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About LeucophosphiteHide

KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
White to greenish, buff, yellow-brown, orange-brown, pink, greenish brown, brownish purple
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Earthy
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in 1932 by Edward Sydney Simpson from the Greek word "LEUCO" meaning "white" and the prefix PHOSPHate, in allusion to its colour and composition as a phosphate.
Isostructural with:
Leucophosphite Group.
The Fe3+ analogue of tinsleyite.

Originally phosphate formed by the action of solutions derived from bird or bat guano upon serpentine (TL), or earlier iron-bearing minerals, also formed from the hydrothermal alteration of earlier iron-bearing phosphates in granite pegmatites.

Classification of LeucophosphiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
H : With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 < 1:1

11 : (AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O

19 : Phosphates
14 : Phosphates of Fe and other metals

Physical Properties of LeucophosphiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Earthy
Transparent, Translucent
Chalky from guano deposits.
White to greenish, buff, yellow-brown, orange-brown, pink, greenish brown, brownish purple
3½ on Mohs scale
On {100}, perfect.
2.948 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.911 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Type locality density values = 2.30 to 2.65 (porous and chalk-like).

Optical Data of LeucophosphiteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.707 nβ = 1.721 nγ = 1.739
Calculated: 84°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.032
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v
Optical Extinction:
X = b, Z ^ c = 26°

Chemical Properties of LeucophosphiteHide

KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O

Crystallography of LeucophosphiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.76 Å, b = 9.65 Å, c = 9.74 Å
β = 102.44°
a:b:c = 1.011 : 1 : 1.009
Unit Cell V:
895.81 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Pseudo-orthorhombic. Crystals rhombic-shaped, exhibiting {100}, {210}, {111}, and {111}. Fine-grained, chalk-like masses. Amorphous in part.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000274LeucophosphiteMoore P B (1972) Octahedral tetramer in the crystal structure of leucophosphite, K2[Fe4(OH)2(H2O)2(PO4)4].2H2O American Mineralogist 57 397-41019720293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
7.60 Å(70)
6.79 Å(100)
5.99 Å(70)
4.76 Å(30)
3.06 Å(70)
2.916 Å(40)
2.829 Å(40)
Material from Sapucaia pegmatite, Brazil. See also ICDD 9-446, 37-466

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Cave deposits resulting from bird or bat guano reactions with earlier iron-bearing minerals; hydrothermally altered iron-rich phosphates in pegmatites; phosphate rock deposits; crosscutting fluorapatite nodules.

Type Occurrence of LeucophosphiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Veinlets in serpentine
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Western Australian Museum, Perth, Australia: M.69.1991, MDC6129.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Guano deposits on Serpentinite

Other Language Names for LeucophosphiteHide

Relationship of Leucophosphite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Ammoniotinsleyite(NH4)Al2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
Spheniscidite(NH4,K)(Fe3+,Al)2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2OMon.
TinsleyiteKAl2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2OMon.

