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Perovskite

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Count Lev Aleksevich von Perovski
Formula:
CaTiO3
Colour:
Dark brown, black, red-brown, yellow shades
Lustre:
Adamantine, Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
3.98 - 4.26
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named by Gustav Rose in 1839 in honor of Count Lev Alekseevich Perovski (1792-1856), then in the Ministry of Regions, of St. Petersburg, Russia. Perovskii rose to vice-president of the Appanage Department in 1852-1856. During his tenure in the Appanage Department, Perovski "contributed to development of mining industry in Russia, inspected supplies and working of lapidary work; many new deposits started to be mined by his initiative." Perovski was also an influential mineral collector.
(Schmidt, 2011).
Isostructural with:
Perovskite Group. The Ti analogue of lakargiite and megawite. The Ca analogue of barioperovskite and geikielite; not analogous to tausonite (different structure).

The crystal structure is parent to many important synthetic compounds. The general formula is ABX3, in which [12]A = larger atoms (cubooctahedral coordination), [6]B = smaller atoms (e.g., Wenk & Bulakh, 2004). The coordination may be disordered from ideal one. The orthorhombic nature of the structure was determined in the work of Kay & Bailey (1957).

Natural Ca-Al perovskite-like phase may be present within Ca-Al inclusions in moissanite (see Unnamed (Ca-Al-(Si) oxide I)).


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Classification of PerovskiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.CC.30

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
C : With large and medium-sized cations
4.3.3.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
7.9.6

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti

Physical Properties of PerovskiteHide

Adamantine, Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Dark brown, black, red-brown, yellow shades
Streak:
Colourless, greyish white
Hardness:
5½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
On {001}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.98 - 4.26 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.02 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Calculated on synthetic material.

Optical Data of PerovskiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 2.300 nβ = 2.340 nγ = 2.380
2V:
Measured: 90° , Calculated: 88°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.080
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Isotropic
Dispersion:
r > v
Colour in reflected light:
Dark bluish grey
Internal Reflections:
Brown
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Z greater than X

Chemical Properties of PerovskiteHide

Formula:
CaTiO3
Common Impurities:
Fe,Nb,Ce,La,TR

Age informationHide

Age range:
Pennsylvanian : 300.2 ± 0.9 Ma to 300.4 ± 0.7 Ma - based on data given below.
Sample ages:
Sample IDRecorded ageGeologic TimeDating method
1300.2 ± 0.9 to 300.4 ± 0.7 MaPennsylvanianU-Pb
Sample references:
IDLocalityReference
1Saltstein, Brunlanes, Larvik, Vestfold, NorwayDahlgren, S. & Larsen, A.O. (2012): Minerals of the banalsite-stronalsite series in amygdules from the Brunlanes ultramafic series. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter: 49: 93-100.

Crystallography of PerovskiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.447(1) Å, b = 7.654(1) Å, c = 5.388(1) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.712 : 1 : 0.704
Unit Cell V:
224.63 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals usually cubic, highly modified at times, but the planes are often irregularly distributed. Cubic faces striated parallel to [001] and apparently penetrations twins (as if of pyritohedral individuals; also striated parallel to [110]. {001} less developed with {113} and {449} prominent. Also cubooctahedra or octahedra (esp. Ce and Nb varieties). Rarely reniform masses exhibiting small cubes on the surface, or massive granular.
Twinning:
On {111}: 1. penetration twins (esp. Ce or Nb varieties); 2. complex lamellar twinning. About [101] and rarely [121]

Crystallographic forms of PerovskiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Perovskite no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Perovskite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of PerovskiteHide

Synonyms of PerovskiteHide

Other Language Names for PerovskiteHide

Catalan:Perovskita
Czech:Perovskit
Italian:Perovskite
Polish:Perowskit
Portuguese:Perovskita
Romanian:Perovskit
Simplified Chinese:鈣鈦礦
Spanish:Perovskita

Varieties of PerovskiteHide

DysanalyteA Nb-bearing (usually 5-10 mas.% of Nb2O5, sometimes up to 26 mas.%) variety of Perovskite
Originally described from Badloch Quarry, Orberg Mt. - Badberg Mt. area, Schelingen, Kaiserstuhl, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
KnopiteA variety of perovskite rich in cerium.
Originally described from Långörsholmen, Alnö, Sundsvall, Medelpad, Sweden.

