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Chrysoberyl

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Formula:
BeAl2O4
Colour:
Green shades, emerald-green, greenish white, yellowish green, greenish brown, yellow, blue
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
3.75
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
From the Greek χρυσός, golden, and βήρυλλος, beryl, in allusion to the color.
Type Locality:
The green (chromium-bearing) gem variety, that shows a colour change under different light sources, is called alexandrite.

The Cr-analogue is called mariinskite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Chrysoberyl.


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Classification of ChrysoberylHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.BA.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
A : With small and medium-sized cations
7.2.9.1

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
2 : AB2X4
7.4.4

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
4 : Oxides of Be, Mg and the alkaline earths

Physical Properties of ChrysoberylHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Green shades, emerald-green, greenish white, yellowish green, greenish brown, yellow, blue
Streak:
White
Hardness:
8½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Distinct on {110}, imperfect on {010}, poor on (001)
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
3.75(1) g/cm3 (Measured)    3.69 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ChrysoberylHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.746 nβ = 1.748 nγ = 1.756
2V:
Measured: 70° , Calculated: 72°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.010
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = c = columbine-red
Y = b = orange-yellow
Z = a = emerald-green
Comments:
Exhibits a bluish opalescence or chatoyancy, notably on {010}. Also asteriated with a cat's eye effect.

Chemical Properties of ChrysoberylHide

Formula:
BeAl2O4
Common Impurities:
Fe,Cr,Ti

Crystallography of ChrysoberylHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.481 Å, b = 9.415 Å, c = 4.428 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.582 : 1 : 0.47
Unit Cell V:
228.50 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Simple crystals usually tabular {001}; short prismatic [100] at times, or, less often, [001]. Striated on {001} parallel to [100]. Twinned crystals usually flattened perpendicular to the composition plane, and have a feather-like striation on {001}. Twinning forms six-rayed spokelike aggregates.
Twinning:
Common on twin plane {130}. Both contact and penetration twins, freqently repeated and forming pseudohexagonal crystals as viewed along [001] with or without reentrant angles. Also flattened heart-shaped

Crystallographic forms of ChrysoberylHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Chrysoberyl no.11 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Chrysoberyl no.35 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of ChrysoberylHide

Synonyms of ChrysoberylHide

Other Language Names for ChrysoberylHide

Varieties of ChrysoberylHide

AlexandriteGreen chromian variety of chrysoberyl (intermediate member of Chrysoberyl-Mariinskite series) that exibits a color change in natural and artificial light from green to amethystine (Alexandrite effect).
Ceylonese ChrysoliteA trade name for golden-yellow chrysoberyl.
Chrysolite Cat's-eye
CymophaneAn opalescent variety of Chrysoberyl. Exhibits a bluish (or yellowish according to other sources) chatoyancy which is caused by microscopic tube-like cavities or needle-like inclusions of rutile in an orientation parallel to the c-axis.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Schorl12 photos of Chrysoberyl associated with Schorl on mindat.org.
Quartz9 photos of Chrysoberyl associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Clinochlore7 photos of Chrysoberyl associated with Clinochlore on mindat.org.
Almandine6 photos of Chrysoberyl associated with Almandine on mindat.org.
Phlogopite6 photos of Chrysoberyl associated with Phlogopite on mindat.org.
Alexandrite5 photos of Chrysoberyl associated with Alexandrite on mindat.org.
Spessartine5 photos of Chrysoberyl associated with Spessartine on mindat.org.
Garnet4 photos of Chrysoberyl associated with Garnet on mindat.org.
Beryl4 photos of Chrysoberyl associated with Beryl on mindat.org.
Phenakite4 photos of Chrysoberyl associated with Phenakite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.BA.10Manganostibite(Mn,Fe)7SbAsO12Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.4.1BromelliteBeOHex. 6mm : P63mc
7.4.2BehoiteBe(OH)2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.4.3ClinobehoiteBe(OH)2Mon. 2 : P21
7.4.5Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2SMg3Al8BeO16Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m)
7.4.6Magnesiotaaffeite-6N’3SMg2BeAl6O12Trig.
7.4.7PericlaseMgOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.4.8BruciteMg(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
7.4.9SpinelMgAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.4.10MeixneriteMg6Al2(OH)16(OH)2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.4.11LimeCaOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
7.4.12PortlanditeCa(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.4.13ChlormayeniteCa12Al14O32[◻4Cl2]Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
7.4.14HydrocalumiteCa4Al2(OH)12(Cl,CO3,OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2 : P21
7.4.15MarokiteCaMn3+2O4Orth.
7.4.16Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2OTrig. 3 : P3
7.4.17HollanditeBa(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16Mon. 2/m
7.4.18Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10Mon. 2/m
7.4.19Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m

Other InformationHide

Electrical:
Electrical conductivity increases with temperature.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ChrysoberylHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Werner (1789), Bergm. Journal: 373, 387 (as Krisoberil).
Haüy (1798): 4: 5 (as Cymophane).
Des Cloizeaux (1845), Ann. chim. phys.:(3): 13.
Melczer (1900), Zs. Kr.: 33: 246.
Gldschmidt (1913): 2: 154.
Adams and Graham (1926), Royal Society of Canada, Transactions: (3) sec. 4: 20: 113.
Bragg and Brown (1926), Zs. Kr.: 63: 122.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 718-722.
American Mineralogist (1963): 48: 804-810.