Common AssociatesHide

OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
42 photos of Leucophosphite associated with DufréniteCa0.5Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
38 photos of Leucophosphite associated with HureauliteMn2+5(PO3OH)2(PO4)2 · 4H2O
22 photos of Leucophosphite associated with CyriloviteNaFe3+3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
14 photos of Leucophosphite associated with Jahnsite
12 photos of Leucophosphite associated with StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
11 photos of Leucophosphite associated with KidwelliteNaFe3+9+x(PO4)6(OH)11 · 3H2O, x = 0.33
11 photos of Leucophosphite associated with BariopharmacosideriteBa0.5Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
11 photos of Leucophosphite associated with PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
9 photos of Leucophosphite associated with RobertsiteCa2Mn3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
9 photos of Leucophosphite associated with RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.DH.05MinyuliteKAl2(PO4)2(OH,F) · 4H2OOrth. mm2 : Pba2
8.DH.10Spheniscidite(NH4,K)(Fe3+,Al)2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2OMon.
8.DH.10TinsleyiteKAl2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2OMon.
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(CaMnFe){Ca}{Mn2+}{Fe2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{(Mg,Fe2+)2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(CaMnMn){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mn2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
8.DH.15KeckiteCaMn2+(Fe3+Mn2+)Fe3+2(PO4)4(OH)3 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
8.DH.15Rittmannite{(Mn2+,Ca)}{Mn2+}{(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)2}{(Al,Fe3+)2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon.
8.DH.15Whiteite-(CaFeMg){Ca}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.DH.15Whiteite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
8.DH.15Whiteite-(MnFeMg){(Mn2+,Ca)}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(MnMnMn){Mn2+}{Mn2+}{Mn2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon.
8.DH.15Kaluginite(Mn2+,Ca)MgFe3+(PO4)2(OH) · 4H2OOrth.
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(CaFeFe){Ca}{Fe2+}{Fe2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon.
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(NaFeMg)NaFe3+Mg2Fe3+2(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(NaMnMg){(Na,Ca)}{(Mn2+,Fe3+)}{(Mg,Fe3+)2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(CaMgMg){Ca}{Mg}{Mg2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2O
8.DH.20Manganosegelerite(Mn2+,Ca)(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Fe3+(PO4)2(OH) · 4H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
8.DH.20OveriteCaMgAl(PO4)2(OH) · 4H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
8.DH.20SegeleriteCa2 Mg2 Fe3+2(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pcca
8.DH.20WilhelmvierlingiteCaMnFe3+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2OOrth.
8.DH.20JuonniiteCaMgSc(PO4)2(OH) · 4H2OOrth.
8.DH.25CalcioferriteCa2Fe3+2(PO4)3(OH) · 7H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
8.DH.25KingsmountiteCa3MnFeAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.DH.25MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2OMon. 2 : B2
8.DH.25ZodaciteCa4Mn2+Fe3+4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2OMon.
8.DH.30ArseniosideriteCa2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
8.DH.30KolfaniteCa2Fe3+3O2(AsO4)3 · 2H2OMon.
8.DH.30MitridatiteCa2Fe3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
8.DH.30PararobertsiteCa2Mn3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.DH.30RobertsiteCa2Mn3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2OMon. m : Bb
