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Pyrope

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Formula:
Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
System:
Isometric
Colour:
Blood red, orange red, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
Name:
From the Greek, pyropos, "fiery-eyed" in allusion to the red hue.
Dimorph of:
Garnet Group.
Almandine-Pyrope Series, Knorringite-Pyrope Series, Pyrope-Grossular Series.

Occurs predominantly in ultrabasic igneous rocks.

Pure end-member pyrope is colorless! (but rare).

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Pyrope.

Classification of Pyrope

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
9.AD.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
51.4.3a.1

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
16.7.1

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
7 : Aluminosilicates of Mg
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Type Occurrence of Pyrope

Year of Discovery:
1803

Physical Properties of Pyrope

Vitreous
Colour:
Blood red, orange red, purple red, pink, black red, colorless.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:
None Observed
None
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
3.582 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Pyrope

Crystal System:
Isometric
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.45Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,501.12 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Pyrope

Type:
Isotropic

Chemical Properties of Pyrope

Formula:
Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Mn,Ca

Relationship of Pyrope to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Almandine (see here)
Forms a series with Knorringite (see here)
Forms a series with Grossular (see here)
Forms a series with Majorite (see here)
Forms a series with Spessartine (see here)
Other Members of Group:
AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
BerzeliiteNaCa2(Mg,Mn2+)2(AsO4)3
BitikleiteCa3SbSn(AlO4)3
BlythiteMn32+Mn23+[SiO4]3
Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3
DzhuluiteCa3SbSnFe33+O12
ElbrusiteCa3U6+ZrFe23+Fe2+O12
GoldmaniteCa3V23+(SiO4)3
GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12
IrinarassiteCa3Sn2Al2SiO12
KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
KhohariteMg3Fe23+(SiO4)3
KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3
KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3
MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
Menzerite-(Y){(Y,REE),(Ca,Fe2+)}3{(Mg,Fe2+),(Fe3+,Al)}2[SiO4]3
Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V23+(SiO4)3
MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Palenzonaite(Ca,Na)3CaMn22+(VO4)3
SchäferiteCa2NaMg2(VO4)3
SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
SkiagiteFe32+Fe23+[SiO4]3
SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
UsturiteCa3SbZr(Fe3+O4)3
UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
YafsoaniteCa3Zn3(TeO6)2
9.AD.05LarniteCa2SiO4
9.AD.10Calcio-olivineCa2SiO4
9.AD.15MerwiniteCa3Mg(SiO4)2
9.AD.20BredigiteCa7Mg(SiO4)4
9.AD.25AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
9.AD.25AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25GoldmaniteCa3V23+(SiO4)3
9.AD.25GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
9.AD.25HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25HydroandraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25Wadalite(Ca,Mg)6(Al,Fe3+)4((Si,Al)O4)3O4Cl3
9.AD.25HoltstamiteCa3(Al,Mn3+)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
9.AD.25KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
9.AD.25ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
9.AD.25Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V23+(SiO4)3
9.AD.25EltyubyuiteCa12Fe103+Si4O32Cl6
9.AD.25HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12
9.AD.30Coffinite(U4+,Th)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x
9.AD.30HafnonHfSiO4
9.AD.30Thorite(Th,U)SiO4
9.AD.30ZirconZrSiO4
9.AD.30StetinditeCe4+SiO4
9.AD.35HuttoniteThSiO4
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)Y4(Si,H4)4O12-x(OH)4+2x
9.AD.40EulytineBi4(SiO4)3
9.AD.45ReiditeZrSiO4
16.7.2Sapphirine(Mg,Fe)4-xAl4+x[Al4+xSi2-xO18]O2
16.7.3Sapphirine-1A(Mg,Al,Fe2+)8[(Al,Si,Fe3+)6O18]O2
16.7.4MagnesiochloritoidMgAl2(SiO4)O(OH)2
16.7.5KulkeiteMg8Al(AlSi7O20)(OH)10
16.7.6Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
16.7.7SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
16.7.8AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2O
16.7.9Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
16.7.10Baumite(Mg,Al,Mn,Zn,Fe)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4

Other Names for Pyrope

Name in Other Languages:
Dutch:Pyroop
German:Vogesit
Hungarian:Pirop
Italian:Piropo
Lithuanian:Piropas
Polish:Pirop
Russian:Пироп
Simplified Chinese:镁铝榴石
Slovak:Pyrop
Spanish:Vogesita
Swedish:Pyrop
Traditional Chinese:鎂鋁榴石
Ukrainian:Піроп

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Pyrope

Reference List:
Klaproth, M.H. (1797): Untersuchung des böhmischen Granats, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Zweiter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 16-21

American Mineralogist (1971): 56: 791.

Kolesnik, Y.N., Nogteva, V.V., and Paukov, I.Y. (1977) The specific heat of pyrope at 13 to 300 K and the thermodynamic parameters of some natural varieties of garnet. Geochemistry International 1977: 126-133.

Richet, P. and Bottinga, Y. (1984b) Anorthite, andesine, wollastonite, diopside, cordierite, and pyrope thermodynamics of melting, glass transitions, and properties of the amorphous phases. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 67: 415-432.

Rossman, G.R., Rauch, F., Livi, R., Tombrello, T.A., Shi, C.R., and Zhoi, Z.Y. (1988) Nuclear reaction analysis of hydrogen in almandine, pyrope and spessartine garnets. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Monatshefte: 4: 172-178.

Hofmeister, A.M. and Chopelas, A. (1991) Thermodynamic properties of pyrope and grossular from vibrational spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 76: 880-891.

American Mineralogist (1992): 77: 512-521.

Pavese, A., Artioli, G., and Moze, O. (1998) Inelastic neutron scattering from pyrope powder: experimental data and theoretical calculations. European Journal of Mineralogy: 1: 59-70.

Wang, L., E.J. Essene, & Y. Zhang (1999): Mineral inclusions in pyrope crystals from Garnet Ridge, Arizona, USA; implications for processes in the upper mantle. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 135: 164-178.

Gwanmesia, G.D., J. Liu, G. Chen, S. Kesson, S.M. Rigden, & R.C. Liebermann (2000): Elasticity of the pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12) - majorite (MgSiO3) garnets solid solution. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 27: 445-452.

Kolesov, B.A. and Geiger, C.A. (2000): Low-temperature single-crystal Raman spectrum of pyrope. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 27: 645-649.

Wang, L., Essene, E.J., and Zhang, Y. (2000): Direct observation of immiscibility in pyrope-almandine-grossular garnet. American Mineralogist: 85: 41-46.

Li, L., Hongbo Long, Paul Raterron, & Dnald Weidner (2006): Plastic flow of pyrope at mantle pressure and temperature. American Mineralogist: 91: 517-525.

Internet Links for Pyrope

Localities for Pyrope

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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