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About ClaraiteHide

The entrance to the Clara mine, a truck leaving for the dumps

Clara Mine, Rankach valley, Oberwolfach, Wolfach, Ortenaukreis, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Formerly thought to be (Cu,Zn)3(CO3)(OH)4·4H2O.
Turquoise blue
Specific Gravity:
3.34 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
For the type locality, the Clara mine.
First reported by Walenta (1975) as "unnamed copper carbonate" and subsequently approved with the formula (Cu,Zn)3CO3(OH)4.4H2O (Walenta, 1982). Several later studies showed, however, that claraite contains minor, but essential As and S (U. Kolitsch, 2007-2015, unpublished data; Putz, 2011; Kolitsch, 2012; Putz et al., 2012). Claraite was finally redefined, with the help of a crystal-structure determination, as (Cu,Zn)15(AsO4)2(CO3)4(SO4)(OH)14·7H2O (Biagioni & Orlandi, 2017). This makes claraite a species with unique element combination: it is currently the only known arsenate-sulfate-carbonate mineral.

Classification of ClaraiteHide

Redefined by the IMA
Approval History:
2016: Proposal IMA 16-L, redefined as a copper hydrated hydroxy-carbonate-arsenate-sulfate mineral having ideal chemical composition (Cu,Zn)15(CO3)4(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)14·7H2O. Redefinition and crystal structure published by Biagioni & Orlandi (2017).

D : Carbonates with additional anions, with H2O
A : With medium-sized cations

4 : AmBn(XO3)pZqxH2O & with (m+n):p = 3:1

11 : Carbonates
6 : Carbonates of Zn and Cd

Physical Properties of ClaraiteHide

Turquoise blue
3.34 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ClaraiteHide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.751 nε = 1.645
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.106
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of ClaraiteHide


Formerly thought to be (Cu,Zn)3(CO3)(OH)4·4H2O.
IMA Formula:
(Cu,Zn)15(CO3)4(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)14 · 7H2O
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of ClaraiteHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 14.28 Å, b = 8.03 Å, c = 7.27 Å
α = 79.16°, β = 107.90°, γ = 99.68°
a:b:c = 1.778 : 1 : 0.905
Unit Cell V:
773.68 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
P1 or P-1 space group

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
13.47 (10)
7.84 (9)
3.65 (8)
5.17 (6)
2.96 (6)
3.24 (5)
2.72 (4)

Type Occurrence of ClaraiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.
National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian), Washington, D.C., USA, 148464.
Walenta, K. (1982) Clarait, ein neues Karbonatmineral aus der Grube Clara (mittlerer Schwarzwald). Chemie der Erde: 41: 97-102.