Internet Links for ChrysoberylHide

Localities for ChrysoberylHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Afghanistan
 
  • Badakhshan Province (Badakshan Province; Badahsan Province)
    • Khash & Kuran Wa Munjan Districts
Ikram Mohammad Collection
Algeria
 
  • Constantine Province
    • El Milia
G. Tchimichkian, Bull. Soc. Fr. Minéral. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 87-88.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Enderby Land
      • Napier Complex
        • Casey Bay
          • Khmara Bay
Grew, E., Et Al. (2000,October). Polar Geoscience, 13, 1-40
Grew, E. S. (1981). Surinamite, taafeite and beryllian sapphirine from pegmatites in granulite-facies rocks of Casey Bay, Enderby Land, Antarctica. American Mineralogist, 66, 1022-1033
Argentina
 
  • San Luis
    • Coronel Pringles department
      • El Trapiche
        • Las Águilas deposit
Miguel Á. Galliski, María Florencia Márquez-Zavalía, Raúl Lira, Jan Cempírek and Radek Škoda (2012) Mineralogy and Origin of the Dumortierite-Bearing Pegmatites of Virorco, San Luis, Argentina. Canadian Mineralogist 50:873-894.
Australia
 
  • Northern Territory
    • Central Desert Region
        • Ambalindum Station
Dehne McLaughlin; Patrick Gundersen photos uploaded
Ted Madden specimen
Shaw, R.D. & Freeman, M.J. (1985) Illogwa Creek, Northern Territory (Second Edition) 1:250 000 geological series, explanatory notes, SF/53-15. Department of Resources & Energy, Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics.
Dehne McLaughlin
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Williamstown
Noble (1983). Catalogue of South Australian Minerals. (Mine Dep. SA)
  • Tasmania
    • Break O'Day municipality
      • Blue Tier district
        • Moorina
Bottrill, R.S. & Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Bull. 73. Minerals Resources Tasmania
  • Victoria
    • Indigo Shire
No reference listed
  • Western Australia
    • Bridgetown-Greenbushes Shire
Jacobson., M., Calderwood, M., Grguric, B.(2007): Pegmatites of Western Australia
    • Cue Shire
      • Poona
[var: Alexandrite] Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
[var: Alexandrite] Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA
    • Dowerin Shire
[var: Alexandrite] MinMag 66(6):985-1002
[var: Alexandrite] Downes, P. J., & Bevan, A. W. R. (2002). Chrysoberyl, beryl and zincian spinel mineralization in granulite-facies Archaean rocks at Dowerin, Western Australia. Mineralogical Magazine, 66(6), 985-1002
    • Upper Gascoyne Shire
      • Yinnietharra (Yinnietharra Station; Yinnetharra)
Pegamtites of Western Australia; M.I. Jacobson, M.A. Calderwood, B.A. Grguric; Hesperian Press, Perth, 2007
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Koralpe
      • Rieding
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Lower Austria
    • Wachau
      • Spitz
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Voigt, S. (1984): Chrysoberyll-Kristalle aus Niederösterreich. Lapis 9 (4), 26-29; 50; Collection of Martin Slama
Kolitsch, U., Löffler, E., Pristacz, H. & Brandstätter, F. (2010): 1654) Triplit und weitere Mineralien aus einem anstehenden Pegmatit im Mieslingtal bei Spitz, Waldviertel, Niederösterreich. P. 241 in Niedermayr et al. (2010): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LIX. Carinthia II, 200./120., 199-260.
KNOBLOCH, Gerald (1999a): Mehr als nur Weinstein.... Mineralogische Notizen aus der Wachau.- Mefos, 10/18, 11-17, Wien.
  • Salzburg
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Felben valley
        • Scheelite deposit
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
      • Habach Valley
        • Nasenkopf
          • Leckbachgraben (Leckbachrinne)
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 84
Brazil (TL)
DLG Carsten (1789) modified by MH Klaprorh (1795) Beitr. Kenntn. Min. Chem. 1, 97
  • Bahia
    • Arataca
Manfred Kampf .
    • Campo Formoso ultramafic complex
      • Pindobaçu
[var: Alexandrite]
    • Chapada Diamantina
      • Andarai
Overstreet, William C., 1967, The Geologic Occurrence of Monazite, United States Geological Survey Professional Paper, Volume 530, p. 292.
    • Érico Cardoso
      • Paramirim das Crioulas
        • Pico das Almas river
Jeannine and Jacques Cassedanne : "Présence d'eskolaite dans les alluvions stannifères de la Chapada Diamantina (Bahia-Brésil), Bull. Mineral., 1980, 103, pp 600-602.
Rocks and Minerals Sept 1999
    • Paramirim
[MinRec 16:111]
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
    • Afonso Cláudio
No reference listed
Hazen, R. M. (1987). High-pressure crystal chemistry of chrysoberyl, Al2BeO4: insights on the origin of olivine elastic anisotropy. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 14(1), 13-20; Cook, R. B. (1999). Connoisseur's Choice: Chrysoberyl, Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil, and Takovaya, Russia. Rocks & Minerals, 74(5), 324-327.
Cook, R. B. (1999). Connoisseur's Choice: Chrysoberyl, Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil, and Takovaya, Russia. Rocks & Minerals, 74(5), 324-327.
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
Rafael Hernandes Corrêa-Silva .; Beurlen, H., Thomas, R., Melgarejo, J. C., Da Silva, J. M. R., Rhede, D., Soares, D. R., & Da Silva, M. R. (2013). Chrysoberyl-sillimanite association from the Roncadeira pegmatite, Borborema Province, Brazil: implications for gemstone exploration. Journal of GEOsciences, 58(2), 79-90.
  • Goiás
    • Minaçu
[var: Alexandrite] Petersen Jr, K. J., Schultz-Güttler, R. A., & da Silveira Bello, R. M. (2008). Alexandrita do pela ema, Minaçu/Go: inclusões fluidas e condições genéticas. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 32(3), 307-316.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Antônio Dias
      • Hematita
[var: Alexandrite] ; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp46-51
    • Diamantina
Diamond News, Part 1, Vol.5, No.17,2004,pp40-44; Diamond News, Part 2, Vol.5, No.18,2004,pp 13-19 [In Portuguese]
    • Ferros
[var: Alexandrite]
    • Iron Quadrangle
      • Itabira
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
[var: Alexandrite] Basílio, M. S., Pedrosa-Soares, A. C., & Jordt-Evangelista, H. (2013). Depósitos de alexandrita de Malacacheta, Minas Gerais. Revista Geonomos, 8(1) pp47-54
[var: Alexandrite] Basílio, M. S., Pedrosa-Soares, A. C., & Jordt-Evangelista, H. (2013). Depósitos de alexandrita de Malacacheta, Minas Gerais. Revista Geonomos, 8(1) pp47-54
[var: Alexandrite] Basílio, M. S., Pedrosa-Soares, A. C., & Jordt-Evangelista, H. (2013). Depósitos de alexandrita de Malacacheta, Minas Gerais. Revista Geonomos, 8(1) pp47-54
      • Setubinha
Cornejo, C. and Bartorelli, A., 2010, Minerals and Precious Stones of Brazil.
[var: Alexandrite] Basílio, M. S., Pedrosa-Soares, A. C., & Jordt-Evangelista, H. (2013). Depósitos de alexandrita de Malacacheta, Minas Gerais. Revista Geonomos, 8(1) pp47-54
[var: Alexandrite] Basílio, M. S., Pedrosa-Soares, A. C., & Jordt-Evangelista, H. (2013). Depósitos de alexandrita de Malacacheta, Minas Gerais. Revista Geonomos, 8(1) pp47-54
[var: Alexandrite] Basílio, M. S., Pedrosa-Soares, A. C., & Jordt-Evangelista, H. (2013). Depósitos de alexandrita de Malacacheta, Minas Gerais. Revista Geonomos, 8(1) pp47-54
    • Mucuri valley
[var: Alexandrite] Proctor, K. (1984). Gem pegmatites of Minas Gerais, Brazil: exploration, occurrence, and aquamarine deposits. Gems and Gemology, 20(2), 78-100.
[var: Alexandrite]
    • Padre Paraíso
Dan Costian photo & collection
(pers. comm., mine owner Mr. Junior Duarte)
  • Paraíba
    • Borborema mineral province
      • Nova Palmeira
Beurlen, H., Da Silva, M.R.R., Thomas, R., Soares, D.R., and Olivier, P. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 207-228.; Beurlen, H., Thomas, R., Melgarejo, J. C., Da Silva, J. M. R., Rhede, D., Soares, D. R., & Da Silva, M. R. (2013). Chrysoberyl-sillimanite association from the Roncadeira pegmatite, Borborema Province, Brazil: implications for gemstone exploration. Journal of GEOsciences, 58(2), 79-90.
Beurlen, H., Da Silva, M.R.R., Thomas, R., Soares, D.R., and Olivier, P. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 207-228; Beurlen, H., Thomas, R., Melgarejo, J. C., Da Silva, J. M. R., Rhede, D., Soares, D. R., & Da Silva, M. R. (2013). Chrysoberyl-sillimanite association from the Roncadeira pegmatite, Borborema Province, Brazil: implications for gemstone exploration. Journal of GEOsciences, 58(2), 79-90.
Martin Slama Collection
  • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Borborema mineral province
Bulgaria
 
