LIVE REPORT! Moscow mindat tour - last updated 0 minutes ago. Click here to watch.
Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsThe ElementsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Sanidine

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Formula:
K(AlSi3O8)
Colour:
Colourless, white, grey, yellowish white, or reddish white
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
6
Specific Gravity:
2.56 - 2.62
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Member of:
Name:
From the Greek "sanis" for "little plate" and "idos" for "to see."
Feldspar Group.
Common in volcanic rocks.

See also the other potassium-dominant feldspars microcline and orthoclase.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Sanidine.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of SanidineHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.FA.30

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
F : Tektosilicates without zeolitic H2O
A : Tektosilicates without additional non-tetrahedral anions
76.1.1.2

76 : TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
1 : Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
16.3.7

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
3 : Aluminosilicates of K

Physical Properties of SanidineHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, white, grey, yellowish white, or reddish white
Streak:
White
Hardness:
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
{001} Perfect, {010} distinct
Parting:
{100}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
2.56 - 2.62 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.56 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of SanidineHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.518 - 1.525 nβ = 1.523 - 1.530 nγ = 1.525 - 1.531
2V:
Measured: 60° , Calculated: 48° to 64°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.007
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
r < v distinct

Chemical Properties of SanidineHide

Formula:
K(AlSi3O8)
IMA Formula:
KAlSi3O8
Common Impurities:
Fe,Ca,Na,H2O

Age informationHide

Age range:
Phanerozoic : 98.89 ± 0.34 Ma to 10.5 ± 0.3 Ma - based on data given below.
Sample ages:
Sample IDRecorded ageGeologic TimeDating method
110.5 ± 0.3 MaMioceneK-Ar
216.9 ± 0.3 MaMioceneK-Ar
328.84 ± 0.08 MaOligocene40Ar/39Ar
429.08 ± 0.05 MaOligocene40Ar/39Ar
529.43 ± 0.05 MaOligocene40Ar/39Ar
630.75 ± 0.16 MaOligocene40Ar/39Ar
731.05 ± 0.15 MaOligocene40Ar/39Ar
831.55 ± 0.07 MaOligocene40Ar/39Ar
931.73 ± 0.22 MaOligocene40Ar/39Ar
1031.82 ± 0.12 MaOligocene40Ar/39Ar
1132.16 ± 0.31 MaOligocene40Ar/39Ar
1232.5 ± 0.1 MaOligocene40Ar/39Ar
1332.65 ± 0.05 MaOligocene40Ar/39Ar
1434.26 ± 0.1 MaEoceneK-Ar
1535.18 ± 0.05 MaEocene40Ar/39Ar
1641.09 ± 1.39 MaEocene40Ar/39Ar
1759.31 ± 0.09 MaPaleocene40Ar/39Ar
1898.89 ± 0.34 MaLate Cretaceous40Ar/39Ar
Sample references:
IDLocalityReference
1Klondyke District, Esmeralda Co., Nevada, USASilberman, M. L., Bonham, H. F. Jr., Garside, L. J., Ashley, R. P. (1978) Radiometric ages of volcanic and plutonic rocks and hydrothermal alteration-mineralization in the Tonopah Mining District and vicinity, Nye and Esmerelda Counties, Nevada. United States Department of the Interior Geological Survey Open-File Report 78-841. 1-48.
2Tonopah District, San Antonio Mts, Nye Co., Nevada, USA  "  "
3Gold Star pit, Altman, Teller Co., Colorado, USAKelley K D, Romberger S B, Beaty D W, Pontius J A, Snee L W, Stein H J, Thompson T B (1998) Geochemical and geochronological constraints on the genesis of Au-Te deposits at Cripple Creek, Colorado. Economic Geology (93) 981-1012.
4  "  "  "  "
5  "  "  "  "
6Cripple Creek, Cripple Creek District, Teller Co., Colorado, USA  "  "
7  "  "  "  "
8  "  "  "  "
9  "  "  "  "
10  "  "  "  "
11  "  "  "  "
12  "  "  "  "
13  "  "  "  "
14Huitzuco de los Figueroa, Mun. de Huitzuco, Guerrero, MexicoMorán-Zenteno D J, Alba-Aldave L A, Solé J, Iriondo A (2004) A major resurgent caldera in southern Mexico: the source of the late Eocene Tilzapotla ignimbrite, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 136, 97-119 
15Cripple Creek, Cripple Creek District, Teller Co., Colorado, USAKelley K D, Romberger S B, Beaty D W, Pontius J A, Snee L W, Stein H J, Thompson T B (1998) Geochemical and geochronological constraints on the genesis of Au-Te deposits at Cripple Creek, Colorado. Economic Geology (93) 981-1012.
16  "  "  "  "
17  "  "  "  "
18  "  "  "  "

