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Birnessite

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Formula:
(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Colour:
Black; dark brown in transmitted light
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Sub-Metallic, Dull, Earthy
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
3
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named in 1956 by Lloyd Hugh Parker Jones and Angela Alice Milne for the type locality at Birness, Scotland, UK. Earlier called "manganous manganite" by McMurdie (1944).
Isostructural with:
Generally massive, either earthy or as a resinous to dull fine-grained deposit. Sometime is a replacing material of manganese minerals, including silicates. Occurs in some manganese oxide dendrites. Rarely as dark brown needle crystals.Birnessite Group.
See also vernadite.

Many manganese oxides are better identified using infra-red spectroscopy than by x-ray diffraction because of issues of crystal size, disorder, etc. (Potter and Rossman, 1979).

Compare 'UM1979-06-O:CaHMn' (reported as the Ca analogue, but structurally different).

May mineralize fungal (Alternaria spp., Cladosporium spp.) hyphae, as known from a siderite boulder and from a soil (vide Burford et al., 2003).


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Classification of BirnessiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.FL.45

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
L : Hydroxides with H2O +- (OH); sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
7.5.3.1

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
5 : (AB)2X3
7.18.11

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn

Physical Properties of BirnessiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Sub-Metallic, Dull, Earthy
Transparency:
Opaque
Comment:
Usually fine-grained massive
Colour:
Black; dark brown in transmitted light
Streak:
Dark brown to brown
Hardness:
1½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Density:
3 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.4 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Usually earthy

Optical Data of BirnessiteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.730 nε = 1.690
Birefringence:
0.040
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.040
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
weak to moderate
Optical Extinction:
Parallel. Refractive indices not far from pyrochroite.
Comments:
The mineral is pseudo-uniaxial (-); an identification by optical properties is impossible.

Chemical Properties of BirnessiteHide

Formula:
(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
IMA Formula:
(Na,Ca,K)0.6(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Common Impurities:
Cl,Co,Cu,Fe,K,Ni,Mg,S,Si

Crystallography of BirnessiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.175 Å, b = 2.850 Å, c = 7.337 Å
β = 103.18°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.816 : 1 : 2.574
Unit Cell V:
105.36 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1
Morphology:
Rarely in platelets, to 50 µm; commonly extremely finely crystalline, spherulitic, cellular. Rarely as divergent sprays of acicular crystals.
Comment:
Z also given as 0.5

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.08 (100)
3.547 (28)
2.468 (17)
2.333 (43)
2.031 (24)
1.711 (29)
1.426 (17)
Comments:
Birnessite frequently yields only 2-4 x-ray diffraction peaks. Data above recorded on a marine nodule from the Caribbean Sea; all reflections are typically very broad. See extensive d-value set ICDD 23-1046 (synthetic): 7.09 (100), 5.60 (10), 3.56 (80), 2.74 (10), 2.58 (10), 2.56 (10), 2.51 (70), 2.47 (10), 2.42 (60), 2.31 (10), 2.26 (10), 2.25 (10), 2.21 (40) 2.15 (40), 2.14 (40), 2.09 (10), 1.97 (10), 1.94 (10), 1.86 (40), 1.82 (40), 1.81 (40), 1.77 (20), 1.75 (10), 1.66 (20), 1.63 (20), 1.55 (10), 1.53 (10), 1.52 (10), 1.47 (60), 1.43 (50), 1.41 (40) 1.37 (20). Data from ICDD 13-105 and 18-802 have been superceded.

Type Occurrence of BirnessiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Black coating or cement on pebbles
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Concretion in an unconsolidated glacial sedimentary deposit
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of BirnessiteHide

Other Language Names for BirnessiteHide

German:Birnessit
Simplified Chinese:水钠锰矿
钠水锰矿
Spanish:Birnessita

Relationship of Birnessite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2OTrig. 3 : P3
Takanelite(Mn,Ca)Mn4O9 · H2OHex.