  • Kyustendil Oblast
E.Ya. Kievlenko, Geology of gems, 2003, p. 85
American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1283–1286, 2009
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Revelstoke Mining Division
      • Revelstoke
DIXON,A., CEMPIREK, J. & GROAT, L.A. (2014) Mineralogy and geochemistry of pegmatites on Mount Begbie, British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist 52, 129-164.; Dixon, A. (2014, October). Mount Begbie Pegmatite Group, British Columbia, Canada–evolution from Barren to Complex Rare-element Pegmatites. In 2014 GSA Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia.
  • Ontario
    • Kenora District
Tindle, A.G., Breaks, F.W., and Selway, J.B. (2002) Tourmaline in petalite-subtype gramitic pegmatites: evidence of fractionation and contamination from Pakeagama Lake and Separation Lake areas of northwestern Ontario, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist, 40, 753-788.
  • Québec
    • Mauricie
      • Maskinongé RCM
Hugh S. Spence (1930) Pegmatite minerals of Ontario and Quebec. American Mineralogist 15:430-450
China
 
  • Fujian Province
    • Sanming Prefecture
      • Qingliu Co.
Wenrong Huang (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(12), 1-6
  • Hunan Province
    • Chenzhou Prefecture
      • Linwu Co.
        • Xianghualing Sn-polymetallic ore field
Zhijun Shen, Linglin Xie, and Zhengyu Quan (2003): Hunan Geology 22(1), 30-33, 63; American Mineralogist 44, 1327 (1959); European Journal of Mineralogy 10, 1037 (1998)
Yuzhou Li (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(6), 29-35
      • Yizhang Co.
        • Dongpo ore field
Shimou Chen, Hongchang Li, Ciguo Xie, and Shangjing Ai (1981): Geology and Prospecting 17(10), 15-21; Yuzhou Li (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(6), 29-35
        • Yaogangxian W-Sn ore field
Yuzhou Li (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(6), 29-35
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Baotou League (Baotou Prefecture)
      • Bayan Obo Mining District
        • Bayan Obo
Qingchang Meng (1981): Geology and Prospecting 17(3), 10-17
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
Shuzheng Wang, Yuanlong Wang, Youwei Liao, and Xu Kang (1994): Journal of Xinjiang Institute of Technology 15(2)
        • Aletai Co. (Altay Co.)
Denghong Wang, Yuchuan Chen, and Zhigang Xu (2003): Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 22(1), 14-17
http://www.idm.gov.vn/nguon_luc/Xuat_ban/2005/B26/b65.htm
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Čáslav (Tschaslau)
        • Starkoč
Cempírek, J., Novák, M.: Mineralogy of dumortierite-bearing abyssal pegmatites at Starkoč and Běstvina, Kutná Hora Crystalline Complex. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 2006, roč. 51, č. 3-4, s. 259-270.
    • Liberec Region
      • Jizerské Mtn (Iser Mtn)
[var: Alexandrite] geological prospecting, 2008 - 2009, Czech geological Organization
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Olomouc Region
      • Šumperk (Mährisch Schönberg)
        • Maršíkov (Marchendorf)
Novák, M.: Maršíkov - Schinderhübel. In Exkurzní průvodce po mineralogických lokalitách na Sobotínsku. Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, 2002, Olomouc, s. 34-37.
      • Zlaté Hory (Zuckmantel)
Čech F., Kruťa T.: Výskyt chrysoberylu v pegmatitu u Salisova ve Slezsku. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1979, 24, 3, 326.
    • Vysočina Region
      • Nedvědice
Pelíšek, J.: Arzenové nerosty a chryzoberyl z pegmatitů severozápadní moravy. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1986, roč. 31, č. 2, s. 206-207.
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Kasaï (Kasaï-Occidental)
Edwards, M.G. (1917) The American Mineralogist, 2, #7, 88-89.
Finland
 