Crystallography of SanidineHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.6 Å, b = 13.03 Å, c = 7.17 Å
β = 116.03°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.66 : 1 : 0.55
Unit Cell V:
721.96 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Tabular with square cross section
Twinning:
Carlsbad - common
Baveno, Manebach - rarer
Comment:
High sanidine forms a series with high albite

Type Occurrence of SanidineHide

Synonyms of SanidineHide

Other Language Names for SanidineHide

Varieties of SanidineHide

AzuliciteA transparent blue iridescent variety of Sanidine.
Barium-SanidineA barian Sanidine variety with 5% BaO.
Originally described from Comb Butte, Highwood Mts, Chouteau Co., Montana, USA.
Citron FeldsparA trade name for yellow gem-quality sanidine feldspar as found in Madagascar.
High sanidineThe high-temperature form of sanidine, believed to be stable above 800°C.
Low sanidineThe low temperature form of sanidine, believed to be stable between 650°C and 800°C. Above this temperature high sanidine is formed, and below this orthoclase and microcline.

Relationship of Sanidine to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)Tric. 1
AmazoniteK(AlSi3O8)
Andesine(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]Tric.
AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)Tric. 1 : P1
Anorthoclase(Na,K)AlSi3O8Tric.
BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16Orth.
Buddingtonite(NH4)(AlSi3)O8Mon. 2 : P21
Bytownite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]Tric.
CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)Mon. 2/m
DmisteinbergiteCa(Al2Si2O8)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
FilatoviteK(Al,Zn)2(As,Si)2O8Mon. 2/m
HexacelsianBaAl2Si2O8Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm
Hyalophane(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]Mon.
KokchetaviteK(AlSi3O8)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
KumdykoliteNa(AlSi3O8)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
Labradorite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)Tric. 1
Oligoclase(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
ParacelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)Mon.
ReedmergneriteNaBSi3O8Tric.
RubiclineRb(AlSi3O8)Tric.
SlawsoniteSr(Al2Si2O8)Mon.
StronalsiteNa2SrAl4Si4O16Orth.
SunstoneA variety of feldspar (microcline or oligoclase) that has schiller, commonly with an orange/brown background color, ...
SvyatoslaviteCa(Al2Si2O8)Orth.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Pseudobrookite45 photos of Sanidine associated with Pseudobrookite on mindat.org.
Titanite27 photos of Sanidine associated with Titanite on mindat.org.
Rutile21 photos of Sanidine associated with Rutile on mindat.org.
Hematite19 photos of Sanidine associated with Hematite on mindat.org.
Topaz18 photos of Sanidine associated with Topaz on mindat.org.
Pyroxene Group16 photos of Sanidine associated with Pyroxene Group on mindat.org.
Haüyne14 photos of Sanidine associated with Haüyne on mindat.org.
Magnetite11 photos of Sanidine associated with Magnetite on mindat.org.
Melanite11 photos of Sanidine associated with Melanite on mindat.org.
Hornblende11 photos of Sanidine associated with Hornblende on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.FA.05KaliophiliteKAlSiO4Hex.
9.FA.05KalsiliteKAlSiO4Hex. 6 2 2 : P63 2 2
9.FA.05Nepheline(Na,K)AlSiO4Hex. 6 : P63
9.FA.05Panunzite(K,Na)AlSiO4Hex. 6 : P63
9.FA.05Trikalsilite(K,Na)AlSiO4Hex.
9.FA.05Yoshiokaite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)O4]Trig. 3 : P3
9.FA.05MegakalsiliteKAlSiO4Hex.
9.FA.10MalinkoiteNaBSiO4Hex. 6 : P63
9.FA.15VirgiliteLiAlSi2O6Hex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
9.FA.25LisitsyniteKBSi2O6Orth. 2 2 2 : P2 2 2
9.FA.30AdulariaKAlSi3O8Mon.
9.FA.30Anorthoclase(Na,K)AlSi3O8Tric.
9.FA.30Buddingtonite(NH4)(AlSi3)O8Mon. 2 : P21
9.FA.30CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)Mon. 2/m
9.FA.30Hyalophane(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]Mon.
9.FA.30MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)Tric. 1
9.FA.30OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.FA.30RubiclineRb(AlSi3O8)Tric.
9.FA.30MonalbiteNaAlSi3O8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.FA.35AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)Tric. 1
9.FA.35Andesine(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]Tric.
9.FA.35AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)Tric. 1 : P1
9.FA.35Bytownite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]Tric.
9.FA.35Labradorite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
9.FA.35Oligoclase(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
9.FA.35ReedmergneriteNaBSi3O8Tric.
9.FA.40ParacelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)Mon.
9.FA.45SvyatoslaviteCa(Al2Si2O8)Orth.
9.FA.45KumdykoliteNa(AlSi3O8)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
9.FA.50SlawsoniteSr(Al2Si2O8)Mon.
9.FA.55LisetiteCaNa2Al4Si4O16Orth.
9.FA.60BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16Orth.
9.FA.60StronalsiteNa2SrAl4Si4O16Orth.
9.FA.65DanburiteCaB2Si2O8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.FA.65MaleeviteBaB2Si2O8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.FA.65PekoviteSrB2Si2O8
9.FA.70Lingunite(Na,Ca)AlSi3O8Tet. 4/m : I4/m
9.FA.75KokchetaviteK(AlSi3O8)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