Common AssociatesHide

Manganese OxidesA review on these minerals has been published by Post (1999).
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Todorokite51 photos of Birnessite associated with Todorokite on mindat.org.
Romanèchite49 photos of Birnessite associated with Romanèchite on mindat.org.
Ranciéite20 photos of Birnessite associated with Ranciéite on mindat.org.
Calcite10 photos of Birnessite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Aegirine9 photos of Birnessite associated with Aegirine on mindat.org.
Serandite8 photos of Birnessite associated with Serandite on mindat.org.
Microcline8 photos of Birnessite associated with Microcline on mindat.org.
Kingsmountite4 photos of Birnessite associated with Kingsmountite on mindat.org.
Eudialyte Group4 photos of Birnessite associated with Eudialyte Group on mindat.org.
Leucophanite4 photos of Birnessite associated with Leucophanite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.FL.TrébeurdeniteFe2+2Fe3+4O2(OH)10CO3·3H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05WoodalliteMg6Cr2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig.
4.FL.05IowaiteMg6Fe3+2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05JamboriteNi2+1-xCo3+x(OH)2-x(SO4)x · nH2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05MeixneriteMg6Al2(OH)16(OH)2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05MuskoxiteMg7Fe4O13 · 10H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)
4.FL.05FougèriteFe2+4Fe3+2(OH)12[CO3]·3H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.10HydrocalumiteCa4Al2(OH)12(Cl,CO3,OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2 : P21
4.FL.15KuzeliteCa4Al2(OH)12[SO4] · 6H2OTrig.
4.FL.20Aurorite(Mn2+,Ag,Ca)Mn4+3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
4.FL.20Chalcophanite(Zn,Fe,Mn)Mn3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
4.FL.20ErnienickeliteNiMn3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
4.FL.20Jianshuiite(Mg,Mn,Ca)Mn3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
4.FL.25WoodruffiteZn2+x/2(Mn4+1-xMn3+x)O2·yH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
4.FL.30Asbolane(Ni,Co)2-xMn4+(O,OH)4 · nH2OHex.
4.FL.35BuseriteNa4Mn14O27 · 21H2O
4.FL.40Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2OTrig. 3 : P3
4.FL.40Takanelite(Mn,Ca)Mn4O9 · H2OHex.
4.FL.55CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
4.FL.60JenseniteCu3[TeO6] · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
4.FL.65LeisingiteCuMg2Te6+O6 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : P3
4.FL.70Akdalaite5Al2O3 · H2OHex.
4.FL.75CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
4.FL.80MouriteUMo5O12(OH)10Mon.
4.FL.85DeloryiteCu4(UO2)(MoO4)2(OH)6Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.18.1ManganositeMnOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.18.2HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.18.3PyrolusiteMnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.18.4RamsdelliteMn4+O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.18.5Akhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
7.18.6FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
7.18.7ManganiteMn3+O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.18.8GroutiteMn3+O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.18.9Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2Hex.
7.18.10PyrochroiteMn(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.18.12Aurorite(Mn2+,Ag,Ca)Mn4+3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.18.13CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m