  • Southern Finland Region
    • Hämeenlinna
Ilkka Nmikkola collection
    • Heinola
Mattila, E:, 1983 Rakokivenmäen Sn-Li-pitoisen pegmatiittijuonen kairaus. Rautaruukki oy. Raportti OU/83
    • Helsinki
Collection of Finnish Museum of natural history, Univercity of Helsinki
    • Tammela
Wilke, H.-J. (1976): Mineral-Fundstellen Band 4: Skandinavien. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 370 pp. (in German); Mäkinen, E. (1913): Die Granitpegmatite von Tammela in Finnland und ihre Minerale. Bulletin de la Commission Géologique de Finlande. 35. 101p. (p. 37)
Ilkka Mikkola collection; Jyrki Autio collection & photo
  • Southwestern Finland Region
    • Kemiö Island (Kimito Island)
Aarne Laitakari, ”Index of Finnish Minerals with bibliography” , Bull. de la Commission Géologique de Finlande No 230, Otaniemi 1967
Laitakari, A. (1967): Suomen mineraalien hakemisto. Index of Finnish minerals with bibliography. Bulletin de la Commission géologique de Finlande. No. 230. 842 p.
Mötet den 7 December 1899. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 21, 639-640 (p.639-640)
Hytönen, Kai 1999 Suomen mineraalit
France
 
  • Brittany
    • Morbihan
      • Penestin
PIERROT, R., CHAURIS, L., LAFORET, C., PILLARD, F. (1980) Inventaire Minéralogique de la France N°9, Morbihan, Editions du BRGM, p. 179. CHAURIS L. (1982) - Les sables lourds des plages du Mor Bras – Introduction à l’étude des placers littoraux en Bretagne Méridionale, Bull. Soc. Sc. nat. Ouest de la France, nouvelle série, tome 4, (1) p. 14.
  • Occitanie
    • Ariège
      • Le Bosc
        • Cirque de Pénitence
Inventaire mineralogique de l'Ariege (Editions BRGM 1984)
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
Berbain,C., Riley, T., Favreau, G., (2012): Phosphates des pegmatites du massif des Albères (Pyrénées-Orientales). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs. 117, 121-172
        • Argelès-sur-Mer
BERBAIN. C, RILEY. T, FAVREAU. G, (2012). Phosphates des pegmatites du massif des Albères. Ed Association française de Microminéralogie,
        • Collioure (Cotlliure)
BERBAIN. C, RILEY. T, FAVREAU. G, (2012) Phosphates des pegmatites du massif des Albères. Ed Association Française de Microminéralogie
Germany
 
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
Mineralien Welt, Jg.27, Mai-Juni 2016
India
 
  • Chattisgarh (Chhattisgarh)
    • Raipur District
[var: Alexandrite] Gem Stone Occurrences in Chhattisgarh. Directorate of Geology and Mining, Chhattisgarh
  • Kerala (Travancore)
    • Thiruvananthapuram District
      • Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum)
Bowie S H U, Horne J E T (1953) Cheralite, a new mineral of the monazite group, Mineralogical Magazine 30, 93-99
Orissa's production to increase. V. Kuriyan, Jewellery News Asia, No. 106, June 1993, pp. 66-74.
Italy
 
  • Lombardy
    • Lecco Province
      • Colico
VIGNOLA, P., & DIELLA, V. (2007). Phosphates from Piona granitic pegmatites (Central Southern Alps, Italy). Granitic Pegmatites: the State of the Art. Book of Abstr.(T. Martins & R. Vieira, eds.). Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Geologia, Memórias, 8, 102-103.
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valchiavenna
        • Bregaglia Valley
          • Villa di Chiavenna
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work. ; Bedogné F., Montrasio A., Sciesa E. (1995): I minerali della provincia di Sondrio e della Bregaglia grigionese. Val Bregaglia, Val Masino, Val Codera e Valle Spluga. Bettini, Sondrio, 300 pp.
        • Novate Mezzola
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
Ghizzoni, S. & Mazzoleni, G. (2005): Itinerari mineralogici in val Codera. Geologia Insubrica, Ed., Milano, 316 pp.
Ghizzoni, S. & Mazzoleni, G. (2005): Itinerari mineralogici in val Codera. Geologia Insubrica, Ed., Milano, 316 pp.
Ghizzoni, S. & Mazzoleni, G. (2005): Itinerari mineralogici in val Codera. Geologia Insubrica, Ed., Milano, 316 pp.
      • Valtellina
        • Malenco Valley
          • Chiesa in Valmalenco
            • Muretto Valley
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
            • Sissone Valley
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
      • Casotto Valley
Bianco, G., Brizio, P., Maletto, G. (1981): Crisoberillo ed albite celeste di Pamparato. Not. Miner. Paleont. (Riccione), 28, 9-17; Piccoli, G.C. (2002): Minerali delle Alpi Marittime e Cozie Provincia di Cuneo. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba, 366 pp.; Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Ossola Valley
        • Antrona Valley
          • Montescheno
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 23 (1), 42-49
        • Ornavasso
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work. ; Mattioli V. (1979): Minerali Ossolani. Ed. Arti Grafiche Medesi, Milano, 268 pp.; Mattioli V. (1983): I minerali dei differenziati acidi e basici dell'Ossola inferiore (NO). Riv. Mineral. Ital., 7, 1 (1/2003), 23-26.
        • Trontano
Mattioli V. (1976): Crisoberillo e gahnite del Croppo. Notizie Gr. Mineral. Lombardo, 7, 3 (sett. 1976), 65; Mattioli V. (1979): Minerali Ossolani. Ed. Arti Grafiche Medesi, Milano, 268 pp.; Piccoli G.C., Maletto G., Bosio P., Lombardo B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.; Boscardin M., Mattioli V., Rocchetti I. (2013): Minerali della Valle Vigezzo. Litotipografia Alcione, Lavis (Trento), 229 pp.
          • Cosasca
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
        • Vigezzo Valley
          • Druogno
            • Orcesco
Mattioli V. (1987) - Novità mineralogiche in Val d'Ossola - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Milano, fasc. 1, pp.1-11
          • Trontano
            • Pizzo Marcio
Mattioli, V. (1979 a): I minerali di Pizzo Marcio in Valle Vigezzo. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 3 [1, serie 2], 2 (2-1979), 30-36; Mattioli, V. (1979 b): Minerali Ossolani. Ed. Arti Grafiche Medesi, Milano, 268 pp.; Appiani, R., Cini, V., Gentile, P., Mattioli, V., Preite, D., Vignola, P. (1995): Val Vigezzo - I minerali delle albititi. Ed. Linea Due S.r.l., Marnate (Varese), 90 pp.; Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.; Boscardin, M., Mattioli, V., Rocchetti, I. (2013): Minerali della Valle Vigezzo. Litotipografia Alcione, Lavis (Trento), 229 pp.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Trento Province
      • Sole Valley
Exel, R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Athesia, Bolzano, 204 pp.
- Bertoldi G. e Boscardin M. (1989) – Crisoberillo ed altri minerali in una pegmatite della Val di Rabbi (Trentino). Riv. Mineral. Ital., 4 , pagg. 223-226.
          • Rabbi
            • Ceresè
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Gifu Prefecture
        • Nakatsugawa City
Hiroaki Tano specimen
          • Shimono
Hiroaki Tano specimen, and many Japanese collectors have this specimen
Bernard J.H., Hyrsl J. (2004) "Minerals and their Localities", page 140 (Granit publishing, Prague)
    • Tohoku Region
      • Fukushima Prefecture
Introduction to Japanese Minerals (Geological Survey of Japan, 1970)
Kenya
 
