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Annabergite

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Formula:
Ni
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Green, light grey to ...
Lustre:Sub-Adamantine, Sub-Vitreous, Pearly, EarthyHardness:1½ - 2½
Member of:Vivianite Group
Name:
Named by Henry J. Brooke and William Hallowes Miller in 1852 after one of the co-type localities, Annaberg, Saxony, Germany.


Vivianite Group, Annabergite-Erythrite Series.

Annabergite is the nickel analogue of Erythrite.

It is often found as a green alteration coating on other nickel minerals.

Classification of Annabergite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/C.13-80
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.CE.40

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
E : With only medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O about 1:2.5
Dana 7th edition ID:40.3.6.4
Dana 8th edition ID:40.3.6.4

40 : HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
3 : A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:20.10.9

20 : Arsenates (also arsenates with phosphate, but without other anions)
10 : Arsenates of Co and Ni
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Type Occurrence of Annabergite

Type Locality:Teichgräber Flacher vein, Teichgräber deep adit, Kippenhain Mine (Kippenhayn Mine), Schreckenberg, Frohnau, Annaberg-Buchholz, Annaberg District, Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany
General Appearance of Type Material:Green bladed crystals and green coatings
Year of Discovery:1852
Geological Setting of type material:Oxide zone in a nickel-bearing sulfide deposit
Associated Minerals at type locality:
Fluorite

Occurrences of Annabergite

Geological Setting:An uncommon oxidation zone mineral in Ni-Co-As deposits, frequently post-mine on ores exposed to the atmosphere.

Physical Properties of Annabergite

Lustre:Sub-Adamantine, Sub-Vitreous, Pearly, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:Pearly on {010} cleavage, dull when massive.
Colour:Green, light grey to light apple green, white; pale rose red when rich in cobalt.
Comment:Color may be light pink or light rose at Co:Ni ~ 1:1 (50-50 rule), then becomes white or gray, pale green, and apple-green in the Annabergite end of the series.
Streak:Pale green to white (paler than the mineral color).
Hardness (Mohs):1½ - 2½
Comment:Softest on {010}.
Tenacity:Sectile
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {010}, indistinct on {100}, {102}.
Translation gliding:T{010}, t[001].
Comment:Flexible in thin {010} laminae
Density (measured):3.07 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.146 g/cm3
Comment:3.0 (artificial material).

Crystallography of Annabergite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/m {B1 1 2/m} {C2/m} {C1 2/m 1}
Space Group Setting:C2/m
Cell Parameters:a = 10.179(2) Å, b = 13.309(3) Å, c = 4.725(1) Å
β = 105.00(1)°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.765 : 1 : 0.355
Unit Cell Volume:V 618.30 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals usually rare and of poor quality, prismatic to acicular [001] and flattened {010}. Crystals are deeply striated or furrowed [001], also striated on {010} parallel to {h)l} or {_h0l}. Commonly as fine crystalline coatings or earthy.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
7.82 (25)
6.58 (100)
4.33 (20)
3.18 (26)
2.98 (30)
2.71 (18)
2.67 (14)
Comments:ICDD 11-625

Optical Data of Annabergite

Type:Biaxial (+/-)
RI values: nα = 1.622 nβ = 1.658 nγ = 1.687
2V:Measured: 84° , Calculated: 82°
Birefringence:0.065
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.065

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:relatively weak r > v
Optical Extinction:X=b, Z^c=36°
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic
Comments:Usually biaxial +, May be biaxial negative

Chemical Properties of Annabergite

Formula:
Ni
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Ni3(AsO4)2·8H2O
Essential elements:As, H, Ni, O
All elements listed in formula:As, H, Ni, O
Common Impurities:Co,Mg,Ca,Zn,Fe

Relationship of Annabergite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Erythrite (see here)
Member of:Vivianite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Arupite
Ni
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Babánekite
Cu
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Barićite
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Erythrite
Co
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Hörnesite
Mg
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Köttigite
Zn
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Manganohörnesite
(Mn,Mg)
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Pakhomovskyite
Co
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Parasymplesite
Fe
2+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Vivianite
Fe
2+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Common Associates:
RetgersiteNickelskutteruditeNickelineMaucheriteGersdorffite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.CE.05Chudobaite
(Mg,Zn)
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.CE.05Geigerite
Mn
2+
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.CE.10Newberyite
Mg(HPO
 
