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Kröhnkite

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About KröhnkiteHide

Formula:
Na2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Colour:
Blue, greenish-blue; light blue to colourless in transmitted light
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
2.9
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Member of:
Name:
After B. Kröhnke, who first analyzed the mineral.
The anhydrous phase is saranchinaite which may form after heating kröhnkite to 200°C.


Classification of KröhnkiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.CC.30

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
29.3.2.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
3 : A2B(XO4)2·xH2O
25.2.11

25 : Sulphates
2 : Sulphates of Cu and Ag

Physical Properties of KröhnkiteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Blue, greenish-blue; light blue to colourless in transmitted light
Streak:
White
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {010} perfect; on {1¯01} very imperfect.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
2.9 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.95 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of KröhnkiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.544 nβ = 1.578 nγ = 1.601
2V:
Measured: 78° , Calculated: 76°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.057
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
weak

Chemical Properties of KröhnkiteHide

Formula:
Na2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O

Crystallography of KröhnkiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.78 Å, b = 12.58 Å, c = 5.48 Å
β = 108.3°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.459 : 1 : 0.436
Unit Cell V:
378.31 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals short prismatic [001]; also octahedral with large {110} and {011} and rather elongated [100]. Prismatic or fibrous aggregates and crusts; massive, granular.
Twinning:
On {101}, common; twins heart-shaped at times.

Type Occurrence of KröhnkiteHide

Synonyms of KröhnkiteHide

Other Language Names for KröhnkiteHide

German:Kröhnkit
Simplified Chinese:柱钠铜矾
Spanish:Kröhnkita

Relationship of Kröhnkite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
BrandtiteCa2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
RoseliteCa2(Co2+,Mg)(AsO4)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
RruffiteCa2Cu(AsO4)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
Unnamed (Fe2+-analogue of Brandtite)Ca2Fe2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
WendwilsoniteCa2Mg(AsO4)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
ZincroseliteCa2Zn(AsO4)2 · 2H2OMon.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
7 photos of Kröhnkite associated with NatrochalciteNaCu2(SO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
4 photos of Kröhnkite associated with AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3 photos of Kröhnkite associated with CaracoliteNa3Pb2(SO4)3Cl
2 photos of Kröhnkite associated with AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
2 photos of Kröhnkite associated with BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
2 photos of Kröhnkite associated with ChangoiteNa2Zn(SO4)2 · 4H2O
1 photo of Kröhnkite associated with ChalcedonySiO2
1 photo of Kröhnkite associated with MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.CC.CobaltoblöditeNa2Co(SO4)2•4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.AndychristyitePbCu2+Te6+O5(H2O)Tric. 1 : P1
7.CC.Ammoniovoltaite(NH4)2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12(H2O)18Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.05KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CC.10TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.15KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CC.15MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.20Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso.
7.CC.20Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.20Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.20Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.20LanmuchangiteTl+Al(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.25VoltaiteK2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.25ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.25PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe3+2Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
7.CC.25Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.35FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : P3
7.CC.40GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.45LöweiteNa12Mg7(SO4)13 · 15H2OTrig.
7.CC.50BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.50NickelblöditeNa2(Ni,Mg)(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.50ChangoiteNa2Zn(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.55LeoniteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.55MereiteriteK2Fe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon.
7.CC.60Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.60CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.60Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.60Nickelboussingaultite(NH4)2Ni(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.60PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.65PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric. 1
7.CC.70LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric.
7.CC.75AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CC.80KonyaiteNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.85WattevilleiteNa2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.2.1ChalcocyaniteCuSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.2.2BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2OMon.
25.2.3ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.2.4BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2OMon.
25.2.5DolerophaniteCu2(SO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/m
25.2.6AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.2.7BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
25.2.8PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2OMon. m : Pm
25.2.9LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. m
25.2.10WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. m : Pm
25.2.12NatrochalciteNaCu2(SO4)2(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
25.2.13PiypiteK4Cu4O2(SO4)4 · (Na,Cu)ClTet.
25.2.14FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.2.15CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
25.2.16EuchlorineKNaCu3(SO4)3OMon.
25.2.17DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.2.18LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric.
25.2.19ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon. 2 : P21
25.2.20CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
25.2.21WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.2.22CampigliaiteMn2+Cu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OMon.
25.2.23GuilditeCuFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.2.24RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.2.26KlyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Fe3+,Al)(SO4)4O2Mon.
25.2.27Poitevinite(Cu,Fe)SO4 · H2OTric.
25.2.28ArgentojarositeAgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for KröhnkiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Domeyko, I. (1876) Elementos de Mineralogia, 2nd. Edition, Santiago (1860), with appendices 1 – 6, App. 5: 33.
Domeyko, I. (1879) Elementos de Mineralogia, 3rd. edition: 250 (as Krönnkite).
Darapsky (1889) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 192.
Herz (1896) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 26: 16 (as Salvadorite).
Palache, C. and Warren (1908) American Journal of Science: 26: 342.
Palache, C. and Warren (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 45: 534.
Palache, C. (1939) American Journal of Science: 237: 447.
Gordon (1941) Academy of Sciences Philadelphia, Not. Nat., no. 72.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 444-446.
Leone M., Sgarlata F.(1954): Struttura della kroehnkite e contributo alla cristallochimica del rame. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 223-234.
Acta Crystallographica (1975): B31: 1753-1755.
Delyana Marinova, Manfred Wildner, Tsvetelina Bancheva, Radostina Stoyanova, Mitko Georgiev, Donka G. Stoilova (2018): Synthesis, structure and properties of blödite-type solid solutions, Na2Co1−xCux(SO4)2·4H2O (0 < x ≤ 0.18), and crystal structure of synthetic kröhnkite, Na2Cu(SO4)2·2H2O. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 45, 801-817.