  • Central Province
    • Kiambu District
Bulletin of the Imperial Institute - Geology and Mineral Resources of Kenya (1948) p297
Madagascar
 
  • Antananarivo Province
    • Analamanga Region
      • Anjozorobe District
        • Ambatomanoina Commune
De Ascenção Guedes,R. (2008): La tourmaline et le Zébu de Bevaondrano, Ikalamavony, province de Fianarantsoa, Madagascar. Le Règne Minerál. 80, 25-50
Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 335-336
      • Ankazobe District
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    • Vakinankaratra Region
      • Betafo District
        • Ambohimanambola Commune
Pezzotta, F. (1999): Madagaskar- Da Paradies der Mineralien und Edelsteine. Extra Lapis 17. 56-59
Jochen Hintze
      • Sahatany Pegmatite Field (Mt Ibity area)
        • Sahatany Valley
Behier, J. (1960): Travaux mineralogiques. Rapport Annuelle du Service Geologique, Republique de Madagascar 1960, p 192
Ranorosoa, N. (1986): Etude mineralogique des pegmatites du champ de la Sahatany, Madagascar. These de Doctorat de l`Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse
Novák, M., Cempírek, J., Gadas, P., Škoda, R., Galiová, M. V., Pezzotta, F. and Groat, L. A. (2015): Boralsilite and Li, Be-bearing "Boron Mullite" Al8B2Si2O19, Breakdown products of spodumene from the Manjaka pegmatite, Sahatany valley, Madagascar. Canadian Mineralogist. 53: 357-374
  • Fianarantsoa Province
    • Horombe Region
      • Iakora District
        • Ranotsara North Commune
Goujou, J.C. (2005): Inventaire minéralogique des zones prospectées:Sahambano-Mosalahy-Befanova-Manivala, y compris les secteurs méridionaux visités lors de la 2ème mission de terrain Ranotsara, Iakora. Rapport [http://fonjatany-mth.com/pdf/etudes/annexes_rapport.pdf]
      • Ihosy District
        • Ilakaka Commune
[var: Alexandrite] Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
Gem News.Gems & Gemmology 39 (3): 222-249
    • Matsiatra Region
      • Ikalamavony District
        • Fitampito Commune
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871; Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p. 27
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
      • Ikalamavony Pegmatite Field
        • Ikalamavony District
          • Tsitondroina Commune
De Ascenção Guedes, R., Lebocey, J. & Bayle, L.-D. (2010): Munich 2010. Le Règne Minéral. 96 (Nov-Déc 2010): 27-44 [p.40-41]
    • Vatovavy-Fitovinany Region
      • Mananjary District
        • Mananjary emerald District
          • North Zone
[var: Alexandrite] JULIEN RAOUL
  • Mahajanga Province (Majunga)
    • Betsiboka Region
      • Maevatanana District
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
  • Toamasina Province (Tamatave)
    • Alaotra-Mangoro Region
      • Ambatondrazaka District
        • Ambatondrazaka Commune
Knut Edvard Larsen collection # MM-1669
        • Ambatosoratra Commune
Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p 27
Pezzotta, F.(1999): Madagaskar- Das Paradies des Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLApis no.17,47-48 [german version]
Knut Edvard Larsen collection
Jordi Fabre
      • Andilamena District
Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive. p 27
      • Lac Alaotra (Lake Alaotra)
Van King
  • Tuléar Province (Toliara)
    • Androy Region
      • Ambovombe District
        • Imanombo Commune
Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p 27
    • Menabe Region
      • Miandrivazo District
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Geologique A. 1871
        • Miandrivazo Commune
Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p. 27
Mozambique
 
  • Niassa Province
Rob Lavinsky photo
Myanmar
 
  • Bago Region (Bago Division; Pegu Division)
    • Bago District
      • Bago Township (Pegu Township)
No reference listed
  • Mandalay Region (Mandalay Division)
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
[var: Alexandrite] http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-burma2.htm
        • Bernardmyo
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyatpyin Central
[var: Alexandrite] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyatpyin North
Harald Schillhammer collection
[var: Alexandrite] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Mogok Valley
Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Alexandrite] Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
No reference listed
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Harald Schillhammer collection
        • Pein-Pyit (Painpyit; Pyan Pyit)
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
  • Shan State
    • Loilem District (Loilen District)
[var: Alexandrite] Kyaw Khaing Win (2004): A study on gemstones occurrences of Monghsu and its environs. Unpublishes M.Res. thesis, University of Yangon, Department of Geology.
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib District
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 508 pp. (in English)
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 508 pp. (in English)
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 508 pp. (in English)
    • Omaruru District
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 543 pp. (in English)
    • Swakopmund District
      • Arandis
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 508 pp. (in English)
Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 335 pp (in English).
  • Karas Region
    • Karasburg District
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 384 pp. (in English)
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 508 pp. (in English)
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 508 pp. (in English)
Niger
 