Synonyms of ClaraiteHide

Other Language Names for ClaraiteHide


Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Azurite33 photos of Claraite associated with Azurite on mindat.org.
Theisite22 photos of Claraite associated with Theisite on mindat.org.
Malachite16 photos of Claraite associated with Malachite on mindat.org.
Strashimirite8 photos of Claraite associated with Strashimirite on mindat.org.
Tyrolite6 photos of Claraite associated with Tyrolite on mindat.org.
Fluorite4 photos of Claraite associated with Fluorite on mindat.org.
Chalcopyrite4 photos of Claraite associated with Chalcopyrite on mindat.org.
Zálesíite3 photos of Claraite associated with Zálesíite on mindat.org.
Siderite2 photos of Claraite associated with Siderite on mindat.org.
Quartz2 photos of Claraite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.DA.AlexkhomyakoviteK6(Ca2Na)(CO3)5Cl·6H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm
5.DA.05DypingiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5H2OMon.
5.DA.05GiorgiositeMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5-6H2O
5.DA.05HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
5.DA.05WidgiemoolthaliteNi5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5H2OMon.
5.DA.05UM1986-10-CO:ClHMgMnZn (also called Mineral F, Dunn, 1995)Mg5(Zn,Mn)3(CO3)2(OH,Cl)12 · H2O
5.DA.05UM1987-01-CO:HMgSMg4(CO3)2(OH)4 · 6H2O ?Mon.
5.DA.10ArtiniteMg2(CO3)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
5.DA.10IndigiriteMg2Al2(CO3)4(OH)2 · 15H2O
5.DA.10ChlorartiniteMg2(CO3)(OH)Cl · 2H2OTrig. 3m : R3c
5.DA.15OtwayiteNi2(CO3)(OH)2 · H2OOrth.
5.DA.15ZaratiteNi3(CO3)(OH)4 · 4H2O ?Iso.
5.DA.20KambaldaiteNaNi4(CO3)3(OH)3 · 3H2OHex.
5.DA.25CallaghaniteCu2Mg2(CO3)(OH)6 · 2H2OMon.
5.DA.35HydroscarbroiteAl14(CO3)3(OH)36 · nH2OTric.
5.DA.35ScarbroiteAl5(CO3)(OH)13 · 5H2OHex.
5.DA.40CaresiteFe2+4Al2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2OTrig.
5.DA.40QuintiniteMg4Al2(OH)12(CO3) · 3H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P63 2 2
5.DA.40CharmariteMn2+4Al2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2O
5.DA.45Stichtite-2HMg6(Cr,Al)2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
5.DA.45BrugnatelliteMg6Fe3+(CO3)(OH)13 · 4H2OHex.
5.DA.45ChlormagaluminiteMg4Al2(OH)12Cl2 · 3H2OHex.
5.DA.45Hydrotalcite-2HMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
5.DA.45Pyroaurite-2HMg6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
5.DA.45ZaccagnaiteZn4Al2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2OHex.
5.DA.50ComblainiteNi4Co2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2OTrig.
5.DA.50DesautelsiteMg6Mn3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)
5.DA.50HydrotalciteMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
5.DA.50PyroauriteMg6Fe3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
5.DA.50ReevesiteNi6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2OTrig.
5.DA.50StichtiteMg6Cr3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
5.DA.50TakoviteNi6Al2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2OTrig.
5.DA.50UM1998-10-CO:CoHNiCo6Fe2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O ?
5.DA.55CoalingiteMg10Fe3+2(OH)24[CO3] · 2H2OTrig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.6.1SmithsoniteZnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
11.6.2HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6Mon. 2/m : B2/m
11.6.3Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
11.6.5Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6Mon. 2/m : P21/m
11.6.7MinrecorditeCaZn(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
11.6.8Loseyite(Mn2+,Zn,Mg)4Zn3(CO3)2(OH)10Mon. 2/m
11.6.9Sclarite(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)4Zn3(CO3)2(OH)10Mon. 2/m : B2/b
11.6.10OtaviteCdCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m)

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ClaraiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Walenta, K. (1975) The secondary minerals of the barite veins of the Clara Mine near Oberwolfach in the central Schwarzwald. Aufschluss: 26,: 369-411. (in German)
Fleischer, M., Mandarino, J.A. (1977): New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 62: 175
Walenta, K. (1982) Clarait, ein neues Karbonatmineral aus der Grube Clara (mittlerer Schwarzwald). Chemie der Erde: 41: 97-102. (in German). [with formula (Cu,Zn)3CO3(OH)4.4H2O]
Dunn, P.J., Fleischer, M., Burns, R.G., Pabst, A. (1983) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 68: 471-475.
Walenta, K. (1999) Zu den Gitterkonstanten von Clarait [On the lattice constants of claraite]. Der Erzgräber: 13: 20-22 (in German).
Jambor, J.L., Roberts, A.C. (2003) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 88: 251-255.
Walenta, K. (1999) Zu den Gitterkonstanten von Clarait. Der Erzgräber: 13: 20-22.
Schnorrer, G. (2000) Mineralogische Notizen VII. Der Aufschluss: 51: 281-293 (in German). [mentions minor As & S in the analysed claraite]
Putz, H. (2011) Neuigkeiten zur Landesmineralogie von Salzburg. Miner. Arch. Salzb.: 14: 304-308 (p. 305-306: Clarait aus dem Danielstollen, Leogang). [with EDS analysis]
Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F. (2012) 1743) Baryt, Chalkophyllit und Clarait vom Pengelstein bei Kitzbühel, Tirol. P. 149. in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2012): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LX. Carinthia II, 202./122., 123-180 (in German).
Putz, H., Lechner, A., Poeverlein, R. (2012) Erythrin und Clarait vom Pichlerstollen am Silberberg bei Rattenberg, Nordtirol. Lapis: 37(1): 47-52; 62 (in German). [also on U184 = claraite and U130 = claraite]
Biagioni, C. & Orlandi, P. (2017): Claraite, (Cu,Zn)15(AsO4)2(CO3)4(SO4)(OH)14·7H2O: redefinition and crystal structure. European Journal of Mineralogy 29, 1031-1044.