Fluorescence of BirnessiteHide

Not fluorescent in UV

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BirnessiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
McMurdie, H.F. (1944) Microscopic and diffraction studies on dry cells and their raw materials. Transactions of the Electrochemical Society: 86: 313. [M.A. 9-227.]
McMurdie, H.F., Golovato, E. (1948) Study of the modifications of manganese dioxide. Journal of research of the National Bureau of Standards: 41: 589-600.
Feitknecht, W., Marti, W. (1945) Uber die oxydation von Mn(OH)2 mit molekularem sauerstoff. Helvetica Chimica Acta: 28: 129-148. (in German)
Jones, L.H.P., Milne, A.A. (1956) Birnessite, a new manganese oxide mineral from Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Mineralogical Magazine: 31: 283-288.
Fleischer, M. (1957) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 42: 440-444.
Frondel, C., Marvin, U.B. and Ito, J. (1960) New data on birnessite and hollandite. American Mineralogist, 45, 871-875.
Brown, F.H., Pabst, A., Sawyer, D.L. (1971) Birnessite on colemanite at Boron, California. American Mineralogist: 56: 1057-1064.
Glover, E.D. (1977) Characterization of a marine birnessite. American Mineralogist: 62: 278-285.
Potter, R.M. and Rossman, G.R. (1979) The tetravalent manganese oxides: identification, hydration, and structural relationships by infrared spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 64: 1199-1218.
Chukhrov, F.V., Gorshkov, A.I., Rudnitskaya, E.S., Beresovskaya, V.V., and Sivtsov, A.V. (1980) Manganese minerals in clay: a review. Clays and Clay Minerals: 28: 346-453.
Kim, S.J. (1980) Birnessite and rancieite problem: their crystal chemistry and new classification. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea: 16: 105-113.
Burns, R.G., Burns, V.M., and Stockman, H. (1983) A review of the todorokite-buserite problem: Implications to the mineralogy of marine manganese nodules: American Mineralogist: 68: 972-980.
Dunn, P.J., Fleischer, M., Francis, C.A., Langley, R.H., Kissin, S.A., Shigley, J.E., Vanko, D.A., and Zilczer, J.A. (1984) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 69: 810-815.
Golden, D.C., Dixon, J.B., and Chen, C.C. (1986) Ion exchange, thermal transformations, and oxidizing properties of birnessite. Clays and Clay Minerals: 34: 511-520.
Golden, D.C., Chen, C.C., and Dixon, J.B. (1987) Transformation of birnessite to buserite, todorokite, and manganite under mild hydrothermal treatment. Clays and Clay Minerals: 35: 271-280.
Post, J.E. and Veblen, D.R. (1990) Crystal structure determinations of synthetic sodium, magnesium and potassium birnessite using TEM and the Rietveld method. American Mineralogist: 75: 477-489.
American Mineralogist (1990): 75: 477-489 (abstract).
Manceau, A., Gorshkov, A.I., and Drits, V.A. (1992) Structural chemistry of Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in manganese hydrous oxides: Part II. Information from EXAFS spectroscopy and electron and X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist: 77: 1144-1157.
Lanson, B., Drits, V.A., Silvester, E., and Manceau, A. (2000) Structure of H-exchanged hexagonal birnessite and its mechanism of formation from Na-rich monoclinic buserite at low pH. American Mineralogist: 85: 826-838.
Lanson, B., Drits, V.A., Gaillot, A., Silvester, E., Plançon, A., and Manceau, A. (2002) Structure of the heavy-metal sorbed birnessite: Part I. Results from X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist: 87: 1631-1645.
Yang, D.S. and Wang, M.K. (2002) Syntheses and characterization of birnessite by oxidizing pyrochroite in alkaline conditions. Clays and Clay Minerals: 50: 63-69.
Burford, E.P., Kierans, M., and Gadd, G.M. (2003) Geomycology: fungi in mineral substrata. Mycologist: 17(3): 98-107.
Villalobos, M., Lanson, B., Manceau, A., Toner, B., and Sposito, G. (2006) Structural model for the biogenic Mn oxide produced by Psuedomonas putida. American Mineralogist: 91: 489-502.
Johnson, E.A. and Post, J.E. (2006) Water in the interlayer region of birnessite: Importance in cation exchange and structural stability. American Mineralogist: 91: 609-618.
Drits, V.A., Lanson, B., and Gaillot, A. (2007) Birnessite polytype systematics and identification by powder X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist: 92: 771-788.
Aldi, K.A., Cabana, J., Sideris, P.J., and Grey, C.P. (2012) Investigation of cation ordering in triclinic sodium birnessite via 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 97: 883-889.
Cygan, R.T., Post, J.E., Heaney, P.J., and Kubicki, J.D. (2012) Molecular models of birnessite and related hydrated layered minerals. American Mineralogist: 97: 1505-1514.

Internet Links for BirnessiteHide

Localities for BirnessiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Arctic Ocean
 
Murdmaa, I.O., Bogdanova, O.Y., Gorshkov, A.I., Novikov, G.V. and Shevchenko, V.P. (2000): Lithology and Mineral Resources 35(6), 594-597.
Atlantic Ocean
 