  • Tillabéry Department
    • Antigoura
Machens, E. (1964) : Mission de prospection générale du Liptako, rapport de fin de mission 58-64 et inventaire d’indices de minéralisations – Rapport BRGM inédit, 146pages.
Abdou, A., Bonnot, H. et al. (1998): Notice explicative des Cartes Géologiques du Liptako à 1/100 000 et 1/200 000.- Ministère des Mines et de l‘Energie, République du Niger; 64 pages.
    • Toulamè
Abdou, A., Bonnot, H. et al. (1998): Notice explicative des Cartes Géologiques du Liptako à 1/100 000 et 1/200 000.- Ministère des Mines et de l‘Energie, République du Niger; 64 pages.
Nigeria
 
  • Kogi State
Jacobson, R. & J.S. Webb (1947) The Occurrence of Nigerite, a New Tin Mineral in Quartz-Sillimanite-Rocks from Nigeria. Mineralogical Magazine: 28, 118-128.
Norway
 
  • Aust-Agder
    • Evje og Hornnes
      • Lauvland
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 59./ Kristiansen, R. (1999): Berylliumsmineraler i Norge. STEIN 26 (2), 8-23
    • Iveland
      • Ljosland
        • Knipan (Knipane)
Breivik, H., Myre, K. & Gunnufsen, K. (2010): Gammelt og nytt, stort og smått fra Storsynken, Knipane, Iveland. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 43: 88-93
Schetelig, J. (1913): Mineralogische Studien I. 1. Chrysoberyl von Nateland in Iveland. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 2: 3-37; Bjørlykke, H. (1934): The Mineral Paragenesis and Classification of the Granite Pegmatites of Iveland, Setesdal, Southern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 14, 211-311
    • Risør
      • Søndeled
Oftedal, I. (1947): Krysoberyll fra Lindstøl i Søndeled. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 26: 224-225
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Hedrum
        • Lågendalen
Sæbø, P.C. (1965): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway. 1: The first occurrence of the rare mineral barylite, Be2BaSi2O7, in Norway. 2: Note on a new occurrence of chrysoberyl in Norway. 3: The first occurence of ramsayite, Na2Ti2Si2O9, in Norway. 38pp. Unpublished thesis, University of Oslo.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Ząbkowice District
      • Ząbkowice (Frankenstein)
        • Szklary (Gläsendorf)
Geologia Sudetica, 33 (1): 23-31.
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Primorskiy Kray
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.; Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
  • Northern Region
    • Karelia Republic
      • Ladoga Region
Ivashchenko, V. I., Valkama, M., Sundblad, K., Golubev, A. I., & Alekseev, V. Y. (2011, September). New data on mineralogy and metallogeny of scarns in the Pitkyaranta ore region. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 440, No. 1, pp. 1307-1311). SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica; Ivashchenko, V. I., & Lavrov, О. В. (2006) Ore Deposits and Occurrences in the North Ladoga Region, Southwest Karelia. in Ore Deposits And Occurrences In The North Ladoga Region, Southwest Karelia Field Trip Guidebook. Understanding the genesis of ore deposits to meet the demands of the 21st century 12th Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium 2006. Moscow. P.41-64.
P.Kartashov data
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
      • Khibiny Massif
Mikhailova, Y.A., Konopleva, N.G., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Pakhomovsky, Y.A. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(7), 590-598.
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
[var: Alexandrite] [MinRec 32:41]
          • Malyshevo
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35 ; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
P.M. Kartashov data
[var: Alexandrite] E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
[var: Alexandrite] Pavel M. Kartashov data
[var: Alexandrite] E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
[var: Alexandrite] Avdonin V.N., Polenov Yu.A. (2004) Essays on Uralian minerals, - UGGA press, p. 419 (in Rus.).
[var: Alexandrite] E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
        • Rezh District
          • Lipovka pegmatite field
I.A. Baksheev and O.E. Kudryavtseva : "Composition of some pegmatitic, hydrothermal and metamorphic dravites from the Urals, Russia", Bull. Liaison SFMC, Vol. 16, 2004.; Zap. Vseross. Mineral. Obshch., 132(2) pp. 49-59 ; Cook, R. B. (2009). Connoisseur's Choice: Spessartine Marienfluss, Northern Namibia. Rocks & Minerals, 85(1), 50-59.; Igor.V. Pekov, Lyudmila R. Memetova (2008) Minerals of the Lipovka Granite Pegmatites, Central Urals, Russia. Mineralogical Almanac 13:6-45
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo Province
    • Murchison Range
      • Gravelotte
        • Letaba
Minerals of South Africa
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Gert Sibande District
      • Piet Retief (eMkhondo)
Minerals of South Africa
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
Minerals of South Africa
Minerals of South Africa
    • ZF Mgcawu District
      • Kakamas
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, pp 197.
      • Keimoes
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Córdoba
      • Hornachuelos
        • Sierra Albarrana
Maria del Mar Abad-Ortega and Fernando Nieto, Eur. Journ. Mineral. , 1995, 7, pp. 363-367.
  • Catalonia
    • Girona (Gerona)
      • Alt Empordà
        • Cadaqués
Bareche, E. (2005) "Els minerals de Catalunya. Segle XX" Ed. Museu Mollfulleda de Mineralogia - Grup Mineralògic Català, 269 p.
  • Extremadura
    • Cáceres
Merino, E., Villaseca, C., Orejana, D., & Jeffries, T. (2013). Gahnite, chrysoberyl and beryl co-occurrence as accessory minerals in a highly evolved peraluminous pluton: the Belvís de Monroy leucogranite (Cáceres, Spain). Lithos, 179, 137-156.
  • Galicia
    • Pontevedra
      • A Cañiza
[var: Alexandrite] Martin-Izard, A., Paniagua, A., Moreiras, D. (1995) Metasomatism at a granitic pegmatite-dunite contact in Galicia: the Franqueira occurrence of chrysoberyl (alexandrite), emerald, and phenakite. Canadian Mineralogist, 33, 775-792.
Sri Lanka
 