8.DH.30Sailaufite(Ca,Na,◻)2Mn3+3(AsO4)2(CO3)O2 · 3H2OMon.
8.DH.35MantienneiteKMg2Al2Ti(PO4)4(OH)3 · 15H2OOrth.
8.DH.35PaulkerriteK(Mg,Mn2+)2(Fe3+,Al,Ti,Mg)2Ti(PO4)4(OH)3 · 15H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
8.DH.35Benyacarite(H2O,K)2(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Ti)2Ti(PO4)4(O,F)2 · 14H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
8.DH.40XanthoxeniteCa4Fe3+2(PO4)4(OH)2 · 3H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.DH.45MahnertiteNaCu3(AsO4)2Cl · 5H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
8.DH.50AndyrobertsiteKCdCu5(AsO4)4(H2AsO4) · 2H2OMon.
8.DH.50CalcioandyrobertsiteKCaCu5(AsO4)4(H2AsO4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
8.DH.55EnglishiteK3Na2Ca10Al15(PO4)21(OH)7 · 26H2OMon. 2/m
8.DH.60BouazzeriteBi6(Mg,Co)11Fe3+14(AsO4)18(OH)4O12 · 86H2OMon. 2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide · 2H2OMon.,K)(Fe3+,Al)2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.14.1CyriloviteNaFe3+3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2OTet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
19.14.2KidwelliteNaFe3+9+x(PO4)6(OH)11 · 3H2O, x = 0.33Mon. 2/m : P2/b
19.14.3Rosemaryite(Na,Ca,Mn)(Mn,Fe2+)(Fe3+,Mg)Al(PO4)3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.14.4Wyllieite(Na,Ca,Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Fe,Mg)Al(PO4)3Mon. 2/m
19.14.5Ferrowyllieite(Na,Ca,Mn)(Fe,Mn)(Fe,Fe,Mg)Al(PO4)3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.14.6NatrodufréniteNaFe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2OMon.
19.14.8Spheniscidite(NH4,K)(Fe3+,Al)2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2OMon.
19.14.9BurangaiteNaFe2+Al5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
19.14.10Satterlyite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe)12(PO4)5(PO3OH)(OH,O)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
19.14.11UshkoviteMgFe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2OTric.
19.14.12Garyansellite(Mg,Fe)3(PO4)2(OH,O) · 1.5H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
19.14.13ThadeuiteCa(Mg,Fe2+)3(PO4)2(OH,F)2Orth. 2 2 2 : C2 2 21
19.14.14AnapaiteCa2Fe2+(PO4)2 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.14.15XanthoxeniteCa4Fe3+2(PO4)4(OH)2 · 3H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.14.16CalcioferriteCa2Fe3+2(PO4)3(OH) · 7H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
19.14.17MitridatiteCa2Fe3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
19.14.18MélonjosephiteCaFe2+Fe3+(PO4)2(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbam
19.14.19DelvauxiteCaFe4(PO4,SO4)2(OH)8 · 4-6H2O not confirmedAmor.
19.14.20CollinsiteCa2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.14.21SegeleriteCa2 Mg2 Fe3+2(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pcca
19.14.22KingsmountiteCa3MnFeAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.14.23VauxiteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.14.24MetavauxiteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.14.25ParavauxiteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.14.26SigloiteFe3+Al2(PO4)2(OH)3 · 7H2OTric.
19.14.27CacoxeniteFe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2OHex. 6/m : P63/m
19.14.28KoninckiteFe3+PO4 · 3H2OTet.
19.14.29LazuliteMgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.14.30ScorzaliteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.14.31Souzalite(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+)4(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2OTric.
19.14.32Gormanite(Fe2+,Mg)3(Al,Fe3+)4(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2OTric.
19.14.33ZaïriteBiFe3+3(PO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Fluorescence of LeucophosphiteHide