Varentsov, I. M., Drits, V. A., & GORSCHKOV, A. (2009, April). Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of manganese-iron crusts on the Bezymiannaya Seamount 640, Cape Verde Plate, Atlantic. In Sediment-Hosted Mineral Deposits: Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Beijing, People's Republic of China, 30 July-4 August 1988 (pp. 89-107). Blackwell Publishing Ltd..
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
    • Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse hydrothermal field (TAG)
Canadian Mineralogist Vol.26, pp. 697-711 (1988)
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Argyle Co.
Vera Munro-Smith (2006) Cobalt Mineralisation in Selected Australian Deposits. PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney.
    • Yancowinna Co.
Worner, H. K. and Mitchell, R. W., eds. Birch, W. D. (et al) (1982) Minerals of Broken Hill, published by Australian Mining & Smelting Limited ISBN 0-909221-18-9
  • Northern Territory
    • East Arnhem Region
      • Groote Eylandt
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 58; Econ Geol (1981) 76:556-567
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Noarlunga
  • Victoria
    • Flinders area
  • Western Australia
    • East Pilbara Shire
      • Gregory Ranges District
Jones, S., McNaughton, n.j., Grguric, B., 2013. Structural controls and timing of fault-hosted manganese at Woodie Woodie, East Pilbara, Western Australia. Ore Geology Reviews. 50, 52-82.
    • Moora Shire
Bridge, P.J., Pryce, M.W., Clarke, R.M., and Costello, M.B. (1978): Sampleite from Jingemia Cave, Western Australia. Mineralogical Magazine (September 1978 Vol. 42) pp 369-371.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Gurktaler Alpen
      • St Veit an der Glan
        • Tauchendorf
          • Grassendorf
G. Blass, H. W. Graf: Carinthia II 191./111.:145-147 (2001)
  • Salzburg
    • Abtenau
      • Tennen Mts
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
    • Saalfelden
      • Leogang
        • Hütten
          • Schwarzleograben
            • Schwarzleo District
R.Poeverlein (2016)
  • Styria
    • Oberhaag
      • Lieschengraben
Taucher, J. & Postl, W. (1992), Exel, R. (1993)
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Conselheiro Pena
      • Penha do Norte
Rocks & Minerals (2009) 84:42-45
    • Poços de Caldas alkaline complex
      • Caldas
Waber (1991)
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Sherridon District
MONCUR , M.C, PTACEK, C.J., BLOWES, D.W. & PETERSON, R.C. (2015) The occurrence and implications of efflorescent sulfate minerals at the former Sherritt–Gordon Zn–Cu mine, Sherridon, Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 53, 961-977
  • Nova Scotia
    • Colchester Co.
Sabina, A.P. (2015) Rocks and minerals for the collector: Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; South Shore, Nova Scotia. Geological Survey of Canada, Popular Geoscience 97: 456 pages, doi:10.4095/293933
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
      • Lajemmerais RCM
        • Varennes & St-Amable
HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER HORVÁTH, E., GAULT, R.A., and TARASSOFF, P. (1998) Mineralogy of the Saint Amable sill, Varennes and Saint Amable, Québec, Canada. Mineralogical Record, 29, 83 118.
Horváth, L., Pfenninger-Horváth, E., Gault, R. A., & Tarassoff, P. (1998): Mineralogy of the Saint-Amable Sill, Varennes and Saint-Amable, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 29: 83-118.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Chuquicamata District
R.B. Cook: "Famous mineal locality; Chuquicamata, Chile": Mineralogical Record, sept.-oct. 1973
China
 
  • Guangdong Province
    • Meizhou Prefecture
Fengjun Ma (1986): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 1(2)
  • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    • Baise Prefecture
      • Jingxi Co.
Ruixia Hao and Guangyue Guan (1995): China's Manganese Industry 13(1)
    • Chongzuo Prefecture
      • Daxin Co.
Ruixia Hao and Guangyue Guan (1995): China's Manganese Industry 13(1)
    • Guigang Prefecture
      • Guiping Co.
Guilin Institute of Metallurgical Geology, Rocks & Minerals Department, Manganese Thematic Group (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(5), 47-52
    • Hechi Prefecture
      • Yizhou Co. (Yishan Co.)
Guilin Institute of Metallurgical Geology, Rocks & Minerals Department, Manganese Thematic Group (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(5), 47-52
Guilin Institute of Metallurgical Geology, Rocks & Minerals Department, Manganese Thematic Group (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(5), 47-52
    • Liuzhou Prefecture
      • Luzhai Co.
Guilin Institute of Metallurgical Geology, Rocks & Minerals Department, Manganese Thematic Group (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(5), 47-52
  • Hubei Province
    • Huanggang Prefecture
      • Luotian Co.
        • Hejiawan
Jingqu Yao (1992): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 11(3), 257-266
Jingqu Yao (1992): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 11(3), 257-266
    • Wuhan Prefecture
      • Huangpi District
Jingqu Yao (1992): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 11(3), 257-266
  • Yunnan Province
    • Dali Autonomous Prefecture
      • Heqing Co.
Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
Czech Republic
 
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Olomouc Region
Petr Paulis (2001): Die interessanten mineralogische Fundstellen in Mahren und Schlesien; Kuttna, Kutná Hora p69-73
Finland
 
  • Eastern Finland Region
    • Tohmajärvi
Schwertmann, U. et al 1987. Properties of iron oxides in relation to the environment of their formation. Clays and Clay Minerals Vol 35, No 4, 297-307.
France
 
  • Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
    • Haute-Saône
      • Faucogney-et-la-Mer
        • Esmoulières
          • Saphoz
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
Perseil, E. A. (1975) - Nature and mineralogical studies of manganese oxides and carbonates in Faucogney (Haute-Saone). Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, D, 280, 1931-1934
Perseil, E. A. (1975) - Nature and mineralogical studies of manganese oxides and carbonates in Faucogney (Haute-Saone). Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, D, 280, 1931-1934
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Thur valley (Thann valley)
        • Mollau
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
  • Occitanie
    • Ariège
      • Foix
P. Picot, Z. Johan : "Atlas of Ore Minerals", BRGM, Elsevier, 1982
P. Picot, Z. Johan : "Atlas of Ore Minerals", BRGM, Elsevier, 1982
      • Saint-Girons
        • Castelnau-Durban
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 475-478.
        • Esplas de Serou
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 475-478.
    • Haute-Garonne
      • Bagnères-de-Luchon
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 475-478.
        • Peyresourde
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 475-478.
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
Le Règne Minéral 47: 5-21
        • Nabias
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 475-478.
        • Vielle-Aure
DE ASCENCAO GUEDES R., TIXADOR Y., CASTERET A. & GOUJOU JC. (2002) La mine de Coustou, Vielle-Aure, Hautes-Pyrénées. Le Règne Minéral, 47, 23-31. (in french)
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
      • Albères massif
        • Collioure (Cotlliure)
BERBAIN. C, IOB. S, ROATTINO. T, RILEY. T, (2016). Phosphates des pegmatites du massif des Albères 2ème partie : zones minéralisées. Ed Association française de Microminéralogie,
      • Corneilla-de-Conflent
        • Plateau d'Ambulla (Las Ambollas)
Berbain, C., Favreau, G. & Aymar, J. (2005): Mines et minéraux des Pyrénées-Orientales et des Corbières, Association Française de Microminéralogie Ed., 80.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Niederzissen
        • Wassenach
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Wernigerode
        • Hasserode
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
Greece
 
  • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
    • Kykládes Prefecture
      • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
        • Milos Island (Melos)
Hein, J. R.; Stamatakis, M. G.; Dowling, J. S. (2000): Trace metal-rich Quaternary hydrothermal manganese oxide and barite deposit, Milos Island, Greece. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 109, B67-B76.
        • Syros Island (Syra)
          • Gria Spilia
Altherr, R., Soder, C., Panienka, S., Peters, D., & Meyer, H. P. (2013). Pink manganian phengite in a high P/T meta-conglomerate from northern Syros (Cyclades, Greece). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 166(5), 1323-1334.
  • Sterea Hellas Department
    • Fthiótis Prefecture
      • Lokris
Pantó, G. & Maksimović, Z. (2001): Two new rare earth minerals in an unusual mineralization of the Nissi bauxite deposit, Greece. Acta Geologica Hungarica 44, 81-93.
Greenland
 
  • Kujalleq
    • Narsaq
Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Szalonnai Mts
      • Bódvarákó
  • Fejér Co.
    • Szár Hill
      • Kőszárhegy
Szakáll: Minerals of Szár Hill, 2004
  • Veszprém Co.
    • Bakony Mts
Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
India
 
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Adilabad District
Rao, J. S. R. Krishna; Kasipathi, C. (1985): Occurrence of todorokite from Adilabad Manganese Mines, Andhra Pradesh. Current Science 54, 862.
  • Odisha (Orissa)
    • Koraput District
Acharya, B.C., Rao, D.S., and Sahoo, R.K. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 79-93.
Indonesia
 
  • Java (Jawa)
    • Jawa Barat Province (West Java Province)
      • Bogor District
Milési, J.P., Marcoux, E., Sitorus, T., Simandjuntak, M., Leroy, J., and Bailly, L. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 131-149.
Israel
 