  • Central Province
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.; Dissanayake, C. B., Chandrajith, R. O. H. A. N. A., & Tobschall, H. J. (2000). The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka. BULLETIN-GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF FINLAND, 72(1/2), 5-20.
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
    • Ratnapura District
[var: Alexandrite]
INTAN s.l. specimens
Josep Sanchez specimens (INTAN, Barcelona)
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.; Dissanayake, C. B., Chandrajith, R. O. H. A. N. A., & Tobschall, H. J. (2000). The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka. BULLETIN-GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF FINLAND, 72(1/2), 5-20.
[var: Alexandrite] http://gemexplorer.org/archives/ratnapura-sri-lanka; Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
[var: Alexandrite] Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
  • Southern Province
    • Matara District
      • Matara
M.K.T.S. Ranabahu, F.G.A., personal communication, February 2010; Personal Collection of Edward Rosenzweig; Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
  • Uva Province
    • Moneragala District
Rob Lavinsky specimen
  • Western Province
Dissanayake, C. B., Chandrajith, R. O. H. A. N. A., & Tobschall, H. J. (2000). The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka. BULLETIN-GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF FINLAND, 72(1/2), 5-20.
    • Kalutara District
[var: Alexandrite]
Sweden
 
  • Östergötland
    • Finspång
    • Norrköping
      • Kolmården
Knut Edvard Larsen collection # 2023 (Ex Jörgen Langhof collection)
  • Uppland
    • Vaxholm
      • Resarö
No reference listed
  • Västmanland
    • Köping
Sundius, N. (1950) Beryll och krysoberyll från Kolsva fältspatgruva. Geol. Fören. Stockh. Förh. 72, 358-59; Nysten,P. & Gustafsson, L.(2006): I jakt på sällsynta mineral. Geologiskt forum nr 49, 22-25
    • Nora
Nysten,P. & Gustafsson, L.(2006): I jakt på sällsynta mineral. Geologiskt forum nr 49, 22-25
Switzerland
 
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Bregaglia Valley (Bergell)
      • Albigna Valley
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 113.
      • Castasegna
Bedogné F., Montrasio A., Sciesa E. (1995): I minerali della provincia di Sondrio e della Bregaglia grigionese. Val Bregaglia, Val Masino, Val Codera e Valle Spluga. Bettini, Sondrio, 300 pp.
      • Stampa
pers. comm. with Silvio Lareida, St. Moritz
    • Misox (Mesolcina Valley)
      • Grono
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 113-114.
  • Ticino (Tessin)
    • Leventina
      • Piumogna Valley
Artini, E. (1920): Atti. Accad.naz. Lincei, Rend. Cl. fis. mat. nat. 29, 77-80.
Tanzania
 
  • Arusha Region
    • Dumbawanga District
[var: Alexandrite] http://www.ganoksin.com/borisat/nenam/tanzania-mines.htm
    • Lake Manyara
[var: Alexandrite] Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
  • Ruvuma Region
    • Tunduru District
[var: Alexandrite] Macfarlane, M., Tallontire, A., & Martin, A. (2003). Towards an Ethical Jewellery Business. Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, London.
UK
 