Internet Links for ClaraiteHide

Localities for ClaraiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Carinthia
    • Gailtaler Alpen & Karnische Alpen
      • Arnoldstein
        • Feistritz an der Gail
Steir.Mineralog 25/2011, p.34-38.
      • Kirchbach
M. Puttner: Carinthia II 188./108.:193-199 (1998)
      • Lesach valley
        • Podlanig
          • Lower Wolay Alp
Pichler (2009)
    • Karawanken
      • Bad Eisenkappel (Bad Eisenkappl)
        • Rijavitzagraben (Jeravitzagraben; Remscheniggraben)
G. Niedermayr: Carinthia II 191./111.:97-102 (2001)
      • Finkenstein
        • Mallestiger Mittagskogel
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
[Der Aufschluss 1996,4 p.186-192]
  • Salzburg
    • Saalfelden
      • Leogang
        • Hütten
          • Schwarzleograben
            • Schwarzleo District
Putz, H. (2011): Neuigkeiten zur Landesmineralogie von Salzburg. Miner. Arch. Salzb., 14, 304-308 (p. 305-306: Clarait aus dem Danielstollen, Leogang).
Poeverlein, R. (2008): Euchroit und seine Begleiter vom prähistorischen Bergbau, Leogang, Österreich. Lapis, 33 (5), 13-22.
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
          • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
            • Geyer - Silberberg District
              • Silberberg
Schnorrer, G. and Poeverlein, R. (2002) Schwaz-Brixlegg-Fundstellen: 2. Die Minerale des Stockerstollens bei Brixlegg in Tirol. Aufschluss, 53, 209-228.
                • West slope ("Am Geyer")
Der Aufschluß (2006)
              • Silberberggraben
Putz, H., Lechner, A. & Poeverlein, R. (2012): Erythrin und Clarait vom Pichlerstollen am Silberberg bei Rattenberg, Nordtirol. Lapis, 37 (1), 47-52; 62 (in German). [also on U184 = claraite and U130 = claraite]
            • Hof
Schnorrer, G. & Poeverlein, R. (2010): Schwaz-Brixlegger Fundstellen: 7. Die Minerale des Bergbaus Hofer Tratte bei Brixlegg in Tirol. Aufschluss 61, 147-156.
Schnorrer, G. & Poeverlein, R. (2005): Schwaz-Brixlegger-Fundstellen: 3. Die Minerale vom Bergbau Maukenötz bei Brixlegg, Tirol. Der Aufschluss, 56, 223-234.
Schnorrer+Poeverlein (2005)
C.Auer (2016)
J.Metzger (2012)
Marco E. Ciriotti 15/10/2005
            • St Gertraudi
              • Großkogel (Reither Kogel)
Putz, H. & Poeverlein, R. (2007): Die Mineralien des Gertraudstollens und seiner Halde in St. Gertraudi, Tirol. Lapis 32 (6), 58-63.
          • Schwaz
            • Falkenstein District
C.Auer (2015)
            • Ringenwechsel District
              • Weißer Schrofen
Schnorrer, G., Poeverlein, R. (2007): Die Minerale des Martinstollens am Weißen Schrofen, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 58, 27-40
      • Kitzbühel Alps
        • Kirchberg in Tirol
          • Sperten valley
Kolitsch, U. & Brandstätter, F. (2012): 1743) Baryt, Chalkophyllit und Clarait vom Pengelstein bei Kitzbühel, Tirol. P. 149. in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2012): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXI. Carinthia II, 202./122., 123-180.
  • Occitanie
    • Aude
      • Montgaillard
Deliens, M., Berbain, C. & Favreau, G. (1993): Les Anciennes mines de Padern-Montgaillard (Aude). Géologie, Histoire et Minéralogie. Association Française de Microminéralogie, 84 pp.
Christian Berbain collection
      • Salsigne
Le Règne Minéral, Hors série (3), 36-54
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Le Pradet
Germany (TL)
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Ortenaukreis
