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Chalcosiderite

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Formula:
CuFe3+6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Colour:
dark green to apple-green
Lustre:
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
3.22
Crystal System:
Triclinic
Member of:
Name:
Named by Johann Christoph Ullmann in 1814 from the Greek for copper and iron, in allusion to its composition.
Isostructural with:
Turquoise Group. Chalcosiderite-Turquoise Series.

An uncommon mineral occurring in the oxidized zone of some hydrothermal deposits.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of ChalcosideriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.DD.15

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
D : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4= 2:1
42.9.3.4

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
9 : (AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
19.2.13

19 : Phosphates
2 : Phosphates of Cu

Pronounciation of ChalcosideriteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of ChalcosideriteHide

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
dark green to apple-green
Streak:
pale green to greenish to white
Hardness:
4½ on Mohs scale
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {001}, perfect, on {010}, good.
Density:
3.22 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.28 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ChalcosideriteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.775 nβ = 1.840 nγ = 1.844
2V:
Measured: 22° , Calculated: 48°
Birefringence:
0.069
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.069
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
relatively strong r > v
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X= Colourless
Z= Pale green

Chemical Properties of ChalcosideriteHide

Formula:
CuFe3+6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Common Impurities:
Al

Crystallography of ChalcosideriteHide

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.653(4) Å, b = 7.873(4) Å, c = 10.19 Å
α = 67.57(2)°, β = 69.17(2)°, γ = 64.93(2)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.972 : 1 : 1.294
Unit Cell V:
500.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1
Morphology:
Crystals short prismatic [001], with large {001}, {010}, {110}, and {111}. Commonly in sheafs, crusts.

Crystallographic forms of ChalcosideriteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
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Chalcosiderite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
6.39 (30)
4.93 (20)
3.76 (100)
3.54 (40)
3.38 (40)
3.01 (40)
2.95 (30)
2.52 (30)
Comments:
ICDD 37-446

Type Occurrence of ChalcosideriteHide

Other Language Names for ChalcosideriteHide

Varieties of ChalcosideriteHide

Alumo-chalcosideriteA aluminian variety of Chalcosiderite.

Relationship of Chalcosiderite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Aheylite(Fe2+,Zn)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
Faustite(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
PlaneriteAl6(PO4)2(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 4 H2OTric. 1 : P1
TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
UM1981-32-PO:FeHFe2+Fe3+6(PO4)4-x[PO3(OH)]x(OH)8·4H2O
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
CyriloviteNaFe3+3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
DufréniteCa0.5Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
LeucophosphiteKFe3+2(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
SaléeiteMg(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10H2O
SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Cacoxenite32 photos of Chalcosiderite associated with Cacoxenite on mindat.org.
Cyrilovite24 photos of Chalcosiderite associated with Cyrilovite on mindat.org.
Aluminian Strengite23 photos of Chalcosiderite associated with Aluminian Strengite on mindat.org.
Dufrénite15 photos of Chalcosiderite associated with Dufrénite on mindat.org.
Quartz12 photos of Chalcosiderite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Strengite10 photos of Chalcosiderite associated with Strengite on mindat.org.
Leucophosphite7 photos of Chalcosiderite associated with Leucophosphite on mindat.org.
Kidwellite6 photos of Chalcosiderite associated with Kidwellite on mindat.org.
Variscite6 photos of Chalcosiderite associated with Variscite on mindat.org.
Wavellite5 photos of Chalcosiderite associated with Wavellite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.DD.05ChenevixiteCu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.DD.05LuetheiteCu2Al2(AsO4)2(OH)4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.DD.10Akrochordite(Mn2+,Mg)5(AsO4)2(OH)4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.DD.10GuanacoiteCu2Mg3(AsO4)2(OH)4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.DD.15Aheylite(Fe2+,Zn)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.DD.15Faustite(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.DD.15PlaneriteAl6(PO4)2(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 4 H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.DD.15TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.DD.15AfmiteAl3(OH)4(H2O)3(PO4)(PO3OH) · H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.DD.20ChildreniteFe2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2OOrth. mm2 : Ccc2
8.DD.20EosphoriteMn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmca
8.DD.20Ernstite(Mn2+,Fe3+)Al(PO4)(OH,O)2 · H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