Internet Links for KröhnkiteHide

Localities for KröhnkiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Córdoba Province
    • Minas Department
Sureda, R.J. (1978) Las vetas de plomo, plata y zinc del districto minero ‘‘El Guaico’’ en la provincia de Co´rdoba Repu´blica de Argentina. Revista de la Asociación Geologica Argentina, 33, 299-324.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
        • Broken Hill
Birch, W.D., van der Heyden, A. (1997) Minerals of the Kintore and Block 14 open cuts at Broken Hill, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Mineralogy: 3(1): 23-71.
  • Queensland
    • Mareeba Shire
Harris, D.L., Lottermoser, B.G., Duchesne, J. (2003) Ephemeral acid mine drainage at the Montalbion silver mine, north Queensland. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 50(5), 797-809.
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Liezen District
      • Öblarn
        • Walchen
Schebesta, K. (1992): Schlackenminerale aus der Walchen bei Öblarn. Lapis 17 (2), 19-30; 50.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Estación La Negra
https://e-rocks.com/blogs/1/chilean-blues-update-find-coronel-manuel-rodriguez-mine
      • Mejillones
        • Mejillones peninsula
SEM-EDS by Igor V. Pekov
Samples analysed by Dr. Tony Kampf, Curator of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA
      • Sierra Gorda
        • Caracoles
www.ontariominerals.com
M.Dini & A.Molina collection
Malcherek, T. & Schlüter, J. (2010): Anatacamite from La Vendida mine, Sierra Gorda, Atacama desert, Chile: a triclinic polymorph of Cu2(OH)3Cl. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 187, 307-312.; Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Chuquicamata District
Jarrell, O. W. (1944): Oxidation at Chuquicamata, Chile. Economic Geology, 39, 251-86.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 310, 446, 564; Acta Cryst. B31 (1975), 1753; Ericksen & Mrose (1970) American Mineralogist 55:1500-1517
          • Toki Cu deposit (Toki Cluster)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 446.
British Natural History Museum online catalogue 2007
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 446.
  • Atacama
    • Copiapó Province
      • Tierra Amarilla
        • Pampa Larga mining district
T. Djordjević and U. Kolitsch (2008): Conichalcite revisited: Structural and chemical characterisation of a sample from the Maria Catalina mine, Copiapó Province, Chile. Poster, Annual Meeting of the DMG, Berlin, Germany, September 14-17, 2008; CD with abstracts, Abs. no. 331.
  • Santiago
    • Santiago Province
      • Pudahuel
Saric, N.R. (1978) Geologia y Mineralizacion del Yacimiento La Africana. Revista Geologica de Chile, No. 6, 31-40.
  • Tarapacá
    • Tamarugal Province
      • Pica
        • Collahuasi mining district
Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
China
 