Not fluorescent in UV

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for LeucophosphiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Simpson (1931-1932) Journal of the Royal Soceity of Western Australia: 18: 69.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 936.
Lindberg, M.L. (1957) Leucophosphite from the Sapucaia pegmatite mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil. American Mineralogist, 42, 214–221.
Moore, P.B. (1972) Octahedral tetramer in the crystal structure of leucophosphite, K2[Fe3+4 (OH)2(H2O)2(PO4)4]•2H2O. American Mineralogist (1972): 57: 397-410.
Rotiroti, N. & Vignola, P. (2019) Crystal structure of leucophosphite, KFe3+2(PO4)2(OH)·2H2O, from the Jocão pegmatite, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Periodico di Mineralogia, 88, 325-332.

Internet Links for LeucophosphiteHide

Localities for LeucophosphiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Western Antarctica
Barczuk A. & Tatur A. 2003: BIOGENIC PHOSPHATE AND SULPHATE MINERALS IN THESOILS OF ANTARCTIC PENINSULA. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 41-43
      • South Shetland Islands
        • King George Island
TATlJR, A., & MYRCHA, A. (1984). Ornithogenic soils on King George lsland, South Shetland lslands (Ma-ritime Antarctic Zone*).
Tatur, A., & Barczuk, A. (1985). Ornithogenic phosphates on King George Island in the maritime Antarctic. In Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs (pp. 163-168). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  • Salta Province
    • La Poma department
      • Nevados de Palermo
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina); Galliski, M. A. (1983). Distrito minero El Quemado, Deptos. La Poma y Cachi, provincia de Salta. II. Geología de sus pegmatitas. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argentina, 38, 340-380.
  • San Luis Province
    • San Martín department
      • Las Aguadas
Roda-Robles, E., Galliski, M. A., Roquet, M. B., Hatert, F., & de Paeseval, P. (2012). Phosphate nodules containing two distinct assemblages in the Cema granitic pegmatite, San Luis province, Argentina: Paragenesis, composition and significance. The Canadian Mineralogist, 50(4), 913-931.
  • Australian Capital Territory
    • Paddys River District
      • Paddy's River Cu Mine
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV; McQueen, Ken G.; J. R. Caldwell; P. W. Millsteed (July 1988). "Primary and Secondary Minerals at the Paddy's River Mine, Australian Capital Territory". Australian Mineralogist 3: 83–100.
  • New South Wales
    • Bathurst Co.
R Bottrill, unpub. Data
    • Kennedy Co.
      • Goonumbla
A.L. McLean, J.Chapman, J.L. Sharpe and P.A. Williams (2004): The mineralogy of the oxidised zone of the E26 orebody at Northparkes, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 10, 53-57.
    • Westmoreland Co.
Podgson RE, Osborne RAL, Colchester DM, Minerals of Jenolan Caves, New South Wales, Australia: Geological and Biological Interactions, Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 134, 1-18.
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
        • Broken Hill
          • Broken Hill South Mine (BHS Mine; South Mine)
Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
  • Queensland
    • City of Mount Isa
      • Gunpowder District
        • Mount Gordon
Day, B. E. & Beyer, B. D. (1996): Some mines of the Mt Isa district. Part 3 - The Mt Oxide mine. Australian J. of Mineralogy 2 (1), 3-10.
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • South Flinders Ranges
        • Gladstone
Steve Sorrell Collection
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • North Mt Lofty Ranges
        • Barossa Valley
          • Angaston
Harrowfield, I.R., Segnit, E.R., Watts, J.A. (1981) Aldermanite, a new magnesium aluminium phosphate. Mineralogical Magazine, 44:333, 59-62. Segnit, E.R., Watts, J.A., Peisley, V. (1981) Mineralogy of the rock phosphate deposit at Moculta, South Australia. Australian Mineralogist No. 35, 179-186.
        • Kapunda
Frost, R.L., S.J. Mills, and K.L. Erickson, (2004), Thermal decomposition of peisleyite: a thermogravimetry and hot stage Raman spectroscopic study. Thermochimica Acta, 419(1-2): p. 109-114.; Pilkington, E. S., Segnit, E. R., & Watts, J. A. (1982). Peisleyite, a new sodium aluminium sulphate phosphate. Mineralogical Magazine, 46(341), 449-452.
        • Robertstown
Norrish, K., Rogers, L.E.R., Shapter, R.E. (1957) Kingite, a new hydrated aluminum phosphate mineral from Robertstown, South Australia. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 236, 351-357.; Noble R.J., Just J. and Johnson J. E., (1983) Catalogue of South Australian Minerals, Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia.
