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Afghanistan

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Afghan Geo Map

Afghanistan
Area:652,230 km2
Locality type:Country


Afghanistan has some of the most complex and varied geology in the world. The oldest rocks are Archean and they are succeeded by rocks from the Proterozoic and every Phanerozoic system up to the present day. The country also has a long and complicated tectonic history, partly related to its position at the western end of the Himalaya. This diverse geological foundation has resulted in a significant mineral heritage with over 1400 mineral occurrences recorded to date. Historical mining concentrated mostly on precious stone production, with some of the oldest known mines in the world believed to have been established in Afghanistan to produce lapis lazuli for the Egyptian Pharaohs. More recent exploration in the 1960s and 70s resulted in the discovery of significant resources of metallic minerals, including copper, iron and gold, and non-metallic minerals, including halite, talc, and mica. The bedrock geology of Afghanistan can be thought of as a jigsaw of crustal blocks separated by fault zones, each with a different geological history and mineral prospectivity.

© Afghanistan Geological Survey 2016


Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Aegirine

Afghanite (TL)

Albite

var: Cleavelandite

var: Low Albite

var: Oligoclase

'Albite-Anorthite Series'

'Allanite Group'

Almandine

'Alum Group'

Amblygonite

'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'

Andradite

var: Demantoid

'Andradite-Grossular Series'

Anglesite

Anhydrite

Ankerite

'Anorthoclase'

'Apatite'

Aragonite

Arsenopyrite

'Asbestos'

Azurite

Baryte

'Bastnäsite'

Bavenite

Beryl

var: Alkali-beryl

var: Aquamarine

var: Emerald

var: Goshenite

var: Heliodor

var: Morganite

Beryllonite

'Biotite'

Bismuthinite

'Bitumen'

Bornite

Boulangerite

Brochantite

Burbankite

Calcite

var: Iceland Spar

Calkinsite-(Ce)

Cancrinite

Carbocernaite

Cassiterite

Celestine

Cerussite

Chalcanthite

Chalcocite

Chalcopyrite

Chamosite

Childrenite

'Childrenite-Eosphorite Series'

Chlorapatite

'Chlorite Group'

Chloritoid

Chondrodite

Chromite

Chrysoberyl

Chrysocolla

Chrysotile

Cinnabar

'Clays'

Clinochlore

Clinohumite

Clinozoisite

Columbite-(Fe)

'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'

Columbite-(Mn)

'Columbite-Tantalite'

Colusite

Cookeite

Copper

Cordierite

Corundum

var: Ruby

var: Sapphire

Covellite

Cristobalite

Cuprite

Danburite

Dickite

Diopside

Dolomite

Dravite

'Dravite-Uvite Series'

Elbaite

Enargite

Eosphorite

Epidote

Fayalite

'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'

'Feldspar Group'

Fluorapatite

Fluor-dravite

Fluor-elbaite

Fluorite

Fluornatromicrolite

Fluoro-richterite

Foitite

Forsterite

Galena

'Garnet Group'

Gedrite

Goethite

Gold

Gonnardite

Graphite

Grossular

var: Hessonite

Gypsum

'Hackmanite'

Halite

Hambergite

Haüyne

Hedenbergite

Hematite

var: Martite

'Hornblende'

Hydroxylclinohumite

Hydroxylherderite

Ilmenite

'Indicolite'

Iron

var: Kamacite

Ishikawaite

Isocubanite

Jarosite

Kaolinite

'K Feldspar'

'var: Adularia'

Khanneshite (TL)

Kyanite

'Lazurite' (FRL)

'Lepidolite'

Leucite

'Limonite'

Linnaeite

Ludwigite

Mackinawite

Magnesioferrite

Magnesite

Magnetite

Malachite

Marcasite

Margarite

Marialite

'Mckelveyite'

Metacinnabar

'Mica Group'

Microcline

Microlite Group

Molybdenite

'Monazite'

Monticellite

Montmorillonite

Muscovite

var: Sericite

Nanpingite

Nepheline

Nosean

Omphacite

Opal

var: Hyalite

Orthoclase

'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'

Pargasite

Penfieldite

Pentlandite

Petalite

Pezzottaite

Phlogopite

Pollucite

'Psilomelane'

Pyrite

'Pyrochlore'

Pyrolusite

Pyromorphite

'Pyroxene Group'