Hans Niedermeier (2000) Mineralien Welt, 11, #5, 58-62.
Italy
 
  • Aosta Valley
    • Nus
      • Saint-Barthélemy
• Barresi, A.A., Kolitsch, U., Ciriotti, M.E., Ambrino, P., Bracco, R., Bonacina, E. (2005): La miniera di manganese di Varenche (Aosta, Italia nord-occidentale): ardennite, arseniopleite, manganberzeliite, pirofanite, sarkinite, thortveitite, nuovo As-Sc-analogo della metavariscite e altre specie. Micro (località), 2/2005, 81-122.
    • Saint-Marcel
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Ne
        • Graveglia Valley
          • Reppia
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, (4), 131
  • Marche
    • Macerata Province
P. Mattias- M. Guerra (2008) - Le miniere nelle Marche II° parte Miniere e mineralizzazioni-Giacimenti e vicende Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze detta dei XL
  • Piedmont
    • Torino Province
      • Lanzo Valleys
        • Ala Valley
          • Voragno
Maletto, G., Piccoli G.C. (2014): Minerali in Val d’Ala. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 224 pp. + 1 folded map.
  • Tyrrhenian Sea
    • Aeolian Arc seamounts
Eckhardt, J.-D., Glasby, G. P., H. Puchelt, H., Berner, Z. (1997): Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 15, 2, 175-208.
Rossi, P. L., Bocchi, G., Lucchini, F. (1980): A manganese deposit from the South Tyrrhenian region. Oceanologica Acta, 3, 1, 107-113.
Eckhardt, J.-D., Glasby, G. P., H. Puchelt, H., Berner, Z. (1997): Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 15, 2, 175-208.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Aichi Prefecture
        • Kasugai City
Am Min 48:952-954
    • Kanto Region
      • Tochigi Prefecture
        • Kanuma City
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
      • Tokyo Metropolis
        • Nishi-Tama-gun
          • Okutama-cho
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    • Kinki Region
      • Shiga Prefecture
        • Ritto City
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 58; Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
    • Tohoku Region
      • Aomori Prefecture
        • Nishi-Tsugaru-gun
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
        • Shimokita peninsula
          • Higashidori
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
      • Iwate Prefecture
        • Karumai
Nambu M, Tanida K (1967) Manjirōite, a new manganese dioxide mineral, from Kohare Mine, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Journal of the Japanese Association of Mineralogists, Petrologists and Economic Geologists 58, 39-54
        • Kuji City
          • Yamagata
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Nambu, M. & Tanida, K. (1961): On the progressive alteration of manganese dioxide minerals in the Toyoguchi Mine, Iwate Prefecture. Ganseki Kobutsu Kosho Gakkaishi 45, 39-48. (in Japanese)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
        • Kunohe-gun
          • Noda-mura
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
        • Kuzumaki
Dr. Matsuo Nambu ore collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
        • Shimohei-gun
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
          • Yamada
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Shikoku Island
    • Ehime prefecture
      • Seiyo City
        • Nomura
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
        • Shirokawa
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    • Kochi Prefecture
      • Niyodogawa
        • Niyodo
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Tokyo Metropolis
    • Izu Archipelago
Y. Okayama: Hydrothermal manganese oxides from southwest region of Aogashima island. Mining Geology, 42 (3), 194ff
      • Nishi Shichito Ridge
Jose Carlos Mañuz Sanz collection
Jordan
 
  • Tafilah
    • Wadi Arabah (Wadi Araba)
Qatar Univ. Sci. J. 21:101-117.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Kostanay Province (Qostanay Oblysy; Kostanai Oblast')
Golubovskaya, E.V. (2003): Lithology and Mineral Resources 38(3), 275-281.
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Mun. de Aldama
Cross, B. & Culp Zeitner J. (2006), Geodes Natures Treasures, P.26
  • Michoacan
    • Mun. de Coalcomám
Ref.: Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, volumen 17, número 2, p.143-153 (2000)
  • Sonora
    • Mun. de Moctezuma
Lapis 2001(1), 11-40
Moldova
 
  • Edinet
    • Criva
Klimchouk, A. (2012). Gypsum karst in the Western Ukraine. International Journal of Speleology, 25(3), 20.
New Zealand
 
  • Kermadec Islands
de Ronde, C.E.J.; Hannington, M.D.; Stoffers, P.; Wright, I.C.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Reyes, A.G.; Baker, E.T.; Massoth, G.J.; Lupton, J.E.; Walker, S.L.; Greene, R.R.; Soong, C.W.R.; Ishibashi, J.; Lebon, G.T.; Bray, C.J.; Resing, J.A. 2005 Evolution of a submarine magmatic-hydrothermal system : Brothers volcano, southern Kermadec arc, New Zealand. Economic geology, 100(6): 1097-1133
  • North Island
Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
Norway
 
  • Oppland
    • Lunner
      • Nordmarka
Raade, G. (2005): Gjerdingen-ekeritten, en unik mineralforekomst. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift nr. 30, 2005, p 17.
  • Oslo
    • Nordmarka
Neumann, H. (1959): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway. No.1. An introduction. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 39, 231-236 (p.232)
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Langesundsfjorden
        • Barkevik area
K.Eldjarn XRD MGM
Knut Eldjarn specimen. XRD MGM
Pacific Ocean
 
