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Almandine

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Formula:
Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
System:IsometricColour:Deep red, brownish red, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, ResinousHardness:7 - 7½
Member of:Garnet Structural Group
Name:Named in 1546 by Georgius Agricola [Georg Bauer] for Alabanda in Turkey, an ancient gem cutting center, presumably where almandine was fashioned into gemstones.


Garnet Group. Almandine-Pyrope Series, Almandine-Spessartine Series.

Most common garnet. Occurs in metamorphic and pegmatitic rocks.

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Classification of Almandine

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/A.08-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AD.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:51.4.3a.2

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.17.1

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
17 : Aluminosilicates of Fe
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Type Occurrence of Almandine

Type Locality:Alabanda, Aydin Province, Aegean Region, Turkey

Occurrences of Almandine

Geological Setting:The most common garnet, typically in mica schists and gneisses, from regionally metamorphosed argillaceous sediments and pelites; also in contact metamorphic hornfels. In granites and eclogites; in sedimentary rocks; as a detrital mineral.

Physical Properties of Almandine

Lustre:Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Deep red, brownish red, red-violet, black
Comment:may be sectored
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):7 - 7½
Tenacity:Brittle
Parting:On {110}
Fracture:Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):4.318 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.313 g/cm3

Crystallography of Almandine

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:Ia3d
Cell Parameters:a = 11.526Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,531.21 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:8
Morphology:Typically well-formed dodecahedra or trapezohedra, to 1 m; also in rounded grains and massive.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Almandine

Type:Isotropic
RI values: n = 1.83
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:Very High
Comments:Anomalously biaxial.

Chemical Properties of Almandine

Formula:
Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Essential elements:Al, Fe, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, Fe, O, Si

Relationship of Almandine to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Pyrope (see here)
Forms a series with Spessartine (see here)
Member of:Garnet Structural Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Andradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Berzeliite
NaCa
 
2
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Bitikleite
Ca
 
3
SbSn(AlO
 
4
)
 
3
Blythite
Mn
2+
3
Mn
3+
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
3
Calderite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Dzhuluite
Ca
 
3
SbSnFe
3+
3
O
 
12
Elbrusite
Ca
 
3
U
6+
 
ZrFe
3+
2
Fe
2+
 
O
 
12
Goldmanite
Ca
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Grossular
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Henritermierite
Ca
 
3
(Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
Hutcheonite
Ca
 
3
Ti
 
2
(SiAl
 
2
)O
 
12
Irinarassite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
Al
 
2
SiO
 
12
Katoite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
Kerimasite
Ca
 
3
Zr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
Khoharite
Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Kimzeyite
Ca
 
3
(Zr,Ti)
 
2
((Si,Al,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
Knorringite
Mg
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Majorite
Mg
 
3
(Fe
2+
 
,Si,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Menzerite-(Y)
{(Y,REE),(Ca,Fe
2+
 
)}
 
3
{(Mg,Fe
2+
 
),(Fe
3+
 
,Al)}
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
3
Momoiite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Morimotoite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
Palenzonaite
(Ca,Na)
 
3
CaMn
2+
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Pyrope
Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Schäferite
Ca
 
2
NaMg
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Schorlomite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
Skiagite
Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
3
Spessartine
Mn
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Toturite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
Usturite
Ca
 
3
SbZr(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
3
Uvarovite
Ca
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Yafsoanite
Ca
 
3
Zn
 
3
(TeO
 
6
)
 
2
Common Associates:
StauroliteSillimanitePyroxene GroupKyaniteHematite
CordieriteChlorite GroupBiotiteAndalusiteAmphibole Supergroup
Albite-Anorthite Series
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AD.05Larnite
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AD.10Calcio-olivine
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AD.15Merwinite
Ca
 
3
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.20Bredigite
Ca
 
7
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
9.AD.25Andradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Calderite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Goldmanite
Ca
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Grossular
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Henritermierite
Ca
 
3
(Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.AD.25Hibschite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Hydroandradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Katoite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Kimzeyite
Ca
 
3
(Zr,Ti)
 
2
((Si,Al,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Knorringite
Mg
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Majorite
Mg
 
3
(Fe
2+
 
,Si,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Morimotoite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Pyrope
Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Schorlomite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Spessartine
Mn
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Uvarovite
Ca
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Wadalite
(Ca,Mg)
 
6
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
((Si,Al)O
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
4
Cl
 
3
9.AD.25Holtstamite
Ca
 
3
(Al,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.AD.25Kerimasite
Ca
 
3
Zr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.25Toturite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.25Momoiite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Eltyubyuite
Ca
 
12
Fe
3+
10
Si
 
4
O
 
32
Cl
 
6
9.AD.25Hutcheonite
Ca
 
3
Ti
 
2
(SiAl
 
2
)O
 
12
9.AD.30Coffinite
(U
4+
 
,Th)(SiO
 
4
)
 
1-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.30Hafnon
HfSiO
 
4
9.AD.30Thorite
(Th,U)SiO
 
4
9.AD.30Zircon
ZrSiO
 
4
9.AD.30Stetindite
Ce
4+
 
SiO
 
4
9.AD.35Huttonite
ThSiO
 
4
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)
Y
 
4
(Si,H
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
12-x
(OH)
 
4+2x
9.AD.40Eulytine
Bi
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.45Reidite
ZrSiO
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.17.2Macaulayite
(Fe,Al)
 
24
Si
 
4
O
 
43
(OH)
 
2

Other Names for Almandine

Synonyms:
Adelaide-rubinAdelaide rubyAlabandine RubyAlamandineAlmandine Garnet
AlmanditeOriental Garnet
Other Languages:
Basque:Almandino
Czech:Almandin
Dutch:Almandien
French:Almandin
Galician:Alabandina
German:Almandin
Almandit
Hungarian:Almandin
Italian:Almandino
Latin:Alabandicus (of Pliny)
Lithuanian:Almandinas
Polish:Almandyn
Russian:Альмандин
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Алмандин
Simplified Chinese:铁铝榴石
贵榴石
Slovenian:Almandin
Spanish:Almandita
Swedish:Almandin
Traditional Chinese:鐵鋁榴石
貴榴石
Varieties:
DhanrasiteStar Garnet

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Abrasive.

References for Almandine

Reference List:

- +
Rossman, G.R., Rauch, F., Livi, R., Tombrello, T.A., Shi, C.R., and Zhoi, Z.Y. (1988) Nuclear reaction analysis of hydrogen in almandine, pyrope and spessartine garnets. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Monatshefte: 4: 172-178.

American Mineralogist (1992): 77: 512-521.

Wang, L., Essene, E.J., and Zhang, Y. (2000) Direct observation of immiscibility in pyrope-almandine-grossular garnet. American Mineralogist: 85: 41-46.

Mindat.org articles about Almandine

Article entries:
Hiding Cherry Jewels: Collecting at the Ruby Jewel Mine in Hardwood LakeMichael Adamowicz

Internet Links for Almandine

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Almandine details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Almandine

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