76.1.1.1OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
76.1.1.3Hyalophane(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]Mon.
76.1.1.4CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)Mon. 2/m
76.1.1.5MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)Tric. 1
76.1.1.6Anorthoclase(Na,K)AlSi3O8Tric.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.3.1LithositeK6Al4Si8O25 · 2H2OMon.
16.3.2KaliophiliteKAlSiO4Hex.
16.3.3KalsiliteKAlSiO4Hex. 6 2 2 : P63 2 2
16.3.4LeuciteK(AlSi2O6)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
16.3.5MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)Tric. 1
16.3.6OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
16.3.8MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Sanidine in petrologyHide

References for SanidineHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Klaproth, M.H. (1810): Chemische Untersuchung des glasigen Feldspaths vom Drachenfels, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Fünfter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 12-18
Onorato E., Penta M., Sgarlata F. -(1963) Struttura del sanidino. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 1-34.
Scott, R.B., Bachinski, S.W., Nesbitt, R.W., and Scott, M.R. (1971) Rate of Al-Si ordering in sanidines from an ignimbrite cooling unit. American Mineralogist: 56: 1208-1221.
Bertelmann, D., Förtsch, E., and Wondratscher, H. (1985) Zum Temperverhalten von Sanidin: die Ausnahmerolle der Eifelsanidin-Megakristalle. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen: 152: 123-141.
Gering, E. (1985) Silizium/Aluminium-Ordnung und Kristallperfektion von Sanidinen. Dissertation, University of karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany.
Bertelmann, D., Walther, J., and Wondratscher, H. (1987) Annealing-induced inclusions and transformation behaviour of Eifel sanidines. Terra Cognita: 7: 257-258.
Bernotat-Wulf, H., Bertelmann, D., and Wondratscher, H. (1988) The annealing behaviour of Eifel sanidine (Volkesfeld). III. The influence of the sample surface and sample size on the order-disorder transformation rate. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1988: 504-515.
Ferguson, R.B., Ball, N.A., and Cerny, P. (1991) Structure refinement of an adularian end-member high sanidine from the Buck Claim pegmatite, Bernic Lake, Manitoba. Canadian Mineralogist: 29: 543-552.
Kroll, H. and Knitter, R. (1991) Al, Si exchange kinetics in sanidine and anorthoclase and modeling of rock cooling paths. American Mineralogist: 76: 928-941.
Widder, W. (1991) Röntgentopographische Untersuchungen am Sanidin von Volkesfeld und Orthoklas von Madagaskar. Diplomarbeit an der Fakultät für Physik, Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany.
Widder, W., Wondratscher, H., Fehlmann, M., and Klapper, H. (1994) X-ray topographic study of Eifel sanidine (Volkesfeld). Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 209: 206-209.
Mineralogical Record (1995): 26: 222.
Kimata, M., Saito, S., Shimizu, M., Iida, I., and Tomoaki, M. (1996) Low-temperature crystal structures of orthoclase and sanidine. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen: 171: 199-213.
Mineralien Welt (1999): 10(6): 40-44.
Ginibre, C., Wörner, G., and Kronz, A. (2004) Structure and dynamics of the Laacher See magma chamber (Eifel, Germany) from major and trace element zoning in sanidine: a cathodoluminescence and electron microprobe study. Journal of Petrology: 45: 2197-2224.

Internet Links for SanidineHide

Localities for SanidineHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2017, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: August 22, 2017 14:23:00 Page generated: August 21, 2017 15:00:05
Go to top of page