Pyrrhotite

Quartz

var: Amethyst

var: Chalcedony

var: Rock Crystal

var: Rose Quartz

var: Smoky Quartz

Realgar

Rhodochrosite

Richterite

'Rubellite'

Sapphirine

'Scapolite'

Scheelite

var: Molybdoscheelite

Schorl

Scorzalite

'Serpentine Subgroup'

Siderite

Silver

Skutterudite

Smithsonite

Sodalite

'Sodalite Group'

Spessartine

Sphalerite

Spinel

Spodumene

var: Kunzite

Stannite

Staurolite

Stibiotantalite

Sulphur

Taenite

Talc

'Tantalite'

Tantalite-(Mn)

Tennantite

Tenorite

'Thénardite'

Thomsonite-Ca

Titanite

Topaz

'Tourmaline'

'var: Achroite'

Tremolite

Troilite

Tungstibite

'Uranpyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)'

'Ursilite'

Uvarovite

'Uvite Series'

Väyrynenite

'Verdelite'

Vesuvianite

Viitaniemiite

Violarite

Witherite

Wodginite

'Wolframite'

Wollastonite

Wurtzite

Wüstite

Zircon

Zoisite


174 valid minerals. 2 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Localities in this Region
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Afghanistan
Afghanistan

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

References

Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Drummond, C. (1841): On the mines and mineral resources of Northern Afghanistan. Journal of the Asiat. Society Bengal, Calcutta, 1841, 10: 74-93.
Furon, R. (1924): Les ressources minières de l'Afghanistan. Rev. Sci, Paris, 1924: 62: 313.
Momji, G.S. and Chaikin, S.N. (1960): Iron ores of Afghanistan. Kabul, DGMS, 1960.
Maiorov, A.N., Suderkin, A.I., and Krepoy, M.E. (1965) Report by the Survey and Prospecting Team on the results obtained in 1963-1964 at the lapis-lazuli occurrences of Afghanistan. Kabul, Rec. Off., DGMS, 1965.
Malyarov, A.N., Suderkin, A.I., and Krepov, N.E. (1965) Report on the results of prospecting for and exploration of lapis-lazuli carried out in Afghanistan in 1963-1964. Kabul, DGMS, 1965.
Narodniy, V.M. and Shwarkov, S.L. (1965) Report on the results of survey and prospecting for beryl carried out in 1963-64 in the eastern part of Afghanistan with the reserves assessment of the Darrahe Pech rare metal-bearing pegmatite deposit. Kabul, Rec. Off. DCMS, 1965.
Khasanov, R.L., Plotnikov, G.I., Bayazitov, R.A., Zamaraev, G.N., Trifonov, A.I., and Sayapin, V.I. (1967) Report on the results of revision and assessment of copper, lead, zinc, gold occurrences carried out in 1965-1966. Kabul Rec. Off. DGMS, 1967.
Mikhailov, K.Ya., Moraliov, V.M., Perfiliev, Yu.S., and Chalian, M.A. (1969) The bauxite potential of the Mesozoic deposits in the southern part of the Afghano-Tadjik Depression. Razvedka i okhrana nedr, 1969, No. 7.
Dronov, V.I., Kalimulin, S.M., Kabakov, O.N., Kotchetkov, A.Ya., Zelensky, E.D., Chistyakov, A.N., and Svezhentsov, V.P. (1970) The geology and minerals of the western part of Central Afghanistan (Report of the Herat Team on the work in 1969). Kabul, DGMS, 1970.
Karapetov, S.S., Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F., Kotchetov, A.Ya., Semionov, Yu.G., and Gorelov, A.I. (1970) The geology and minerals of the eastern part of Central Afghanistan. Kabul, DGMS, 1970.
Denikayev, Sh.Sh., Feoktistov, V.P., Pyzhyanov, I.V., Adjruddin, A., Narbaev, Sh.N., and Konev, Yu.M. (1971) The geology and minerals of the southern part of East Afghanistan. Kabul, DGMS, 1971.
Denikayev, Sh.Sh., Feoktistov, V.P., Pyzhyanov, I.V., Adjruddin, A.A., Narbaev, Sh.N., and Konev, Yu.M. (1971) The geology and minerals in the south part of Eastern Afghanistan (Report of the Kabul team on the work in 1970). Kabul Rec. Off. DGMS, 1971.