Relationship of Perovskite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
BarioperovskiteBaTiO3Orth. mm2 : Amm2
Isolueshite(Na,La)NbO3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
Loparite-(Ce)(Na,REE)Ti2O6
LueshiteNaNbO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
MacedonitePbTiO3Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
MegawiteCaSnO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pban
TausoniteSrTiO3Iso. 4 3m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Magnetite75 photos of Perovskite associated with Magnetite on mindat.org.
Clinochlore25 photos of Perovskite associated with Clinochlore on mindat.org.
Melanite21 photos of Perovskite associated with Melanite on mindat.org.
Calcite14 photos of Perovskite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Nepheline13 photos of Perovskite associated with Nepheline on mindat.org.
Pyroxene Group12 photos of Perovskite associated with Pyroxene Group on mindat.org.
Fluorapatite11 photos of Perovskite associated with Fluorapatite on mindat.org.
Apatite8 photos of Perovskite associated with Apatite on mindat.org.
Titanite8 photos of Perovskite associated with Titanite on mindat.org.
Andradite7 photos of Perovskite associated with Andradite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.CC.AllendeiteSc4Zr3O12Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.Yttriaite-(Y)Y2O3Iso.
4.CC.05ChrombismiteBi16CrO27Tet.
4.CC.10FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16Mon.
4.CC.15GrossiteCaAl4O7Mon. 2/m : B2/b
4.CC.20ChlormayeniteCa12Al14O32[◻4Cl2]Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
4.CC.25YafsoaniteCa3Zn3(TeO6)2Iso. m3 (2/m 3)
4.CC.30LatrappiteCa2NbFe3+O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.CC.30LueshiteNaNbO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.CC.30NatroniobiteNaNbO3Mon.
4.CC.30BarioperovskiteBaTiO3Orth. mm2 : Amm2
4.CC.30LakargiiteCa(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.CC.30MegawiteCaSnO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pban
4.CC.35Loparite-(Ce)(Na,REE)Ti2O6
4.CC.35MacedonitePbTiO3Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
4.CC.35TausoniteSrTiO3Iso. 4 3m
4.CC.35Isolueshite(Na,La)NbO3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
4.CC.40CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.40Davidite-(Ce)(Ce,La)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.40Davidite-(La)(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38Trig.
4.CC.40Davidite-(Y)(La,Ce,Na,Ca,Pb)(Y,Fe2+,◻)(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Nb,Zr)18O38 (hypothetical)Trig.
4.CC.40LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.40Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.
4.CC.40Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38Trig.
4.CC.40Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.
4.CC.40SenaitePb(Mn,Y,U)(Fe,Zn)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig.
4.CC.40Dessauite-(Y)(Sr,Pb)(Y,U)(Ti,Fe3+)20O38Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.40Cleusonite(Pb,Sr)(U4+,U6+)(Fe2+,Zn)2(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.40Gramaccioliite-(Y)(Pb,Sr)(Y,Mn)Fe3+2(Ti,Fe3+)18O38Trig. 3
4.CC.45DiaoyudaoiteNaAl11O17Hex.
4.CC.45HawthorneiteBaMgTi3Cr4Fe2+2Fe3+2O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.45Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19Hex.
4.CC.45LindqvistitePb2Mn2+Fe16O27Hex.
4.CC.45Magnetoplumbite(Pb,Mn)(Fe,Mn)12O19Hex.
4.CC.45PlumboferritePb2(Fe3+,Mn2+,Mg)11O19Trig. 3 2
4.CC.45YimengiteK(Cr,Ti,Fe,Mg)12O19Hex.
4.CC.45HaggertyiteBaFe2+4Fe3+2Ti5MgO19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.45NežilovitePbZn2Mn4+2Fe3+8O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.45BatiferriteBaTi2Fe3+8Fe2+2O19Hex.
4.CC.45Hibonite-(Fe)(Fe,Mg)Al12O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.45BarioferriteBaFe3+12O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.50Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13Mon.
4.CC.55ZenzénitePb3Fe4Mn3O15Hex.
4.CC.60Mengxianminite (of Huang et al.)(Ca,Na)3(Fe,Mn)2Mg2(Sn,Zn)5Al8O29