  • Tasmania
    • Huon Valley municipality
      • Southern Islands
Bottrill, R.S., Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Tasmania Bulletin 73, 254 pages.
  • Victoria
    • Buloke Shire
      • Wycheproof
W.D.Birch. Phosphate Minerals of Victoria. The Mineralogical Society of Victoria special publication No. 3 pp. 28-32
    • Swan Hill Rural City
      • Lake Boga
W.D. Birch & D.A.Henry 1993. Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria special publication No. 3, pp. 14-27
  • Western Australia
    • Meekatharra Shire
      • Milgun Station
Mineralogical Magazine 39,577-579(1974); ; Peter Downes, Benjamin Grguric, Margot Willing, Geoff Deacon, Michael Verrall (2018) Variscite and associated phosphate minerals from the Mt Deverell variscite deposits, Milgun Station, Gascoyne region, Western Australia. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p 319
    • Perenjori Shire
      • Weelhamby Lake
Simpson, E.S. (1931-1932) Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia: 18: 69. Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 936.
    • Upper Gascoyne Shire
      • Yinnietharra
Pegmatites of Western Australia; M Jacobson, M Calderwood, B Grguric; Hesperian Press, 2007 Perth
Bridge, P.J., Pryce, M.W. (1974) Clinobisvanite, monoclinic BiVO₄, a new mineral from Yinnietharra, Western Australia. Mineralogical Magazine 39:308, 847-849.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Conselheiro Pena
various photographs
sergio varvello
luigi chiappino specimen; Scholz R, Chukanov N V, Menezes L A D, Atencio D, Lagoeiro L, Belotti F M, Chaves M L S C, Romano A W, Brandão P R, Belakovskiy D I, Pekov I (2014) Césarferreiraite, Fe2+Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)28·H2O, from Eduardo mine, Conselheiro Pena, Minas Gerais, Brazil: Second arsenate in the laueite mineral group. American Mineralogist 99, 607-611
      • Ferruginha
Sergio Varvello photo
Natural History Museum Collections (London 2008); Baijot, M., Hatert, F., Dal Rio, F. & Philipo, S. (2014) Mineralogy and petrography of phosphate mineral association from the Jocão pegmatite, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Canadian Mineralogist 52, 373-397.; Jonathan Barre Ardizzi, Daniel Atencio (2018) Mineralogy of rockbridgeite - frondelite series and its phosphate association from the Jocão pegmatite, Galileia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p 494
    • Divino das Laranjeiras
      • Linópolis
Atencio et al (2005) Roscherite-Group Minerals from Brazil, Axis (Min Rec), Vol 1, #6, p.1 (2005)
    • Galiléia
      • Sapucaia do Norte
Cassedanne, J.P. & Baptista, A. (1999): Famous Mineral Localities: The Sapucaia Pegmatite Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record, 30: 347-360 + 365
  • Pará
    • Carajás mineral province
      • Parauapebas
Figueira, R. L., Horbe, A. M. C., Aragón, F. F. H., & Gonçalves, D. F. (2019). Exotic sulphate and phosphate speleothems in caves from eastern Amazonia (Carajás, Brazil): Crystallographic and chemical insights. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 90, 412-422.
  • British Columbia
TRAILL, R.J. (1983): A catalogue of Canadian minerals, Geological Survey of Canada Paper 80-18, 432 p.
  • Antofagasta
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
EDS analisis; samples analysed by Dr. Tony Kampf, Curator of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA
EDS-SEM analisis; samples analysed by Dr. Tony Kampf, Curator of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA
  • Tarapacá
    • Tamarugal Province
      • Pica
        • Collahuasi mining district
Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
Czech Republic
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Sokolov District
      • Krásno
Sejkora, J., Škoda, R. and Ondruš, P., 2006: New naturally occurring mineral phases from the Krásno  Horní Slavkov area, western Bohemia, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 51, 159-187.; Sejkora, J., Škoda, R., Ondruš, P., Beran, P. & Susser, C. (2006): Mineralogy of phosphate accumulations in the Huber stock, Krásno ore district, Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 103-147.
        • Vysoký Kámen
Jirásek J. et al. (2016): Fosfáty a doprovodné minerály z živcového lomu Vysoký kámen u Krásna, Česká republika. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 80-94.
Sejkora, J., Süsser, C., Plášil, J.: Natrodufrénit a asociace fosfátů, ložisko Vysoký kámen – greisen, Krásno u Horního Slavkova. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2007, roč. 14-15, s. 116-125; Sejkora, J., Ondruš, P., Fikar, M., Veselovský, F., Mach, Z. & Gabašová, A. (2006): New data on mineralogy of the Vysoký Kámen deposits near Krásno, Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 43-55.