Dovgal, Yu.M., Chalian, M.A., Nagliov, V.S., Diomin, A.N., Vaulin, V.A., Belitch, A.I., Sonin, I.I., Kononykhin, E.T., Zharikhin, K.C., Maksimov, N.P., Skvortsov, N.S., and Kharitonov, A.P. (1971) Geology and minerals in the south-eastern part of Central Afghanistan (Report on survey, scale 1:200,000, carried out in 1967-1970). Kabul Rec. Off. DGMS, 1971.
Litvinenko, K.I., Parfionov, Yu.I. (1971) Report on the results of geological prospecting for and evaluation of mercury occurrences carried out in 1970. Kabul, DGMS, 1971.
Litvinenko, K.I., Rul'kovsky, M.F., and Koshelev, Yu.M. (1971) Report by the Kundalyan Party on the results of geological prospecting for and exploration of copper occurrences carried out in 1969-1970. Kabul, DGMS, 1971.
Chmyriov, V.M., Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F., Mirzad, S.H., Dronov, V.I., Kazikhani, A.R., Salah, A.S., and Teleshev, G.I. (1972) Mineral resources of Afghanistan (A explanatory note to the Map of Mineral Deposits and occurrences of Afghanistan, scale: 1:1,000,000), Kabul, DGMS, 1972.
Chmyriov, V.M., Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F., Mirzad, S.H., Dronov, V.I., Kazikhani, A.R., Salah, A.S., and Teleshev, G.I. (1972) Mineral resources of Afghanistan. Geology and Mineral Resources of Afghanistan. Print. Kabul Times, Kabul, 1973, Ed. 1.
Denikayev, Sh.Sh., Feoktistov, V.P., Rossovsky, L.N., and Adjruddin, A. (1972) The geology and minerals of the northern part of East Afghanistan (Report of the Kabul party on the work in 1971). Kabul, DGMS, 1972.
Dronov, V.I., Kalimulin, S.M., Sbortshchikov, I.M., Svezhentsov, V.P., Chistyakov, A.N., Zelensky, E.D., and Cherepov, P.C. (1972) Geology and minerals of north Afghanistan (parts of sheets 400-II and 500-I, Kaisor-Hari Rod interfluve). Kabul Rec. Off. DGMS, 1972.
Dronov, V.I., Karapetov, S.S., Kalimulin, S.M., Kotchetkev, A.Ya., Sonin, .I., Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F., Svezhentsov, V.P., Semionov, Yu.G. (Editors: V.M. Chmyriov and S.H. Mirzad)(1972). Geological map of central and south-west Afghanistan, scale 1:500,000. Printed in Cartographic Institute. Kabul, 1972.
Kafarskiy, A.Kh., Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F., Pyzhyanov, I.V., Achilov, G.Sh., Gorelov, A.I., Bezulov, G.M., and Gazanfari, S.A. (1972) Geology and minerals of the Western Hendukush and the eastern part of the Bande-Turkestan (parts of sheets 500-I, 500-II). Kabul, Rec. Off. DGMS, 1972.
Litvinenko, K.I., Parfionov, Yu.I., and Zastoin, A.I. (1972) Report on the results of prospecting for and assessment of mercury occurrences carried out in 1971. Kabul, Rec. Off. DCMS, 1972.
Dronov, V.I. (1973) Generalized stratigraphic columns to the Geological Map of Central and South-Western Afghanistan, Scale 1:50 000. Printed Kabul Times, Kabul, 1973, 2 sheets.
Dronov, V.I., Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F., Kotchetkov, A.Ya., Karapetov, S.S., Kalimulin, S.M., ad Sonin, I.I. (1973) The geology and minerals of Central and South-West Afghanistan. Kabul Rec. Off. DGMS, 1973.
Gumerov, L.G. (1973) A preliminary report on prospecting for chrisotile-asbestos carried out by the Non-Metalliferous party in 1970-1972 and on further trend of the work. Kabul, DGMS, 1973.
Kabakov, O.N. (1973) Review of the tin occurrences of Afghanistan (Summary report by prospecting and evaluation party on the work in 1970-1972). Kabul, DGMS, 1973.
Kononov, O.V., Slavin, V.I., and Atikulla, S. (1973) Recent volcanoes and aragonite deposits in South-Western Afghanistan. Thes. Rep. V knige: I Nauchno-metodicheskaya konferentsiya, Ku i. KPI. Kabul, 1973: 15-16.