4
) · 3H
 
2
O
8.CE.15Brassite
Mg(HAsO
 
4
) · 4H
 
2
O
8.CE.20Phosphorrösslerite
Mg(HPO
 
4
) · 7H
 
2
O
8.CE.20Rösslerite
Mg(HAsO
 
4
) · 7H
 
2
O
8.CE.25Metaswitzerite
Mn
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CE.25Switzerite
(Mn,Fe)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
8.CE.30Lindackerite
CuCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8-9H
 
2
O
8.CE.30Ondrušite
CaCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.CE.30Veselovskýite
ZnCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 9H
 
2
O
8.CE.30Pradetite
CoCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 9H
 
2
O
8.CE.30Klajite
MnCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 9-10H
 
2
O
8.CE.35Bobierrite
Mg
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Arupite
Ni
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Barićite
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Erythrite
Co
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Ferrisymplesite
Fe
3+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
3
· 5H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Hörnesite
Mg
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Köttigite
Zn
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Manganohörnesite
(Mn,Mg)
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Parasymplesite
Fe
2+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Vivianite
Fe
2+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.40Pakhomovskyite
Co
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.45Symplesite
Fe
2+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.50Cattiite
Mg
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 22H
 
2
O
8.CE.55Koninckite
Fe
3+
 
PO
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
8.CE.60Kaňkite
FeAsO
 
4
· 3.5H
 
2
O
8.CE.65Steigerite
Al(VO
 
4
) · 3H
 
2
O
8.CE.70Metaschoderite
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(VO
 
4
) · 6H
 
2
O
8.CE.70Schoderite
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(VO
 
4
) · 8H
 
2
O
8.CE.75Malhmoodite
FeZr(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CE.75Zigrasite
MgZr(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CE.75Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Zigrasite)
CaZr[PO
 
4
]
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CE.80Santabarbaraite
Fe
3+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
3
· 5H
 
2
O
8.CE.85Metaköttigite
(Zn,Fe,Fe)
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8(H
 
2
O,OH)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
20.10.1Erythrite
Co
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
20.10.2Cobaltaustinite
CaCo(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
20.10.3Roselite
Ca
 
2
(Co
2+
 
,Mg)(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
20.10.4β-Roselite
Ca
 
2
(Co
2+
 
,Mg)(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
20.10.5Wendwilsonite
Ca
 
2
Mg(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
20.10.6Cobaltkoritnigite
(Co,Zn)(HAsO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
20.10.7Aerugite
Ni
 
8.5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
As
5+
 
O
 
8
20.10.8Xanthiosite
Ni
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
20.10.10Smolyaninovite
(Co,Ni,Mg,Ca)
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
· 11H
 
2
O
20.10.11Nickelaustinite
Ca(Ni,Zn)(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
40.3.6.1Vivianite
Fe
2+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O

Other Names for Annabergite

Synonyms:
Arsenate of NickelCordilleriteNickel BloomNickel GreenNickel Ocher
Nickelocker
Other Languages:
French:Nickel Arseniaté
German:Annabergit
Nickelblüte
Nickelblüthe
Latin:Niccoli calciforme
Ochra niccoli
Russian:Аннабергит
Simplified Chinese:镍华
Spanish:Annabergita
Varieties:
Calcian AnnabergiteCobaltoan Magnesian AnnabergiteMagnesian AnnabergiteZincian Annabergite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Annabergite

Reference List:

- +
Cronstedt A. (1758) Mineralogie; eller Mineral-Rikets Upstallning. 12mo, Stockholm: 218 (as Ochra Niccoli, & Niccolum calciforme).

Brooke, H.J. and Miller, W.H. (1852) Introduction to Mineralogy by Wm. Phillips, London, 1823. New edition by Brooke and Miller. 8vo, London: 503.

Brezina (1872) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 19.

Mügge (1884) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie: I: 53.

Heddle (1889) Mineralogical Magazine: 8: 200.

Mügge (1898) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie: I: 74.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 817.

de Schulten (1904) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 136: 1444.

Sachs (1906) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 198.

Shannon, Green (1910) Transactions of the Canadian Institute, Toronto: 8: 443.

Lincio (1914) Sitzbereicht Heidelberg Ak. Wiss., Math-phys. Kl., Abh.: 15.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 33.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 40, 72.

Ulrich (1926) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 64: 143.

Hintze, Carl (1933) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 1261, 1264.

Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 120, 178.

Barth (1937) American Mineralogist: 22: 325.

Wolfe (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 804.

Friedlaender (1942) Verh. Schweiz. naturfor. Ges.: 112.

Sinkler (1942) Economic Geology: 37: 136.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 746.

European Journal of Mineralogy: 8: 187-192.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 20.

Best Localities for Annabergite

Best of Species:Annabergite

Internet Links for Annabergite

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    Localities for Annabergite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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