  • Plzeň Region
    • Rokycany District
Janouš, F.: Minerály z Kněží hory u Těškova (okres Rokycany), Minerál, 1995, roč. 3, č. 6, s. 367-369.
  • Vysočina Region
    • Pelhřimov District
      • Černovice
Vrtiška L, Sejkora J, Malíková R, Kadlec T (2017) Revize a nové nálezy fosfátů na historickém nalezišti Černovice u Tábora (Česká republika). Bull Mineral Petrolog 25(2)
    • Žďár nad Sázavou District
      • Bory
        • Horní Bory
          • Cyrilov (Cyrillhof)
Škoda, R., Staněk, J., Čopjaková, R.: Minerální asociace fosfátových nodulí z granitického pegmatitu od Cyrilova u Velkého Meziříčí, Moldanubikum; část 1 – primární a exsoluční fáze. Acta Mus. Moraviae, Sci. geol., 2007, 92, 59-74.; Novak, M., Sejkora, J., & Cooper, M. A. (2000). Cyrilovite from Cyrilov, western Moravia, Czech Republic; new data on the type material. Journal of GEOsciences, 45(1-2), 101-106.
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Allier
      • Vichy
        • Échassières
Chollet Pascal collection
Le Règne Minéral, (33), 5-25.
  • Brittany
    • Morbihan
      • Pontivy
        • Plumelin
Pierre Le Roc'h & Jean-Marc Johannet collections
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Deux-Sèvres
      • Bressuire
        • Mauléon
          • Le Temple
Le Cahier des micromonteurs, 2002, N°75, pp 8-25
    • Dordogne
      • Sarlat-la-Canéda
        • Cénac-et-Saint-Julien
Karkanas, P., Rigaud, J. P., Simek, J. F., Albert, R. M., & Weiner, S. (2002). Ash bones and guano: a study of the minerals and phytoliths in the sediments of Grotte XVI, Dordogne, France. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29(7), 721-732.
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Bellac
        • Bessines-sur-Gartempe
Natural History Museum Paris analysis
        • Razès
          • Chanteloube
            • Vilatte Quarries (La Vilate)
Boisson, J. M. (1988) - Les monts d'Ambazac, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, (2), 3-33.
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
      • Villefranche-de-Rouergue
        • La Capelle-Bleys
Gayraud, L., Gineste, C., Bernadi, G. & Johannet, J.-M. (2011) - Bleys et Puech de Compolibat: deux localités minéralogiques remarquables du massif de leucogranite de La Capelle-Bleys (Aveyron), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 111(1), 7-23
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Cham District
        • Waldmünchen
          • Althütte
Lapis, 10 (4), 13-17.
      • Neustadt an der Waldnaab District
        • Pleystein
Dill, H.G., Weber, B. (2009), Pleystein-City on Pegmatite, 4th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, Recife, Brazil.
        • Waidhaus
          • Hagendorf
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001; Dill, H. G., Weber, B., Gerdes, A., & Melcher, F. (2008). The Fe-Mn phosphate apliteSilbergrube'near Waidhaus, Germany: epithermal phosphate mineralization in the Hagendorf-Pleystein pegmatite province. Mineralogical Magazine, 72(5), 1119-1144.
  • Haifa District
    • Mount Carmel
Weiner, S., Goldberg, P., & Bar-Yosef, O. (1993). Bone preservation in Kebara Cave, Israel using on-site Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Journal of Archaeological Science, 20(6), 613-627.
  • Sardinia
    • South Sardinia Province
      • Carbonia
        • Barbusi
Sauro, F., De Waele, J., Onac, B.P., Galli, E., Dublyansky, Y., Baldoni, E., and Sanna, L. (2014) Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: the case of Corona 'e sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy). Geomorphology, 211, 77-88; Audra, P., De Waele, J., Bentaleb, I., Chroňáková, A., Krištůfek, V., D’Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Madonia, G., Vattano, M., Scopelliti, G., Cailhol, D., Vanara, N., Temovski, M., Bigot, J.-Y., Nobécourt, J.-C., Galli, E., Rull, F., and Sanz-Arranz, A. (2019) Guano-related phosphate-rich minerals in European caves. International Journal of Speleology, 48, 1, 75-105.
  • Umbria
    • Perugia Province
      • Sigillo
        • Monte Cucco
D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
  • Bomi County
Axelrod, J.M., Carron, M.K., Milton, Charles, and Thayer, T.P. (1952) Phosphate mineralization at Bomi Hill and Bambuta, Liberia, West Africa. American Mineralogist, 37, 883-909.
  • Amoron'i Mania
    • Ambatofinandrahana
      • Mandrosonoro
Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p.46-47
  • Kuala Lumpur
Wurster, C. M., Munksgaard, N., Zwart, C., & Bird, M. (2015). The biogeochemistry of insectivorous cave guano: a case study from insular Southeast Asia. Biogeochemistry, 124(1-3), 163-175.
  • Sarawak
Mineralogical Magazine (1983): 47: 79-80.