42.9.3.1TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
42.9.3.2CoeruleolactiteTric. 1 : P1
42.9.3.3Faustite(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
42.9.3.5Aheylite(Fe2+,Zn)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
42.9.3.6PlaneriteAl6(PO4)2(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 4 H2OTric. 1 : P1
42.9.3.6AfmiteAl3(OH)4(H2O)3(PO4)(PO3OH) · H2OTric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.2.1LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
19.2.2CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
19.2.3ReichenbachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4Mon. 2/m
19.2.4LudjibaiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
19.2.5PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.2.6NissoniteCu2Mg2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 5H2OMon.
19.2.7ZapataliteCu3Al4(PO4)3(OH)9 · 4H2OTet.
19.2.8TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.2.9SieleckiiteCu3Al4(PO4)2(OH)12 · 2H2OTric.
19.2.10PlaneriteAl6(PO4)2(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 4 H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.2.11HentscheliteCuFe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2Mon.
19.2.14Phosphofibrite(H2O,K)3.5Fe8(PO4)6(OH)7 · 5H2OMon. 2/m

Fluorescence of ChalcosideriteHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble with difficulty in HCl.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ChalcosideriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Ullmann, J.C. (1824): 323 (as Chalkosiderit).
Maskelyne (1875) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 28: 586.
Schaller (1912) American Journal of Science: 33: 35.
Schaller (1912) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 50: 120.
Jahn and Gruner (1933) Mitt. Vogtland. Ges. Naturfor.: 1, no. 8: 1.
Graham, R. (1947) X-ray study of chalcosiderite and turquoise. Univ. Toronto Studies, Geology Series, 52, 39–53.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 946-951.
Giuseppetti, G., F. Mazzi, and C. Tadini (1989) The crystal structure of chalcosiderite, CuFe3+6(PO4)4(OH)8•4H2O. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 227–239.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 103.
Y. A. Abdu, S. K. Hull, M. Fayek & F. C. Hawthorne (2011): The turquoise-chalcosiderite Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8•4H2O solid-solution series: A Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, EMPA, and FTIR study. American Mineralogist 96, 1433-1442.

Internet Links for ChalcosideriteHide

Localities for ChalcosideriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Canbelego Co.
      • Girilambone
Chapman, J. R., Sharpe, J. L. and Williams, P. A. (2005): The copper deposits at Girilambone, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 91-99.
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill
        • Broken Hill South Mine (BHS Mine; South Mine)
Australian Mineralogist (1997): 3: 1.
  • Queensland
    • Mount Isa City Shire
      • Gunpowder District
        • Mount Gordon
Day, B. E. & Beyer, B. D. (1996): Some mines of the Mt Isa district. Part 3 - The Mt Oxide mine. Australian J. of Mineralogy 2 (1), 3-10.
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
Minerals of Iron Monarch, Glyn L. Francis
    • Flinders Ranges
      • South Flinders Ranges
        • Wilmington
Australian Journal of Mineralogy. Vol 2. No. 2. 1996. 57-70; Mineralogical Magazine 63, 735-741
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • North Mt Lofty Ranges
        • Barossa Valley
          • Angaston
Francis, G.L., Peisley, V., 2012. Minerals from Penrice quarry and the phosphate deposits Klemms and St Kitts, Angaston, South Australia. (self published).
        • Kapunda
Peter Elliott
    • Olary Province
      • Ameroo Hill
Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol.3, N°2, Dec.1997
Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol.3, N°2, Dec.1997
  • Victoria
    • Swan Hill Rural City
      • Lake Boga
[AmMin 85:1321]; Am Min 93:691-697; W.D. Birch & D.A.Henry 1993. Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria special publication No. 3, pp. 14-27; D.A.Henry & W.D.Birch 1998. Sampleite and associated minerals from Lake Boga granite quarry, Victoria, Australia. Australian Mineralogist Vol. 3 Oct.-Dec. 1988, pp. 135-148
Bolivia
 
  • Oruro Department
    • Dalence Province
      • Huanuni
SEM analyses by Gene Foord, U.S. Geological Survey, done as part of an unpublished study of the turquoise group (analyses copies courtesy of Brian Kosnar)
  • Potosí Department
    • Rafael Bustillo Province (Bustillos Province)
      • Llallagua
Mineralogical Record (2006): 37: 117-162.
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Iron Quadrangle
      • Igarapé
        • Itatiaiuçu hills
Luiz Alberto Dias Menezes,Fo.
Bulgaria
 