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
Chemie der Erde,(1982) 41, 97-102
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Bad Lauterberg
Schnorrer, G. (2000): Mineralogische Notizen VII. Der Aufschluss, 51, 281-293.; Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Schnorrer, G. & Tetzer, G. (2006): Clinotyrolite, cupro-allophane, chrysokolla, partzite and claraite from the former fluorite mine Flossberg in greater Andreas valley in Bad Lauterberg in the Southern Harz Mountains. Aufschluss 57, 39-42. (in German)
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Eifel
      • Mechernich
        • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Sauerland
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
Bender, D. and Krimmelbein, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén
    • Rudabányai Mts
      • Rudabánya
Sánoor Szakáll, Mária Foldvári, Gábor Papp, Péter Kovács-pálffy, Árpád Kovács (1997) Secondary Sulphate Minerals From Hungary. Acta Mineralogica-petrographica, Szeged, Xxxviii, Supplementum, 7-63.
  • Friuli-Venezia Giulia
    • Udine Province
      • Degano Valley
Bortolozzi, G.M., Bracco, R., De Tuoni, F., Vidus, L., Bittarello, E., Marengo, A., Ciriotti, M.E., Zorzi, F. (2018) Antiche miniere e affioramenti metalliferi a Comeglians (Val Degano, Friuli-Venezia Giulia): recenti ritrovamenti. Micro, 16, 1-2018, 2-36.
      • Forni Avoltri
Bortolozzi G,M., Ciriotti M.E., Bittarello E. and Moeckel S. (2015): Monte Avanza, Forni Avoltri; Carnia (Udine, Friuli-Venezia Giulia): conferme e nuovi ritrovamenti. Micro,1-2015, 2-39.
  • Liguria
    • Savona Province
Balestra, C., Ciriotti, M.E., Bracco, R. (2011): Su alcune novità mineralogiche liguri caratterizzate dal SIUK dell'AMI. Micro, 2/2011, 46-53
  • Tuscany
    • Massa-Carrara Province
      • Apuan Alps
Orlandi, P. & Criscuolo, A. (2009). Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Pacini editore, Pisa, 180 pp.
  • Catalonia
    • Girona (Gerona)
      • Ripollès
        • Camprodon
          • Rocabruna
Garrido, J.L., Rosell, J., Viñals, J., Bártulos, V., Mingueza, P., Ortiz, X and Vinyoles, J. (2013): "Mineralogy of Les Ferreres mine, Rocabruna, Camprodon, Catalonia". Mineral Up, Vol.3, Nr.4, 6-23. Rosell, J., Garrido, J.L., Viñals, J., Bártulos, V., Vinyoles, J., Ortiz, X., Mingueza, P., Masons, G., Bobi, F. (2014): Rocabruna i el seu entorn. La mina de les Ferreres. Edited by the authors and Grup Mineralògic Català. 128 pages (with the mineralogy chapters in Spanish and English).
  • Valencian Community
    • Castellón
Mineralogía de la concesión San Rafael, Villahermosa del Río, Castellón, España
        • San Rafael claim
- Cócera, H., Menor-Salván, C. and Muñoz-Alvarado, R. (2010): Mineralogía de la concesión San Rafael, Villahermosa del Río, Castellón, España. Acopios, 1, 1-51. [http://mti-acopios.blogspot.com/ ; http://issuu.com/malacate/docs/acopios-1-1?mode=a_p]
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Anniviers Valley
      • Saint-Luc
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
    • Bagnes Valley
      • Bruson
Cuchet, S., Ansermet, S. & Meisser, N. (2012): Die kupferhaltige Mineralisierung am Six Blanc im Wallis. Schweizer Strahler 46 (4), 2-16 (in German and French).
    • Martigny
      • Mont Chemin
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 115.
    • Sion (Sitten)
      • Granges
Le Règne Minéral, 44, p15-21
Mineral and/or Locality  
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