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Afghanite

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Flag of Afghanistan
Formula:
(Na,K)22Ca10(Si24Al24O96)(SO4)6Cl6
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
white, light blue, dark ...
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
5½ - 6
Name:
Named after the country of its discovery, Afghanistan.

Classification of Afghanite

Approved
Approval Year:
1967
First Published:
1968
9.FB.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
F : Tektosilicates without zeolitic H2O
B : Tektosilicates with additional anions
76.2.5.1

76 : TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
2 : Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
17.10.12

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
10 : Silicates with sulphate, molybdate or tungstate

Physical Properties of Afghanite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Colour:
white, light blue, dark blue
Comment:
colourless in thin section
Streak:
white
Hardness (Mohs):
5½ - 6
Hardness Data:
Measured
Cleavage:
Perfect
{1010}
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
2.55 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.65 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Afghanite

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.523 nε = 1.529
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.006
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low

Chemical Properties of Afghanite

Formula:
(Na,K)22Ca10(Si24Al24O96)(SO4)6Cl6
IMA Formula:
Na22Ca10(Si24Al24)O96(SO4)6Cl6
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Afghanite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
P3 1c
Space Group Setting:
P3 1c
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.8013(7) Å, c = 21.4119(18) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.673
Unit Cell Volume:
V 3,038.74 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
As stout to slender, thin tabular laths and as rounded grains.
Comment:
Cell data from Ballirano et al. (1996). Previously assumed space group P63mc is incorrect.

Occurrences of Afghanite

Type Occurrence of Afghanite

General Appearance of Type Material:
In thin veinlets cutting lazurite crystals
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Mineralogy-Crystallography Laboratory, University Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris;
National School of Mines, Paris, France;
The Natural History Museum, London, England, 1969,72.