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

4.3.3.2LatrappiteCa2NbFe3+O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.3.3.3Loparite-(Ce)(Na,REE)Ti2O6
4.3.3.4LueshiteNaNbO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.3.3.4BarioperovskiteBaTiO3Orth. mm2 : Amm2
4.3.3.5TausoniteSrTiO3Iso. 4 3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.9.1HongquiiteTiO
7.9.2RutileTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.9.3AnataseTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.4BrookiteTiO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.5GeikieliteMgTiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.7KassiteCaTi2O4(OH)2Orth.
7.9.8TausoniteSrTiO3Iso. 4 3m
7.9.9CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6Mon.
7.9.11Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19Hex.
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)2(O,OH)6Amor.
7.9.13PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.14IwakiiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.15IlmeniteFe2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.16PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.17UlvöspinelFe2TiO4Iso.
7.9.18PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9Hex.
7.9.19FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16Mon.
7.9.20KennedyiteFe2TiO5
7.9.21Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.22Högbomite(Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10Hex.
7.9.23Qandilite(Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4
7.9.24CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.9.25Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38Trig.
7.9.26Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.
7.9.27PrideriteK(Ti4+7Fe3+)O16Tet.
7.9.28Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13Mon.
7.9.29AnkangiteBa(Ti,V3+,Cr)8O16Tet. 4/m : I4/m
7.9.30Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.31LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Perovskite in petrologyHide

References for PerovskiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Rose (1839), Ann. Phys.: 48: 558 (as Perowskit).
Knop (1877), Zs. Kr.: 1: 284 (as Dysanalyte).
Baumhauer (1880), Zs. Kr.: 4: 187.
Ben Saude (1882), Preiss. Göttingen.
Federov (1892), Zs. Kr.: 20: 74 (as Metaperovskite).
Holmquist (1893), Geol. För. Forh.: 15: 588 (as Knopite).
Holmquist (1894), Geol. För. Forh.: 16: 73.
Holmquist (1897), Bull. Geol. Inst. Upsala: 3: 181.
Bowman (1908), Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 156.
Meigen and Hügel (1913), Zs. anorg. Chem.: 82: 242.
Goldschmidt (1918): 5: 32.
Goldschmidt (1920): 6: 131.
Fersmann (1922), Comptes rendus de académie des sciences Russie: 59.
Barth (1925), Norsk Geol. Tidsskr.: 8: 201.
Levi and Natta (1925), Acc. Linc., Att.: 2(6): 39.
Ellsworth and Walker (1926), Geological Survey of Canada, Summary report 230A.
Hevesy, Alexander, and Würstlin (1929), Zs. anorg. Chem.: 181: 95.
Zedlitz (1939), Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 75: 245.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 730-735.
Turi B. (1968) - Note sull'analisi chimica della perovskite. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 567-575.
Kay, H.F., Bailey, P.C. (1957): Structure and Properties of CaTiO3. Acta Crystallographica: 10: 219-226.
Kristallografiya: 42: 54-63.
Acta Crystallographica (1983): C39: 1323.
Caracas, R., Wentzcovitch, R., Price, G.D., and Brodholt, J. (2005), CaSiO3 perovskite at lower mantle pressures. Geophysical Research Letters: 32: L06306, DOI: 10.1029/2004GL022144.
Schmidt, L. J., 2011, Tracking Down the Truth of Perovski, 38th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium Program and Abstracts, p. 31-32.
Wenk, H.R., Bulakh, A. (2004). Minerals: Their Constitution and Origin. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press

Internet Links for PerovskiteHide

Localities for PerovskiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

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