  • England
    • Devon
      • Okehampton area (Northern Dartmoor)
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1964) Mineralogical Magazine 35, lvii; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, 169-177 (referring to Kingsbury).; von Knorring, O., and Condliffe, E. (1984) On the occurrence of niobium-tantalum and other rare-element minerals in the Meldon aplite, Devonshire. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 48, n° 348, 443-448 (referring to Kingsbury).; http://johnblanchard.net/index.php/some-sites/226-meldon-aplite-quarry-sssi
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Nome Borough
      • Port Clarence District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
        • Seward Peninsula
Sinkankas, 1989. Emerald & Other Beryls.; Aleksandrov, S. M. (2010). Skarn-greisen deposits of the lost river and mount ear ore field, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, United States. Geochemistry International, 48(12), 1220-1236.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
  • Arizona
    • Mohave Co.
      • Bentley District
Holmes, G.H., Jr. , Investigations of beryllium deposits in the northern Virgin Mountains of Clark County, Nevada, and Mohave County, Arizona, US Bur. Mines Info Circ. 6572: 13-20; MRDS file #10027713.
      • Virgin Mts
        • Virgin Peak (Bunkerville Mt.)
Meeves, H.C. (1966), Nonpegmatite beryllium occurrences in AZ, CO, NM, UT and four adjacent states, US Bur. of Mines Rept. Inv. 6828; Olson, Jerry C. & Hinrichs (1960), Beryl-bearing pegmatites in the Ruby Mts & other areas in NV & NW AZ: 141, 189-192.
Olson, Jerry C. & Hinrichs (1960), USGS Bull. 1082-D, Beryl-bearing pegmatites in the Ruby Mts & other areas in NV & NW AZ: 192.
  • California
    • Butte Co.
      • Big Bar Mountain
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 143.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 143.
  • Colorado
    • Clear Creek Co.
      • Dailey District (Jones Pass District)
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Douglas Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Jefferson Co.
      • Clear Creek pegmatite Province
Meeves, H., et al (1966), Reconnaissance of beryllium-bearing pegmatite deposits in six western states, US Bur. Mines Info. Circ. 8298: 28 (Table A-1).; USGS Prof. Paper 227
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; USGS Prof. Paper 227
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; USGS Prof. Paper 227
      • Golden District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Larimer Co.
      • Crystal Mountain Pegmatite District (Storm Mountain District)
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
Rocks & Min.:57:53-54.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; USGS Prof. Paper 227
    • Park Co.
      • Tarryall Mts
        • Lost Creek
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield Co.
      • Brookfield
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994), Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Haddam
Webster, J. W. (1820): Localities of minerals, observed principally in Haddam, in Connecticut, in September, 1819. American Journal of Science s. 1, v. 2, p. 239; Shepard (1837); Robinson (1825);
        • Haddam Neck
Rocks and Minerals, (1999) 74:324-327
Williams, Horace S. (1899): Letter to Miss Eveline Brainerd of Haddam, February 18, 1899. Brainerd Public Library, Haddam, Connecticut.
Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
  • Idaho
    • Shoshone Co.
Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
  • Maine
    • Androscoggin Co.
      • Minot
No reference listed
King, V. T. and Foord, E. E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, volume 1, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, pp. 418 + 88 plates.
    • Cumberland Co.
      • Standish
King, Vandall T. and Foord, Eugene E. (1994) Mineralogy of Maine, volume 1. Descriptive Mineralogy, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, p. 84.
    • Kennebec Co.
      • Litchfield
"Maine Mineral Localities, 3rd Ed." by Thompson, W.B., et.al., 1998
    • Oxford Co.
      • Albany
King, V. (ed.), 2009, Maine feldspar, Families, and Feuds
      • Buckfield
Rocks & Min.: 62:403-404.
No reference listed
No reference listed
      • Gilead
King, V. (ed.), 2009, Maine feldspar, Families, and Feuds
      • Grafton
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine.
      • Greenwood
"Maine Mineral Localites, 3rd Ed." by Thompson, W.B., et.al., 1998
Rocks & Min.: 62:404-405.
      • Hartford
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine.; American Mineralogist 18:501-503
      • Lovell
No reference listed
Only reference is in Maine Mines and Minerals, volume 1, Western Maine by Philip Morrill and a Lot of Other People, p. 28 w/map p. 76. No other minerals were listed.
      • Newry
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1; King, V. (ed), 2000, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 2.
Van King
      • Norway
USGS Bull 445
      • Paris
Rocks & Min.: 57:52.
"Maine Mineral Localities, 3rd Ed." by Thompson, W.B., et.al., 1998
      • Peru
"Maine Mineral Localities, 3rd Ed." by Thompson, W.B., et.al., 1998
No reference listed
King, V. and Foord, E (1995) Mineralogy of Maine
Kunz (1886) Index to the Miscellaneous Documents of the House of Representaives for the first session of the forty-ninth Congress, p. 736
      • Stow
No reference listed
      • West Paris
Morrill et al. (1958)
No reference listed
No reference listed
      • Woodstock
Morrill et al. (1958)
No reference listed
    • Sagadahoc Co.
      • Topsham
"Maine Mineral Localities, 3rd Ed." by Thompson, W.B., et.al., 1998
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1.
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Virgin Mts
        • Bunkerville District
Rocks & Min.: 57: 55.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Elko Co.
      • Ruby Mts
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Hampshire
    • Carroll Co.
      • Bartlett
Yuzhou Li (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(6), 29-35
      • Wakefield
Chayes, Felix (1944): Occurence of Chrysoberyl at Wakefield, Carroll County, New Hampshire (American Mineralogist 29:320-323).
    • Grafton Co.
      • Grafton
Meyers & Stewart, 1956. Geology of NH , Part III., p.19.; Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
Nicolay & Stone (1967), Rocks & Minerals: A Guide For Collectors of the Eastern US, p.82
    • Merrimack Co.
      • Wilmot
Meyers & Stewart, 1956. Geology of NH , Part III., p.19.; Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
  • New Mexico
    • Rio Arriba Co.
      • Petaca District
[var: Alexandrite] Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd rev. Ed., 1996
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd rev. Ed., 1996
      • Northern Taos Range
NMBMMR Bull 71 Mineral Resources of Taos County, New Mexico
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 84.
    • New York City
      • Manhattan (New York Co.)
        • Manhattan Island
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 22.
Levison, W.G. (1901) Note on a crystal of chrysoberyl from the borough of Manhatten, New York City. The Mineral Collector, Vol. 8, No. 6, pg. 81-83.
Levison, W.G. (1901) A crystal of chrysoberyl from Ninety-Third Street and Riverside Park. The Mineral Collector, Vol. 8, No. 9, pg. 134-136.
          • Washington Heights
Anon (1888a) “Mr. William Hidden” Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences Vol 7, May 1888 ; Anon (1888a) “Mr. William Hidden” Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences Vol 7, May 1888
    • Saratoga Co.
      • Batchellerville
George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.; George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
      • Edinburg Township
        • Batchellerville
Rocks & Minerals 82:472-483
Marian Lupulescu (2010) The Pegmatites of New York. The 37th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 15-18, 2010
      • Greenfield Township
Rocks & Minerals 82:472-483; Whitlock, H P (1903) List of New York Mineral localities. New York State Museum.
Marian Lupulescu (2010) The Pegmatites of New York. The 37th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 15-18, 2010
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Star Lake
        • Benson
Marian Lupulescu, D. Bailey, and Mike Hawkins (2010) Mineralogy of the Benson Mines Proterozoic iron deposit, Star Lake, St. Lawrence County, NY. The 37th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 15-18, 2010
    • Yancey Co.
      • Spruce Pine District
        • Burnsville
          • Hurricane Mountain
Genth,F.A and Kerr,W.C,1881,Minerals and Mineral Localities of North Carolina,Geologic Survey,North Carolina
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
      • Custer District
        • Custer
Rocks & Min.:57:54.
Rocks & Min.: 57:54.
R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
Loomis, T. (2011), "News from the Black Hills, South Dakota", Mineral News, in press
Rocks & Min.: 57:55.
        • Fourmile
Rocks & Min.: 57:155.
        • Pringle
Rocks & Min.: 57:54-55.
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone District
        • Keystone
R&M 75:3 pp 156-169; USGS Prof Paper 297A
  • Virginia
    • Amelia Co.
      • Winterham
Rocks & Min.: 8:143-144.
  • Washington
    • Pend Oreille Co.
      • Usk
        • Browns Lake
Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.58
Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.73
Zambia
 
  • Copperbelt Province
    • Ndola District
      • Ndola
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148
  • Northern Province
    • Mafinga District
      • Muyombe
Stanislav Vrana specimen; Beurlen, H., Thomas, R., Melgarejo, J. C., Da Silva, J. M. R., Rhede, D., Soares, D. R., & Da Silva, M. R. (2013). Chrysoberyl-sillimanite association from the Roncadeira pegmatite, Borborema Province, Brazil: implications for gemstone exploration. Journal of GEOsciences, 58(2), 79-90.
Zimbabwe
 
  • Mashonaland West
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 74.
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 73.
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa
  • Masvingo
[var: Alexandrite] Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 74.
    • Masvingo (Fort Victoria)
[var: Alexandrite] [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
[var: Alexandrite] J. E. Shigley et al. (2010), Gem Localities of the 2000s, Gems and Gemology, Fall 2010, pp. 188–216; Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 74.
  • Matabeleland South
[var: Alexandrite] Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 74.
  • Midlands
    • Gweru District (Gwelo District)
Rocks & Minerals (1955) 30:464-471
[var: Alexandrite] Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 74.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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