Relationship of Afghanite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Alloriite(Na,Ca,K)26Ca4(Al6Si6O24)4(SO4)6Cl6
Balliranoite(Na,K)6Ca2(Si6Al6O24)Cl2(CO3)
Biachellaite(Na,Ca,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)2(OH)0.5 · H2O
Bystrite(Na,K)7Ca(Al6Si6O24)(S5)Cl
Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
CancrisiliteNa7(Al5Si7O24)(CO3) · 3H2O
Davyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2
DepmeieriteNa8(Al6Si6O24)(PO4,CO3)1-x · 3H2O (x<0.5)
Franzinite(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)2 · 0.5H2O
Giuseppettite(Na,K,Ca)7-8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,Cl)1-2
HydroxycancriniteNa8(Al6Si6O24)(OH)2 · 2H2O
KircheriteNa5Ca2K(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)2 · 0.33H2O
KyanoxaliteNa7(Al6-xSi6+xO24)(C2O4)0.5+x · 5H2O (0 < x < 0.5)
Liottite(Na,K)16Ca8(Al6Si6O24)3(SO4)5Cl4
Marinellite(Na,K)42Ca6(Al6Si6O24)6(SO4)8Cl2 · 3H2O
MicrosommiteNa4K2Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)Cl2
PitiglianoiteNa6K2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4) · 2H2O
Quadridavyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)Cl4
Sacrofanite(Na61K19Ca32)(Si84Al84O336)(SO4)26Cl2F6•2H2O
SulfhydrylbystriteNa5K2Ca[Al6Si6O24](S5)2(SH)
Tounkite(Na,Ca,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)2Cl · H2O
Vishnevite(Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
9.FB.05Bystrite(Na,K)7Ca(Al6Si6O24)(S5)Cl
9.FB.05Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
9.FB.05CancrisiliteNa7(Al5Si7O24)(CO3) · 3H2O
9.FB.05Davyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2
9.FB.05Franzinite(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)2 · 0.5H2O
9.FB.05Giuseppettite(Na,K,Ca)7-8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,Cl)1-2
9.FB.05HydroxycancriniteNa8(Al6Si6O24)(OH)2 · 2H2O
9.FB.05Liottite(Na,K)16Ca8(Al6Si6O24)3(SO4)5Cl4
9.FB.05MicrosommiteNa4K2Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)Cl2
9.FB.05PitiglianoiteNa6K2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4) · 2H2O
9.FB.05Quadridavyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)Cl4
9.FB.05Sacrofanite(Na61K19Ca32)(Si84Al84O336)(SO4)26Cl2F6•2H2O
9.FB.05Tounkite(Na,Ca,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)2Cl · H2O
9.FB.05Vishnevite(Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
9.FB.05Marinellite(Na,K)42Ca6(Al6Si6O24)6(SO4)8Cl2 · 3H2O
9.FB.05Farneseite(Na,Ca,K)56(Al6Si6O24)7(SO4)12 · 6H2O
9.FB.05Alloriite(Na,Ca,K)26Ca4(Al6Si6O24)4(SO4)6Cl6
9.FB.05Fantappièite[Na82.5Ca33K16.5](Si99Al99O396)(SO4)33 · 4H2O
9.FB.05KyanoxaliteNa7(Al6-xSi6+xO24)(C2O4)0.5+x · 5H2O (0 < x < 0.5)
9.FB.05Balliranoite(Na,K)6Ca2(Si6Al6O24)Cl2(CO3)
9.FB.05CarbobystriteNa8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3) · 3.5H2O
9.FB.05DepmeieriteNa8(Al6Si6O24)(PO4,CO3)1-x · 3H2O (x<0.5)
9.FB.05KircheriteNa5Ca2K(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)2 · 0.33H2O
9.FB.10BicchuliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2
9.FB.10DanaliteBe3Fe42+(SiO4)3S
9.FB.10GenthelviteBe3Zn4(SiO4)3S
9.FB.10Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
9.FB.10HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
9.FB.10KamaishiliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2
9.FB.10LazuriteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2
9.FB.10NoseanNa8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4) · H2O
9.FB.10SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
9.FB.10Tsaregorodtsevite(N(CH3)4)(AlSi5O12)
9.FB.10TugtupiteNa4BeAlSi4O12Cl
9.FB.15MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
9.FB.15MeioniteCa4Al6Si6O24CO3
9.FB.15Silvialite(Ca,Na)4(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3)
17.10.1NoseanNa8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4) · H2O
17.10.2PitiglianoiteNa6K2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4) · 2H2O
17.10.3Vishnevite(Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
17.10.4Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
17.10.5Liottite(Na,K)16Ca8(Al6Si6O24)3(SO4)5Cl4
17.10.6Latiumite(Ca,K)4(Si,Al)5O11(SO4,CO3)
17.10.7Tuscanite(K(Ca,Na)6(Si,Al)10O22[SO4,CO3,(OH)2] · H2O
17.10.8MicrosommiteNa4K2Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)Cl2
17.10.9Delhayelite(Na,K)10Ca5Al6Si32O80(Cl2,F2,SO4)3 · 18H2O
17.10.10HydrodelhayeliteKCa2AlSi7O17(OH)2 · 6H2O
17.10.11Davyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2
17.10.13Franzinite(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)2 · 0.5H2O
17.10.14Giuseppettite(Na,K,Ca)7-8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,Cl)1-2
17.10.15Sacrofanite(Na61K19Ca32)(Si84Al84O336)(SO4)26Cl2F6•2H2O
17.10.16Chessexite(Na,K)4Ca2(Mg,Zn)3Al8(SO4)10(SiO4)2 · 40H2O
17.10.17InneliteNa2CaBa4Ti3(Si2O7)2(SO4)2O4
17.10.18ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
17.10.19Ellestadite
17.10.20ChlorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5Cl
17.10.21HydroxylellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(OH)
17.10.22FluorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
17.10.23MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
17.10.24QueititePb4Zn2(SO4)(SiO4)(Si2O7)
17.10.25RoeblingitePb2Ca6Mn2+(Si3O9)2(SO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
17.10.26YoshimuraiteBa2Mn2Ti(Si2O7)(PO4)O(OH)
17.10.27KegelitePb8Al4(Si8O20)(SO4)2(CO3)4(OH)8
17.10.28Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2O
17.10.29MacquartiteCu2Pb7(CrO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2
17.10.30WeliniteMn62+(W6+,Mg)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6