  • Durango
    • Rodeo Municipality
      • Rodeo
        • Abasolo
sergio varvello collection
  • Marrakesh-Safi Region
    • Rehamna Province
      • Jebilet Mtn (Djebilet Mtn)
        • Sidi Bou Othmane
Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
  • Erongo Region
    • Dâures
Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 409 (in English).
Keller, P. (1974): Phosphatmineralien aus Pegmatiten Sudwestafrikas, Der Aufschluss 25,577-591(1974)
    • Karibib
      • Okatjimukuju Farm 55 (Friedrichsfelde Farm)
P. Keller and O. von Knorring, Eur. J. Mineral. , 1989, 1, pp. 567-593.
  • Aruba
Stienstra, P. (1985). Geology of a small rock-phosphate deposit, Ceru Colorado, Aruba, Netherlands Antilles. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 55(1).
New Zealand
  • Otago Region
    • Clutha District
Landis, C.A., Craw, D (2003) Phosphate minerals formed by reaction of bird guano with basalt at Cooks Head Rock and Green Island Otago New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 33:1, 487-495.
  • Visayas
    • Western Visayas Region
      • Palawan Province
        • Palawan Island
Wurster, C. M., Munksgaard, N., Zwart, C., & Bird, M. (2015). The biogeochemistry of insectivorous cave guano: a case study from insular Southeast Asia. Biogeochemistry, 124(1-3), 163-175.
Wurster, C. M., Munksgaard, N., Zwart, C., & Bird, M. (2015). The biogeochemistry of insectivorous cave guano: a case study from insular Southeast Asia. Biogeochemistry, 124(1-3), 163-175.
Choa, O., Gallet, X., Dizon, E., Ronquillo, W., Jago-on, S. C., Ghaleb, B., ... & Sémah, F (2014). Chronology and palaeoenvironmental significance of Pleistocene deposits in Tabon Cave, Palawan, the Philippines. UISSP Session A26 Southeast Asia: Human Evolution, Dispersals and Adaptation
  • Faro
    • Alcoutim
      • Martim Longo
Pedro Alves collection and analytical data.
  • Guarda
    • Gouveia
      • Folgosinho
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data, material Jose Gonsales del Tanago
    • Sabugal
      • Bendada
Schnorrer-Köhler (1991), Mineral Occurrences.
  • Viseu
    • Mangualde
Rewitzer, C. and Röschl, N. (1984) Portugal. Lapis, 9(12).; van den Berg, W. (1992) Enkele vermaarde mineralenvindplaatsen in Midden-Portugal. Gea, 1992(1), 38-39 (in Dutch).
Mineralien Atlas
    • Sátão
      • Ferreira de Aves
        • Aldeia Nova
Pedro Alves collection and analytical data
  • Hunedoara
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
Eur.Journ.Min. 14:157-164
  • Western Province
    • Ngororero
      • Gatumba
Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
South Africa
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
  • Gauteng
    • West Rand District
      • Far West Rand (West Wits Line)
        • Oberholzer
Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
        • Western Sector
          • Carletonville
Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
      • Krugersdorp
Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
  • Limpopo
    • Capricorn District
Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
  • Mpumalanga
    • Ehlanzeni District
      • Mbombela (Nelspruit)
Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997)
  • North West
    • Dr Kenneth Kaunda District
      • Ventersdorp
Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
  • Castile and Leon
    • Salamanca
Roda, E., Fontán, F., Pesquera, A., & Keller, P. (2001). Phosphate mineral associations of the Aldehuela de la Bóveda, Li-Sn-Nb+-Tb bearing pegmatite, Salamanca, Spain: . In Mineral Deposits at the Beginning of the 21 st Century. Proceedings of the Joint sixth Biennial SGA-SEG Meeting (pp. 477-480).
      • Garcirrey
Encarnación Roda-Robles, Alfonso Pesquera (2007) Locality no. 4: The Phosphates-Rich Cañada Pegmatite (Aldehuela de La Bóveda, Salamanca, Spain) in ALEXANDRE LIMA & ENCARNACIÓN RODA ROBLES ed (2007) GRANITIC PEGMATITES: THE STATE OF THE ART - FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK. MEMÓRIAS N. º 9, UNIV. DO PORTO, FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS, DEPARTAMENTO DE GEOLOGIA pp 67-72.
    • Zamora
      • Villar del Buey
Robles, E. R., Fontan, F., Pesquera Pérez, A., & Keller, P. (1998). The Fe-Mn phosphate associations from the Pinilla de Fermoselle pegmatite, Zamora, Spain: occurrence of kryzhanovskite and natrodufrénite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 155-168.
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Day
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • Treverbyn
        • Stenalees
Elton, N. J. (1998): Barbosalite, frondelite and other phosphates from Gunheath China Clay Pit, St Austell, Cornwall, England. Journal of the Russell Society 7, 15-18. ; Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 517-518.