Filippov, O.I. (1974) Report on the results of prospecting and exploration for mica-muscovite in Afghanistan carried out in 1972-1974. Kabul, DMS, 1974.
Kafarskiy, A.Kh., Averianov, V.B., and Burel, M.P. (1974) Geology and minerals of the Afghan Pamir (a part of sheet 300-III), Kabul Rec. Off. GS, 1974.
Kiriohek, V.S., Logatchev, V.P., and Kosarez, N.E. (1974) Report by the Rasul prospecting and exploration party on the prospecting for tin carried out in 1972-1973. Kabul, DGMS, 1974.
Kornev, L.E. and Arvanitaki, S.E. (1974) Report on the results of prospecting and evaluation of mercury occurrences carried out in 1972-1973. Kabul, DGMS, 1974.
Orlov, G.A., Sloboda, G.S., Eriomenko, C.K., Zhdan, A.V., Matveev, P.S., Gauwari, S. (1974) Report by the Jigdalek Team on prospecting for rubies in 1973-1974. Kabul, Rec. Off. DGMS, 1974.
Chmyriov, V.M. (1975) The main features of tin mineralization in Afghanistan. Theses of reports. In: Bulletin of the 3rd Scientific Conference held in Ku and KPI, Kabul, 1975: 74-75.
Chmyriov, V.M. and Litvinenko, K.I. (1975) Localization features of mercury mineralization in Afghanistan. Theses of reports. In: Bulletin of the 3rd Scientific Conference held in KU and KPI, Kabul, 1975: 75-78.
Chmyriov, V.M. and Rossovsky, L.N. (1975) Localization features of rare-metal pegmatite fields of Afghanistan. Theses of reports. In: Bulletin of the 3rd Scientific Conference held in the KU and KPI, Kabul, 1975: 72-74.
Eriomenko, C.K., Vkhter, B.Ya., Chmyriov, V.M., and Khamidi Khabi bulah (1975) Volcanic Quaternary carbonatite complex in Afghanistan. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 223, 2 pp.
Kafarskiy, A.Kh., Averianov, V.B., Kolesnichenko, V.A., Burel, M.P. and Achlov, G.Sh. (1975) The geology and minerals of the West Hendukush parts of map sheets 200-II, 500-III, 500-IV). Kabul, DGMS, 1975.
Kafarskiy, A.Kh., Averianov, V.B., Kolesnichenko, V.A., Burel, M.P. and Achlov, G.Sh. (1975) Geology and minerals of the Western Badakhshan and northern flanks of the Western Hendukush (parts of sheets 200-II, 500-III, IV). Kabul, Rec. Off. DGMS, 1973.
Kornev, L.E., Zhdan, A.V., Orlov, G.A., Mironov, Y.Yu., Matveev, P.S., Tsoolov, G.S., and Sliozov, V.A. (1975) Report by the Taywara and Kharnak teams on prospecting for mercury in 1973-74. Kabul Rec. Off., 1975.
Chmyriov, V.M., Abdullah, Sh., Dronov, V.I., Kafarsky, A.Kh., Salah, A.S., and Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F. (1976) Geological Map of Afghanistan. Abstracts Himalayan Geology Seminar, New Delhi, 1976.
Chmyriov, V.M., Dronov, V.I., Kafarsky, A.Kh., Salah, A.S., and Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F. (1976) Geological map of Afghanistan. 'Abstracts Himalayan Geology Seminar', New Delhi, 1976.
Chmyriov, V.M., Kafarsky, A.Kh., Abdullah, Sh., Dronov, V.I., and Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F. (1976) Tectonic zoning of Afghanistan. Abstracts, Himalayan Geology Seminar, New Delhi, 1976.
Chmyriov, V.M., Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F., and Azimi, N. (1976) Ore formations of Afghanistan. Theses of reports. In: Bulletin of the IVth Scientific Conference held in KU and KPI, Kabul, 1976: 62-63.
Chmyriov, V.M., Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F., Azimi, N., and Giroval, M. (1976) Metallogenic provinces of Afghanistan. Thes. Rep. V knige: IV Nauchno-metodicheskaya konferentsiya, KU i KPI, Kabul, 1976: 57-58.
Chmyriov, V.M., Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F., Azimi, N., and Giroval, M. (1976) Metallogenic zoning of Afghanistan. Theses of reports. In: Bulletin of the IVth Scientific Conference held in KU and KPI, Kabul, 1976: 57-58.