Other Names for Afghanite

Name in Other Languages:
Dutch:Afghaniet
German:Afghanit
Italian:Afghanite
Latvian:Afganīts
Spanish:Afghanita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Afghanite

Reference List:
Bariand,P., Cesbron, F., Giraud, R. (1968) Une nouvelle espèce minérale: l'afghanite de Sar-e-sang, Badakhshan, Afghanistan. Comparaison avec les minéraux du groupe de la cancrinite. Bulletin de la Société Francaise de Minéralogie et Christallographie: 91: 34-42.

Fleischer, M. (1968) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 53: 2103-2106.

Hogarth, D.D. (1979) Afghanite: new occurrences and chemical composition. The Canadian Mineralogist: 17: 47-52.

Leoni, L., Mellini, M., Merlino, S., Orlandi, P. (1979) Cancrinite-like minerals: new data and crystal chemical considerations. Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrologia: 35: 713-719.

Rinaldi, R., Wenk, H.R. (1979) Stacking variations in cancrinite minerals. Acta Crystallographica: A35: 825-828.

Hassan, I., Grundy, H.D. (1984) The crystal structures of sodalite-group minerals. Acta Crystallographica: B40: 6-13.

Rastsvetaeva, R.K., Pobedimskaya, E.A., Terent'eva, L.E., Sapozhnikov, A.N. (1993) Structural features of afghanite and its place among the cancrinite minerals. Crystallography Reports: 38: 185-189.

Ballirano, P., Bonaccorsi, E., Maras, A., Merlino, S. (1996) Crystal structure of afghanite, the eight-layer member of the cancrinite-group: evidence for long-range Si,Al ordering. European Journal of Mineralogy: 9: 21-30.

Ballirano, P., Maras, A., Buseck, P.R. (1996) Crystal chemistry and IR spectroscopy of Cl- and SO4-bearing cancrinite-like minerals. American Mineralogist: 81: 1003-1012.

Lane, M.D. (2007) Mid-infrared emission spectroscopy of sulfate and sulfate-bearing minerals. American Mineralogist: 92: 1-18.

Ballirano, P., Bosi, F. (2012) Thermal behavior of afghanite, an ABABACAC member of the cancrinite group. American Mineralogist: 97(4): 63-640.

Moore, T.P., Woodside, R.M.W. (2014) The Sar-e-Sang Lapis Mines, Kuran Wa Munjan district, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. Mineralogical Record: 45(3): 280-336.

Internet Links for Afghanite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-41.html
Please feel free to link to this page.
Specimens:
The following Afghanite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Afghanite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Afghanistan
 
Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52
    • Khash & Kuran Wa Munjan Districts
      • Koksha Valley (Kokscha Valley; Kokcha Valley)
Dudley Blauwet priv. comm.(2008), RWMW collection
        • Sar-e Sang (Sar Sang; Sary Sang)
Moore, T.P.,Woodside, R.M.W. (2014): The Sar-e-Sang Lapis Mines, Kuran Wa Munjan district, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. Mineralogical Record 45 (3), 280-336.
Bariand,P. Cesbron, F. & Giraud, R. (1968): Une nouvelle espèce minérale: l`afghanite de Sar-e-sang, Badakhshan, Afghanistan. Comparaison avec les minéraux du groupe de la cancrinite. Bulletin de la Société Francaise de Minéralogie et Christallographie. 91:34-42; Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52
Fernando Camara (2013) Private Communication
Canada
 