  • Haskovo Oblast (Khaskovo Oblast)
    • Mineralni Bani Obshtina
      • Spachievo ore field (Spahievo ore field)
http://www.bgd.bg/CONFERENCES/Conferencia_2004/pdf_files/Kunov.pdf; Hikov, A., N. Velinova, S. Georgieva, A. Kunov (2011) Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals in Bulgaria: characteristics and possibility for preservation. - In: V Intern. Symp. “Mineral Diversity Research and Preservation”, 9-15 October 2009, Sofia, Working papers, 37-48.
Chile
 
  • Atacama Region
    • Copiapó Province
      • Zapallar district
samples analysed by Jochen Schluter, Gerhard Mohn and Joy Desor
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Collahuasi District
Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
      • Pozo Almonte
arturo molina & maurizio dini collections
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
No reference listed
Collection M. Kampf No 89-267
Sejkora, J., Škoda, R. and Ondruš, P., 2006: New naturally occurring mineral phases from the Krásno  Horní Slavkov area, western Bohemia, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 51, 159-187.; Sejkora, J., Ondruš, P., Fikar, M., Veselovský, F., Mach, Z., Gabašová, A., Skoda, R. & Beran, P. (2006): Supergene minerals at the Huber stock and Schnöd stock deposits, Krásno ore District, the Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 57-101.; Sejkora, J., Škoda, R., Ondruš, P., Beran, P. & Susser, C. (2006): Mineralogy of phosphate accumulations in the Huber stock, Krásno ore district, Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 103-147.
          • Vysoký Kámen
Sejkora, J., Süsser, C., Plášil, J.: Natrodufrénit a asociace fosfátů, ložisko Vysoký kámen – greisen, Krásno u Horního Slavkova. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2007, roč. 14-15, s. 116-125; Sejkora, J., Ondruš, P., Fikar, M., Veselovský, F., Mach, Z. & Gabašová, A. (2006): New data on mineralogy of the Vysoký Kámen deposits near Krásno, Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 43-55.
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Allier
      • Ébreuil
        • Échassières
G. Aubert : "Les coupoles granitiques de Montebras et d'Echassières (Massif Central Français) et la genèse de leur minéralisations (BRGM, 1969)
Chollet Pascal collection
Pierre Le Roch & Jean-Marc Johannet collections
Le Règne Minéral, (33), 5-25.
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Creuse
      • Soumans
        • Montebras
Patureau, J., Chiappero, P-J. & Lebocey, J. (2011): Mines et minéraux de Montebras, Soumans, Creuse. Le Règne Minéral. 99, 5-33
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Bessines-sur-Gartempe
http://perso.wanadoo.fr/jeldemine/listes%20mineraux.html
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
WALENTA, K. (1995): Neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara. 6. Folge, 2. Teil. - Lapis 20 (6), 41 und 46-49.
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Pleystein
Dill, H.G., Weber, B. (2009), Pleystein-City on Pegmatite, 4th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, Recife, Brazil.
      • Waidhaus
        • Hagendorf
http://www.berthold-weber.de/h_miner.htm
  • Hesse
    • Wetzlar
      • Weilburg
        • Essershausen
Blaß, G. (2002): Eine neue Phosphatmineralien-Paragenese von der Grube Mark bei Essershausen, mittleres Lahngebiet, Taunus. Mineralien-Welt, 13 (6), 18-43. (in German)
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Siegerland
      • Eiserfeld
Henrich, M. (2008): Neues von der Grube Eisenzecher Zug. Mineralien-Welt 19 (5), 16-25.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 950.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Siegerland
      • Herdorf
        • Dermbach
S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990; Overkott, T. & Reinhardt, M. (2007): Dufrenit vom Hollerter Zug im Siegerland. Lapis 32 (11), 42.
    • Westerwald
      • Linz am Rhein
        • Kalenborn
          • Kasbach
Habel, B. & Reinhardt, M. (2011): Die Grube Clemenslust- Geschichte und Mineralogie eines Kupferbergwekes am Südrand des Siebengebirges. Mineralien-Welt. 22 (2): 19-36
      • Wied Iron Spar District
        • Altenkirchen
          • Bürdenbach
Weiss: "Mineralienfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Neuwied
          • Dernbach
Mineralien-Welt, 4 (5), 41-48
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Ehrenfriedersdorf
    • Oberlausitz
      • Görlitz
        • Neißeaue
Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2013): Seltene Phosphate und Vanadate von Emmerichswalde bei Görlitz/Sachsen. Mineralien-Welt 24 (2), 40-55
        • Rengersdorf
T. Witzke & T. Giesler (1997): Neufunde aus Sachsen (VI): Churchit-(Y), Cyrilovit, Faustit, Kidwellit, Meurigit und Nickelhexahydrit aus der Lausitz.- Lapis 22, 9, 36-38
    • Vogtland
      • Klingenthal
        • Kielberg
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 950.
        • Mühlleithen
Fischer, E. (1958): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 6, 182-189.
  • Thuringia
    • Vogtland
      • Hirschberg
        • Ullersreuth
T. Witzke et al.: Lapis 2001(12), 13-27
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
Skarpelis, N. and Argyraki, A. (2009): The geology and origin of supergene ores in Lavrion (Attica, Greece). Resource Geology, 59, 1-14.
Portugal
 