  • Scotland
    • Outer Hebrides
J. R. Hawkes, R. J. Merriman, R. R. Harding, and D. P. F. Darbyshire (1975), Rep. Inst. geol. Sci. 75/I, p. 25.; Young, B.R., Hawkes, J.R., Merriman, R.J. and Styles, M.T. (1978) Bazirite, BaZrSi3O9, a New Mineral from Rockall Island, Inverness-shire, Scotland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 321, 35-40.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, 169-177.
Young, B. R., Hawkes, J. R., Merriman, R. J., & Styles, M. T. (1978). Bazirite, BaZrSi 3 O 9, a new mineral from Rockall Island, Inverness-shire, Scotland. Mineral Mag, 42, 35-40.
  • Alabama
    • Cherokee Co.
    • Coosa Co.
Rocks & Minerals: 70(5): 320-333.
  • Arizona
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Eureka Mining District
        • Hillside
          • Bagdad Mine area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 132-133, 253-254, 275-276; Leavens, P.B. (1967), Reexamination of bermanite, Am.Min.: 52: 1060-1066.
  • California
    • Fresno Co.
      • Escarpado Canyon
        • Cima Hill
Gulbrandsen, Robert Allen, D.L. Jones, K. McQ. Tagg & D.W. Reeser (1963), Apatitized wood and leucophosphite in nodules in the Moreno formation, California: USGS PP 475-C: 100-104; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 243; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 310, 314.
    • San Diego County
      • Pala Mining District
        • Pala
          • Tourmaline Queen Mountain (Pala Mtn; Queen Mtn)
Van King
  • Colorado
    • Larimer Co.
      • Crystal Mountain Pegmatite Mining District (Storm Mountain Mining District)
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
  • Indiana
    • Pike Co.
Coveney, R.M., A.V. Allen, J.C. Blankenship & W.B. Simmons (1984) Hawleyite and phosphate minerals from Bethel Church, Indiana, including a second occurrence for ferrostrunzite: The Mineralogical Record: 15: 351-357.
  • Maine
    • Oxford County
      • Greenwood
        • Uncle Tom Mountain
Falster, A. U., Simmons, W. B., Webber, K. L., Dallaire, D. A., Nizamoff, J. W., & Sprague, R. A. (2019). The Emmons Pegmatite, Greenwood, Oxford County, Maine. Rocks & Minerals, 94(6), 498-519.
  • Nevada
    • Elko Co.
      • Carlin Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Eureka Co.
      • Carlin Trend
        • Maggie Creek Mining Subdistrict
MinRec 26(5):449-469.
      • Gibellini Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; [Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 4, 362
      • Lynn Mining District
        • Elko
Mineralogical Record 26:467
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Online Documents OF06-19 - Nevada Uranium and Thorium Occurrences
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Buffalo Mountain Mining District
        • Lone Tree Mine
Rocks & Minerals, Nov. 1999
      • Iron Point Mining District
        • Valmy
Dr. William S. Wise presentation to Northwest Micro Mineral Study Group on 1 May 2004, Update on Mineralogy of the Silver Coin Mine, Iron Point District, Edna Mountains, Humboldt Co., Nevada
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Rocks & Min. 80:251
Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
Mineralogical Record (1973) 4:103-130
  • New Mexico
    • Grant Co.
      • Big Burro Mountains
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
        • Tyrone Area
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
        • Santa Rita
Mineralogical Magazine 60:787-793.
  • North Carolina
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Kings Mountain Mining District
jbs collection
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
      • Custer Mining District
        • Custer
Rocks & Min.:60:117.
        • Fourmile
Campbell, T.J., Roberts, W.L. (1986) Phosphate minerals from the Tip Top mine, Black Hills, South Dakota. The Mineralogical Record: 17: 237-254.; Rocks & Minerals: 60: 117.
        • Pringle
          • Cicero Peak
Rocks & Minerals: 75(3): 156-169.
      • Needles
R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone Mining District
        • Glendale
Rocks & Minerals: 60: 116.
        • Keystone
R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
      • Unorganized mining district [5]
Van King specimen
  • Virginia
    • Giles Co.
      • Pig Hole Cave
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
  • Wisconsin
    • Rusk Co.
      • Ladysmith-Rhinelander Metavolcanic Complex
        • Ladysmith
Jones, C., J. Jones & G. LaBerge, G. (1999) The Flambeau Mine, Ladysmith, Wisconsin. Mineralogical Record, 30 (2), 107-131
Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
Mineral and/or Locality  
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