  • Xinjiang
    • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
      • Yizhou District
Yingxia Xu, Kezhang Qin, Kunshou Ding, Jinxiang Li, Yu Miao, Tonghui Fang, Xingwang Xu, Daming Li, and Xiuquan Luo (2008): Acta Petrologica Sinica 24(10), 2371-2383
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion Mining District
          • Agios Konstantinos (Kamariza)
            • Kamariza Mines (Kamareza Mines)
              • Hilarion Mine
Rieck, B., Kolitsch, U., Voudouris, P., Giester, G. and Tzeferis, P. (2018): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrion, Griechenland. Mineralien-Welt 29 (5), 32-77 (in German).
          • Plaka
            • Plaka Mines
No reference listed
Branko Rieck Collection
Hungary
 
  • Heves County
    • Recsk
No reference listed
  • Pest County
    • Szob District
Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
Iceland
 
  • Southern Region
    • Rangárþing eystra
Balić-Žunić, T., Garavelli, A., Jakobsson, S. P., Jonasson, K., Katerinopoulos, A., Kyriakopoulos, K., & Acquafredda, P. (2016). Fumarolic minerals: An overview of active European volcanoes. In Updates in Volcanology-From Volcano Modelling To Volcano Geology. InTechOpen.
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Balassone, G.; Petti, C.; Mondillo, N.; Panikorovskii, T.L.; de Gennaro, R.; Cappelletti, P.; Altomare, A.; Corriero, N.; Cangiano, M.; D’Orazio, L. (2019) Copper Minerals at Vesuvius Volcano (Southern Italy): A Mineralogical Review. Minerals 9, 730.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Capoliveri
        • Cape Calamita Mine (Calamita Mine)
F. Quagliarella (1966) - Su alcuni solfati di Capo Calamita (Isola d'Elba) - Rend. Soc. Min. It., 22: 210.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Polkowice County
      • Gmina Polkowice
Łukasz Kruszewski PXRD & EPMA data (2019) (coll. Mateusz Świerk, Rafał Siuda, Jarosław Skupniewski)
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Wodzisław County
      • Radlin
Kruszewski, Ł., Sierny, W. (2019): Radlin coal fire heap: thiosulfate- and dithionate-bearing alkaline mineralization; Cu, Fe, As, and P mineralization; and second worldwide occurrence of tsaregorodtsevite. Miner. - Spec. Pap.: 49: 54
Romania
 
  • Hunedoara
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
Onac, BP; Effenberger, HS; Collins, NC; Kearns, JB; Breban, RC (2011): Revisiting three minerals from Cioclovina Cave (Romania). International Journal of Speleology 40, 21-30.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Just
        • Botallack
          • Botallack Mine
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
Rolf Luetcke
  • California
    • Alameda Co.
      • Oakland Hills (San Leandro Hills)
        • Oakland
          • Leona Heights
            • Leona Heights deposit
Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1903a), Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 207; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 298.; Anthony R. Kampf & FM Locality Index Committee (1989) California Locality Index. Mineralogical Record, 20:129-142.
[Mineralogical Record 20 129-142]
  • Utah
    • San Juan Co.
      • Red Canyon
J. Plášil, A.R. Kampf, A.V. Kasatkin, J. Marty, R. Škoda, S. Silva, J. Čejka (2013): Meisserite, Na5(UO2)(SO4)3(SO3OH)(H2O), a new uranyl sulfate mineral from the Blue Lizard mine, San Juan County, Utah, USA. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 2975-2988
  • Virginia
    • Floyd Co.
      • Southern Section-Blue Ridge Province
        • Southern Lead
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
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