Chmyriov, V.M., Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F., and Giroval, T. (1976) Metallogenic epochs of Afghanistan. Theses of reports. In: Bulletin of the IVth Scientific Conference held in KU and KPI, Kabul, 1976: 61-62.
Gumerov, L.G., Yorov, Z., Kazikhani, A. (1976) Chrisotile-asbestos deposits of Afghanistan. Izv. Ac. Sc. USS, 1976, ser. geol. No. 4.
Kotchetkov, A.Ya. (1976) Some features of metallogeny of Central and Western Afghanistan. Izv. VUZ-ov, Geologiya i Razvedka, 1976, No.4.
Chmyriov, V.M. and Azimi, N.A. (1977) The new uranium and rare-earth mineralization type of the Mediterranean Belt (Afghanistan). Theses of reports. -In: Bulletin of the V-th Scientific Conference held in KU and KPI, Kabul, 1977: 55-56.
Chmyriov, V.M. and Azimi, N.A. (1977) Telethermal mineral deposits of Afghanistan. Theses of reports. In: Bulletin of the V-th Scientific Conference held in KU and KPI, Kabul, 1977: 57-58.
Chmyriov, V.M. and Azimi, N.A. (1977) The genetic types and ore formations of copper deposits of Afghanistan. Theses of reports. -In: Bulletin of the V-th Scientific Conference held in KU and KPI, Kabul, 1977: 5.
Chmyriov, V.M., Azimi, N.A., Dronov, V.I., Slavin, V.I., Kafarsky, A.Kh., and Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F. (1977) The main geological features of Afghanistan. Izv. AN SSSR. Seriya geol. 1977 (2): 29-48.
Chmyriov, V.M., Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F., Dronov, V.I., and Kafarsky, A.Kh. (1977) Geology and minerals of Afghanistan. Kabul Rec. Off. DGMS, 1977.
Chmyriov, V.M. (1978) Geological features and metallogenic zoning of Afghanistan. Avtoreferat kad. Dissert., Vladivostok, 1978: 29.
Chmyriov, V.M. (1978) Peculiarities of the geology and principles of metallogenic zoning of Afghanistan. Synopsis of thesis of candidate disertat., Vladivostok, USSR, 1978: 1-29.
Chmyriov, V.M., Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F., Abdullah, Sh., Giroval, T., Dronov, V.I., Kafarsky, A.Kh., Kornev, L.E., Lyubimov, B.K., Maywand, K., Malarov, E.P., and Sokolova, L.V. (1978) Map of mineral deposits and occurrences of Afghanistan. Published by Leningrad Map Reproduction Plant at the Ministry of Geology of the USSR, 1978, 1 map sheets.
Chmyriov, V.M., Stazhilo-Alekseev, K.F., Abdullah, Sh., Giruval, M., Dronov, V.I., Kafarsky, A.Kh., Kornev, L.E., Lynbimov, B.K., Maiwand, M.K., Malyarov, E.P., and Sokolova, L.V. (1978) Map of Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, scale 1:500,000. Printed Leningrad Cartogr., Ministry of Geology, USSR 1978, 19 sheets.
Abdullah, S.H. and Chmyriov, V.M. (1980) Geology and mineral resources of Afghanistan.
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110. [http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/0110/]
Peters, S.G., Ludington, S.D., Orris, G.J., Sutphin, D.M., and Bliss, J.D., eds. (2007): Preliminary Non-Fuel Mineral Resource Assessment of Afghanistan. USGS Open–File Report 07-1214.
Peters, S.G., King, T.V.V., Mack, T.J., and Chornack, M.P., eds., and the U.S. Geological Survey Afghanistan Mineral Assessment Team (2011) Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011–1204.
Thomalsky, J., Bräutigam, B., Karaucak, M., Kraus, S. (2015): Early mining and metal production in Afghanistan: The first year of investigations. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan (Hrsg. S. Hansen & M. Wagner) 45 (2013), 199-230.
Weerth, A. & Weiß, S. (2016): Neues aus der Grenzregion Pakistan/Afghanistan. Lapis, 41 (10), 30-39 (in German).

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