  • Nunavut
    • Baffin Island
Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52
Germany
 
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
Blass, G., Graf, H.W., Interessante Neuigkeiten über Cancrinit, Fluorit und Fuchsit aus der Vulkaneifel, Mineralien-Welt 12/1, 26-29, 2001
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
- Parodi, G., Ballirano, P., Maras, A. (1996): Afghanite from Mt Vesuvius: A Rediscovery, The Mineralogical Record, Vol. 27, 109-114; www.dinet.it/Mineral-GMC/AMI/vesuvio.html.
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
      • Rome
Gresta, S., Duronio, F., Mancinella D. (2002): Geositi e Sistema delle Aree Protette del Lazio: idee per la geoconservazione. Il Cercapietre. Not. del Gruppo Mineralogico Romano, 1-2: 48-55
      • Sacrofano Caldera
        • Magliano Romano
Stoppani, F.S. & Curti, E. (1982): I minerali del Lazio. Editoriale Olimpia, Firenze, 291 pp.
Min Rec (1996) 27:109-114
    • Viterbo Province
Stoppani, F.S., Curti, E. (1982): I Minerali del Lazio. Ed. Olimpia, Firenze, 154-158; Min Rec (1996) 27:109-114
Di Domenico Dario
in the collection of Luigi Mattei
        • Gradoli
- Signoretti, E. & Bosco, P. (2001): Le cave di Gradoli e Onano. Il Cercapietre, 1/2-2001, 10-25
        • Onano
Cresta, S., Duronio, F., Mancinella, D. (2002): Geositi e sistema delle arre protette del Lazio: idee per la geoconservazione. Il Cercapietre, 1-2/2002, 48-55
        • Valentano
Burli, M., Caponera, I., Signoretti, E. (2007): Le "sanidiniti" di Monte Saliette (Valentano, VT). Il Cercapietre. Not. del Gruppo Mineralogico Romano, 1-2: 13-18
      • Vico Lake
Stoppani F.S, Curti E. (1982): I minerali del Lazio. Editoriale Olimpia, Firenze, 291 pp.
        • Vetralla
Bill Henderson specimens
http://www.gminromano.it/Cercapietre/rivista04/testo/04A04.html
Signoretti, E., Carlini, R., Mattei, L. (2004): Località minori del vulcano Vicano: Pian di S. Martino, Le Carcarelle, Torre del Quercio. Il Cercapietre, 1-2, articolo 3; http://www.gminromano.it/Cercapietre/rivista04/testo/04A04.html
American Mineralogist, Volume 91, pages 1170–-1177, 2006
Carlini, R., Signoretti, E., 2003. Località minori del vulcano Vicano: Villa S.Giovanni in Tuscia e Mazzocchio. Il Cercapietre. Not. del Gruppo Mineralogico Romano, 1-2: 33-41
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Pitigliano
Liotti L., 1991. I minerali dei vulcani laziali a Pitigliano (Grosseto). Riv. Mineral. Ital., 15: 121-139.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Lake Baikal area
          • Slyudyanka (Sludyanka)
            • Malaya Bystraya River Valley
Hadacz, R. and Kynický, J. (2006): Lapis Lazuli z oblasti Bajkalu. In SAMEC, P. -- KYNICKÝ, J. Hlavní výsledky průzkumu území Mongolska v projektu Mongolsko 2000 -- 2005: shrnutí, hodnocení a interpretace (II). Brno: Mendelova zemědělská a lesnická univerzita v Brně, 2006, p. 95--96. ISBN 80-7157-920-3.; Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52
Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52; P.M. Kartashov data
Tajikistan
 
  • Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan (Viloyati Badakhshoni Kuni)
    • Pamir Mts
      • Khorog Region
        • Shakhdara range
          • Badom-Dara
Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52
USA
 
  • New York
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Balmat-Edwards Zinc District
        • Edwards
Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52
Mineral and/or Locality  
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