide; up to 7 km long), disseminated stockworks and replacement bodies.
Major Oligocene lead-zinc mineralization in the Central Rhodopes occurs in four ore fields: Madan, Laki, Davidkovo (South Bulgaria) and Thermes (Greece).

Madan ore field is situated in southwest part of the Central Rhodope Dome. Thirty-nine lead–zinc deposits were mined within the Madan field. Madan ore field occurs as an area of the most considerable deposition of Pb-Zn ores in the Rhodope massif and represents one of the most significant manifestations of vein type Pb-Zn mineralization in the world.The larger deposits are related to six fault zones with lengths up to 15 km and more. The ore bodies are of three types – veins, carbonate replacement bodies and stockworks. Veins are the most widespread with typical lengths between 500 m and to 2 to 2.5 km and vein widths up to 10 m (more commonly 1–2 m). The main minerals of all deposits are quartz, galena and sphalerite with additional johannsenite becoming important in the peripheral parts of the replacement ore bodies. In decreasing order of abundance, additional ore minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite, and as gangue minerals calcite, manganocalcite, rhodochrosite, dolomite and rhodonite, the last occurring in the metasomatic ore bodies only. One of the most important faults for ore-localization is the Karaaliev dol-Petrovitsa fault on which the Osikovo, Mogilata, Karaaliev dol, Petrovitsa, Yuzhna Petrovitsa and Erma reka deposits are located.
Major Oligocene lead-zinc mineralization in the Central Rhodopes occurs in four ore fields: Madan, Laki, Davidkovo (South Bulgaria) and Thermes (Greece).

Madan ore field is situated in southwest part of the Central Rhodope Dome. Thirty-nine lead–zinc deposits were mined within the Madan field. Madan ore field occurs as an area of the most considerable deposition of Pb-Zn ores in the Rhodope massif and represents one of the most significant manifestations of vein type Pb-Zn mineralization in the world.The larger deposits are related to six fault zones with lengths up to 15 km and more. The ore bodies are of three types – veins, carbonate replacement bodies and stockworks. Veins are the most widespread with typical lengths between 500 m and to 2 to 2.5 km and vein widths up to 10 m (more commonly 1–2 m). The main minerals of all deposits are quartz, galena and sphalerite with additional johannsenite becoming important in the peripheral parts of the replacement ore bodies. In decreasing order of abundance, additional ore minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite, and as gangue minerals calcite, manganocalcite, rhodochrosite, dolomite and rhodonite, the last occurring in the metasomatic ore bodies only. One of the most important faults for ore-localization is the Karaaliev dol-Petrovitsa fault on which the Osikovo, Mogilata, Karaaliev dol, Petrovitsa, Yuzhna Petrovitsa and Erma reka deposits are located.


NOTE on the locality names: In Bulgaria "mine" is usually used as an exploration-administrative term and not always coincides with the name of the ore deposit. Thus, a mine can include several deposits.

Mindat Articles

Photos of Fake Skeletal Galena by Amir C. Akhavan


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100 entries listed. 74 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

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Bulgaria

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References

Petrussenko, S. (1991). Minerals of the Madan ore field, Bulgaria. Mineralog. Record, 22, 439-445.

I.K. Bonev, A.J. Boyce, A.E. Fallick and C.M. Rice (2000): Ore fluids, light stable isotopes, and ore-forming processes in the tertiary Pb–Zn vein and replacement ore deposits of the Madan district. In: K. Bogdanov, Editor, Geodynamics and Ore Deposit Evolution of the Alpine-Balkan-Carpathian-Dinaride Province. Abstracts, ABCD-GEODE 2000 Workshop, Borovets, Sofia University, Bulgaria, p. 13.

R.D. Vassileva and I.K. Bonev (2001): Manganoan amphiboles from the skarn-ore Pb-Zn deposits in the Madan district, Central Rhodopes, Bulgaria. Bulg. Acad. Sci. 38, 45-53. [http://www.geology.bas.bg/mineralogy/gmp_files/gmp38/Vassileva.pdf]

R.D. Vassileva and I.K. Bonev (2003): Retrograde alterations of manganoan skarns in the Madan Pb–Zn deposits, South Bulgaria. In: D. Eliopoulos et al., Editors, Mineral Exploration and Sustainable Development, Millpress, Rotterdam, pp. 403–406.

Marchev, P., Kaiser-Rohrmeier, M., Heinrich, C., Ovtcharova, M., von Quadt, A. & Raicheva, R. (2005): 2: Hydrothermal ore deposits related to post-orogenic extensional magmatism and core complex formation: The Rhodope Massif of Bulgaria and Greece. Ore Geology Reviews 27, 53-89.

R.D. Vassileva, I.K. Bonev, P. Marchev and R. Atanassova (2005): 2-1: Pb–Zn deposits in the Madan ore field, South Bulgaria: Madan District: Lat. 41°30′ N, Long. 24°56′ E. Ore Geology Reviews, 27, 90-91 (Abs.).

Kostova B, Pettke T, Driesner T, Petrov P, Heinrich CA (2004) LA-ICPMS study of fluid inclusions in quartz from the Yuzhna Petrovitsa deposit, Madan ore field, Bulgaria. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, 84, 25-36.

Vassileva, R. D., Atanassova, R., & Bonev, I. K. (2009). A review of the morphological varieties of ore bodies in the Madan Pb-Zn deposits, Central Rhodopes, Bulgaria. Geochem Mineral Petrol, 47, 31-49.

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