  • Clarion-Clipperton zone
    • Clipperton Island (Ile de Clipperton; Ile de la Passion)
      • USA-4
Mee Burns, V., Burns, R.G. (1978) Authigenic todorokite and phillipsite inside deep-sea manganese nodules. American Mineralogist, 63, 827-831.
  • East Pacific Rise
    • Juan de Fuca Ridge complex
Novikov, G.V., Vikent’ev, I.V., and Bogdanova, O.Y. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 304-325.
  • Kermadec-Tonga trench
A. G. Reyes, C.E.J. DE Ronde, and C. W. R. Soong (2004) a Submarine Magmatic-hydrothermal System at Brothers Volcano, Kermadecs. Proceedings 26th NZ Geothermal Workshop pp 46-52
  • South California Borderland
Hein, J.R., Reid, J.A., Conrad, T.A., Dunham, R.E., Clague, D.A., Schulz, M.S., and Davis, A.S. (2010): USGS Open-File Report 10-1069
Hein, J.R., Reid, J.A., Conrad, T.A., Dunham, R.E., Clague, D.A., Schulz, M.S., and Davis, A.S. (2010): USGS Open-File Report 10-1069
Hein, J.R., Reid, J.A., Conrad, T.A., Dunham, R.E., Clague, D.A., Schulz, M.S., and Davis, A.S. (2010): USGS Open-File Report 10-1069
Poland
 
  • Małopolskie
    • Kraków
Gołębiowska, B., Pieczka, A., Rzepa, G., Matyszkiewicz, J., & Krajewski, M. (2010). Iodargyrite from Zalas (Cracow area, Poland) as an indicator of Oligocene–Miocene aridity in Central Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 296(1), 130-137.
Romania
 
  • Bistrița-Năsăud Co.
    • Rodna Mtn (Rodnei Mtn)
al României, I. G. (2003) The 5 Th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp11-12
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
  • Suceava Co.
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Magadanskaya Oblast'
      • Kolyma River Basin
        • Ducat District
          • Omsukchan
            • Ducat ore field
http://www.igem.ru/lmin/fil/metal.htm
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Rožňava Co.
      • Ochtiná (Achten)
Cílek V., Bosák P., Melka K., Žák K., Langrolvá A., Osborne A.,1998: Mineralogické výskumy v Ochtinské aragonitové jeskyni. Aragonit, 3,7 - 12
South Africa
 
  • Northern Cape Province
Cairncross, B., and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, Linden 2014, RSA
      • Hotazel
South African Micromount Society, Kalahari Manganese Fields - KMF, by Dixon, R., and Bezing, L. Von., (1989) Locality datasheet ML 02
    • Postmasburg manganese field
      • Western Belt
Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Spain
 
  • Aragón
    • Huesca
      • Estopiñán del Castillo
Mata-Perelló,J.M. (1979).- "Las Mineralizaciones de manganeso de Estopiñan y de Natchá" Acta Geol. Hispánica, t. XIV (tomo homenaje al Dr., Luis Sole y Sabaris), 4p. Barcelona.
  • Cantabria
    • Sierra de Arnero
      • La Florida mining area
Rossi, C., Lozano, R.P., Isanta, N. y Hellstrom, J. (2010). Manganese stromatolites in caves: El Soplao (Cantabria, Spain). Geology, 38, 1119–1122
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Ciudad Real
A. Crespo & R. Lunar (1997): Terrestrial hot-spring Co-rich Mn mineralization in the Pliocene-Quaternary Calatrava Region (central Spain). Geological Society, London, Special Publications, vol. 119, 253-264.
      • Pozuelo
Calvo, M. (2009): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. IV, Óxidos e Hidróxidos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid - Fundación Gómez Pardo. 752 pp.
  • Valencian Community
    • Valencia
      • Requena
        • Campo Arcís
Mata Perelló, J.M., 1994, Geogaceta. 16: 154-155
Sweden
 
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
H.Folvik(2002); Pers.report to the Långban Society
Switzerland
 