  • Bragança District
    • Torre de Moncorvo
      • Felgar
Pedro Alves collection and analytical data.
  • Évora District
    • Alandroal
      • São Brás dos Matos
Rui Nunes visit 18 July 2015
    • Vila Viçosa
      • Conceição
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Rui Nunes collection
  • Guarda District
    • Gouveia
      • Folgosinho
MEB/EDS AMM285 Museum Paris/Micromonteurs
    • Sabugal
      • Bendada
        • Bendada Mines
Pedro Alves collection; Alves, P. and Mills, S. (2013) Nuevos datos sobre los fosfatos de Bendada, Sabugal (Portugal). Acopios, 4, 349-377
Spain
 
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Ciudad Real
      • Minas de Horcajo
Borja Sainz de Baranda, Fernando J. Palero, Gonzalo Garcia (2004) El Horcajo. Paraiso de los fosfatos. Bocamina, 13: 30-68
  • Catalonia
    • Tarragona
      • Priorat
        • Cornudella de Montsant
J. Rosell (02/2016)
  • Extremadura
    • Badajoz
      • Cheles
Cesar Menor-Salván
    • Cáceres
      • Zarza la Mayor
Viñals, J. and Calvo, M. (2011). Secondary phosphates of La Paloma mine, Zarza la Mayor, Cáceres, Spain. Mineral Up 2 (5), 8-31.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Callington District
        • Calstock
          • Drakewalls
Craik-Smith, B. (2000): British Micromount Society Newsletter 55, 8
          • Gunnislake
            • Clitters United Mines
Collection Richard De Nul
      • Liskeard District
        • Linkinhorne
          • Minions
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 802, 950; American Mineralogist (1965): 50: 227; Lapis (1999): 12: 9; Mineralogical Record: 12: 351-352.
Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 2, pp. 591-594
Rudler, F.W. (1905): A Handbook to a Collection of the Minerals of the British Islands, Mostly Selected from the Ludlam Collection. HMSO Publications (London), 241 pp.
P D Trebilcock.
      • St Austell District
        • Treverbyn
          • Stenalees
Elton, N. J. (1998): Barbosalite, frondelite and other phosphates from Gunheath China Clay Pit, St Austell, Cornwall, England. Journal of the Russell Society 7, 15-18. ; Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 517-518.
    • Devon
      • Tavistock District
        • Tavistock Hamlets
No reference listed
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 74.
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 167.
    • Santa Cruz Co.
      • Patagonia Mts
Raman analyzed at the University of Arizona.
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Clark Mts (Clark Mountain Range)
        • Clark Mountain District (Clark District)
          • Mohawk Hill
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
  • Colorado
    • Conejos Co.
      • Manassa
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 13, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
  • Georgia
    • Polk Co.
      • Cedartown
Min News 14:4 p 3
  • Montana
    • Silver Bow Co.
The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
  • Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Golconda District
Collected by Joe Marty.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Iron Point District
        • Valmy
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Lander Co.
      • Bateman Canyon District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Birch Creek District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Lyon Co.
      • Yerington District
        • Artesia Lake
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Grant Co.
      • Burro Mountains District
        • Tyrone Area
Min Rec 20:1 p57
    • Socorro Co.
      • Hansonburg District
        • Bingham
M Massis collection (microprobe by Paul Hlava)
  • Virginia
    • Buckingham Co.
      • Farmville District
        • Sprouses Corner
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Gems and Minerals of America-Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
      • James River-Roanoke River Manganese District
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Mineral and/or Locality  
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