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Albula Valley
      • Oberhalbstein (Surses; Sursass)
        • Tinizong (Tinzen)
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 409.
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 409.
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Turtmann Valley
      • Pipjitälli
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 44, pp. 000 (2006) page 205; Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Callington District
        • Lezant
Famous British Mineral Localities: Greystone Quarry, Lezant, Cornwall. N Elton, D Green, J Hooper & S Weiss. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals No 24 2004, pp 9-28
      • Liskeard District
        • Altarnun
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • Mount's Bay District
        • St Hilary
Betterton, J. (1989) Birnessite from Penberthy Croft - a Second English Occurrence. Journal of the Russell Society. 2, (2), 48.; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
    • Buchan Grampian
      • Ellon
Jones, L.H.P., Milne, A.A. (1956) Birnessite, a new manganese oxide mineral from Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Mineralogical Magazine: 31: 283-288. Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, 169-177.
    • Scottish Borders
Livingstone, A. (2002) : Minerals of Scotland - past and present, NMS Publications Ltd., p. 96
    • Strathclyde
      • Gourock
Notes about Gourock, chiefly historical By David Macrae
  • Wales
    • Gwynedd
      • Lleyn Peninsula
        • Llanfaelrhys
          • Rhiw
No reference listed
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
Chukhrov F.V., Gorshkov A.I., Berezovskaya V.V., Sivtsov A.V. (1987) New data on mineralogy of Kerch ores, - Izvestiya AN SSSR, ser. geol., 4, p. 60-77 (in Rus.)
USA
 
  • Alabama
    • Coosa Co.
Rocks & Minerals: 70(5): 320-333.
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Dragoon Mts
        • Turquoise District (Courtland-Gleeson District)
          • Courtland
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 137.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 398.
  • California
    • Kern Co.
      • Kramer District (Kramer Borate District)
AmMin 56:1057
Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 168; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 168 (photo 4-5).
    • Trinity Co.
      • Coastal Range
        • Three Forks
Huebner, J. Stephen; Flohr, Marta J. (1990) Microbanded manganese formations; protoliths in the Franciscan Complex, California; USGS Professional Paper 1502.
  • Colorado
    • Custer Co.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 58
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Lake Co.
      • Leadville District
        • Leadville
          • Carbonate Hill
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Summit Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Connecticut
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Haddam
Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
  • Maine
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, p.63.
  • Maryland
    • Calvert Co.
http://www.irocks.com/chesapeake-biominerals-hazen-article/
  • Massachusetts
    • Hampshire Co.
      • Cummington
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 58
      • Plainfield
Kim, Soo Jin (1991). New characterization of takanelite (American Mineralogist, Volume 76, pages 1426-1430); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
  • Montana
    • Granite Co.
      • Philipsburg District (Flint Creek District)
H.A. Barrett and M.P.S. Krekeler (2011) The 38th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 14-17, 2011, lecture abstracts, page 9.
  • Nevada
    • White Pine Co.
      • White Pine District
        • Silver Belt
          • Treasure Hill
            • Summit area
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Rocks & Minerals (Sept/Oct 1981).
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Frondel, et al: Am. Min.:45:871-875 (1960); Dunn(1995):Pt4:584.
Frondel, et al: Am. Min.:45:871-875 (1960); Dunn(1995):Pt4:584.
  • New Mexico
    • Colfax Co.
      • Springer
        • Point of Rocks Mesa (Pecks Mesa)
Rocks & Min.: 60:229.
    • Socorro Co.
      • Magdalena District
        • Magdalena
Patrick Haynes
  • New York
    • Warren Co.
Geological Society of America Bulletin January 1971 v. 82 no. 1 p. 101-110
  • North Carolina
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Kings Mountain District
Rocks and Minerals, (1985) 60:76-82; Carolina Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook 1981, 39-48
  • Rhode Island
    • Providence Co.
      • Lincoln
        • Lime Rock
Michael W. Kieron collection
Museum of Natural History & Planetarium, Roger Williams Park collection
  • Utah
    • San Juan Co.
      • White Canyon District
        • White Canyon
R&M 75:4 p240-248
    • Tooele Co.
      • Deep Creek Mts
        • Gold Hill District (Clifton District)
          • Gold Hill
Mineral News: 13(9): 1.
Collected by and in the collection of Brent Thorne.
    • Utah Co.
      • East Tintic Mts
        • East Tintic District
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PROFESSIONAL PAPER 1024,
    • Washington Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Virginia
    • Alleghany Co.
      • Clifton Forge Iron District
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Rockbridge Co.
      • Lyndhurst-Vesuvius District
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
  • Wisconsin
    • Oneida Co.
      • Hazelhurst
Bowser, Carl J., E. Callender and Ronald Rossmann, 1970, "Electron Probe and X-ray Studies of Fresh Water Ferromaganese Nodules from Wisconsin and Michigan", Geol. Soc. Am. , Abstracts with Programs, vol. 2, part 7, p. 500-501.
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